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Photo of this volcano
  • Iceland
  • Iceland and Arctic Ocean
  • Crater rows
  • 150 CE
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 64.083°N
  • 21.416°W

  • 803 m
    2635 ft

  • 371050
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Hengill.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Hengill.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Hengill.

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.

Eruptive History

There is data available for 13 Holocene eruptive periods.

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
0150 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Radiocarbon (corrected) Nesjahraun, Reykjafellshraun
0080 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Eldborg undir Meitlum
1730 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (corrected) Thjófahraun
3250 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (corrected) Leitahraun, Ellidaárhraun
3750 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Radiocarbon (corrected) Hagavikurhraun
5000 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Eldborgir
5550 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Tephrochronology Stangarhals
7100 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Tephrochronology Gjabakkahraun
7300 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Brunnar/Skogarkot
7550 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Tephrochronology Selvogsheidi
8200 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Tephrochronology Hafnarhraun
8250 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (corrected) Thingvallahraun
8350 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (corrected) SSW of Hengill (Hellisheid-A)
Deformation History

There is data available for 1 deformation periods. Expand each entry for additional details.

Deformation during 1993 - 1998 [Variable (uplift / horizontal); Observed by GPS, InSAR]

Start Date: 1993 Stop Date: 1998 Direction: Variable (uplift / horizontal) Method: GPS, InSAR
Magnitude: Unknown Spatial Extent: Unknown Latitude: Unknown Longitude: Unknown

Remarks: Uplift near the Hengill triple junction is associated with an earthquake swarm.

Figure (see Caption)

Observed interferograms of the Hengill area for four different time intervals. The time interval appears in the upper right corner of each panel; the orbit numbers appear at lower left; and the altitude of ambiguity ha appears at lower right. One fringe represents 28 mm of range change. Two concentric fringes are visible in the 4-year interferogram (d) indicating at least 6 cm of uplift between August 1993 and August 1997.

From: Feigl et al. 2000.

Reference List: Feigl et al. 2000; Sigmundsson et al. 1997b.

Full References:

Feigl, K.L., Gasperi, J., Sigmundsson, F. and Rigo, A.,, 2000. Crustal deformation near Hengill volcano, Iceland 1993-1998: Coupling between magmatic activity and faulting inferred from elastic modeling of satellite radar interferograms. J. Geophys. Res., 105(B11), pp.25655-25670.

Sigmundsson, F., Einarsson, P., Rognvaldsson, S.T., Foulger, G.R., Hodgkinson, K.M. and Thorbergsson, G.,, 1997. The 1994-1995 seismicity and deformation at the Hengill triple junction, Iceland: Triggering of earthquakes by minor magma injection in a zone of horizontal shear stress. . J. Geophys. Res., 102(B7), pp.15151-15161.

Emission History

There is no Emissions History data available for Hengill.

Photo Gallery

Thingvellir, the renowned site of Althing, the old Icelandic outdoor legislative assembly, lies immediately north of Thingvallavatn lake. Old trails from every corner of Iceland led to Thingvellir ("Parliament Plains"), where the country's first parliamentary assembly was held in 930 CE. This view was taken looking NE from atop the Almannagjá, the fault-bounded margin of the Hengill graben, where the Lögberg, the proclaiming of the laws of the land, took place. The flat-lying, faulted lava flows of the Hengill volcanic system form the middle distance.

Photo by Bill Rose, 1980 (Michigan Technological University).
See title for photo information.
An aerial view from the NE shows the Hengill central volcano on the center horizon rising above Thingvallavatn lake. Steam rises from the Nesjavellir geothermal area in front of Hengill. NE-trending fault scarps extend into the lake, and the island in the foreground is part of a Pleistocene subglacial ridge. Holocene fissure-fed eruptions have occurred from vents both NE and SW of the Hengill central volcano.

Photo by Oddur Sigurdsson, 1998 (Icelandic National Energy Authority).
See title for photo information.
The Hengill central volcano in the right background rises above Thingvallavatn lake as seen from Thingvellir, the historical site of the Icelandic parliament. Steam clouds rise from the Nesjavellir geothermal area in this view from the NE. Graben structures in the foreground cut the Thingvallahraun lava flow in the foreground, which was erupted about 10,200 years ago.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 2008 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
GVP Map Holdings

The Global Volcanism Program has no maps available for Hengill.

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Hengill in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

External Sites