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Hengill

Photo of this volcano
  • Country
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  •  
  • 64.083°N
  • 21.416°W

  • 803 m
    2635 ft

  • 371050
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Hengill.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Hengill.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Hengill.

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.

Eruptive History

There is data available for 13 confirmed Holocene eruptive periods.

0150 ± 75 years Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Nesjahraun, Reykjafellshraun
0150 ± 75 years - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)

List of 5 Events for Episode 1 at Nesjahraun, Reykjafellshraun

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity
   - - - -    - - - - Lava flow
   - - - -    - - - - Cinder Cone
0150 ± 75 years    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

0080 BCE ± 75 years Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Eldborg undir Meitlum
0080 BCE ± 75 years - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)

List of 4 Events for Episode 1 at Eldborg undir Meitlum

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Lava flow
   - - - -    - - - - Cinder Cone
0080 BCE ± 75 years    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1730 BCE ± 50 years Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 0

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Thjófahraun
1730 BCE ± 50 years - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)

List of 2 Events for Episode 1 at Thjófahraun

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Lava flow
1730 BCE ± 50 years    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

3250 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 0

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Leitahraun, Ellidaárhraun
3250 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)

List of 4 Events for Episode 1 at Leitahraun, Ellidaárhraun

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Lava fountains
   - - - -    - - - - Lava flow
   - - - -    - - - - Lava lake
3250 BCE (?)    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

3750 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Hagavikurhraun
3750 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)

List of 5 Events for Episode 1 at Hagavikurhraun

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Lava flow
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Scoria
3750 BCE (?)    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

5000 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Eldborgir
5000 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 1 Events for Episode 1 at Eldborgir

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Lava flow

5550 BCE ± 500 years Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 0

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Stangarhals
5550 BCE ± 500 years - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1 at Stangarhals

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Lava flow
5550 BCE ± 500 years    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

7100 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 0

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Gjabakkahraun
7100 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 4 Events for Episode 1 at Gjabakkahraun

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Lava fountains
   - - - -    - - - - Lava flow
   - - - -    - - - - Lava lake
7100 BCE (?)    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

7300 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Brunnar/Skogarkot
7300 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 1 Events for Episode 1 at Brunnar/Skogarkot

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Lava flow

7550 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 0

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Selvogsheidi
7550 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1 at Selvogsheidi

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Lava flow
7550 BCE (?)    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

8200 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 0

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Hafnarhraun
8200 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 5 Events for Episode 1 at Hafnarhraun

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Lava fountains
   - - - -    - - - - Lava flow
   - - - -    - - - - Lava flow Entered water.
   - - - -    - - - - Lava lake
8200 BCE (?)    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

8250 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 0

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Thingvallahraun
8250 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)

List of 4 Events for Episode 1 at Thingvallahraun

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Lava fountains
   - - - -    - - - - Lava flow
   - - - -    - - - - Lava lake
8250 BCE (?)    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

8350 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 0

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode SSW of Hengill (Hellisheid-A)
8350 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)

List of 4 Events for Episode 1 at SSW of Hengill (Hellisheid-A)

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Lava fountains
   - - - -    - - - - Lava flow
   - - - -    - - - - Lava lake
8350 BCE (?)    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)
Deformation History

There is data available for 1 deformation periods. Expand each entry for additional details.


Deformation during 1993 - 1998 [Variable (uplift / horizontal); Observed by GPS, InSAR]

Start Date: 1993 Stop Date: 1998 Direction: Variable (uplift / horizontal) Method: GPS, InSAR
Magnitude: Unknown Spatial Extent: Unknown Latitude: Unknown Longitude: Unknown

Remarks: Uplift near the Hengill triple junction is associated with an earthquake swarm.

Figure (see Caption)

Observed interferograms of the Hengill area for four different time intervals. The time interval appears in the upper right corner of each panel; the orbit numbers appear at lower left; and the altitude of ambiguity ha appears at lower right. One fringe represents 28 mm of range change. Two concentric fringes are visible in the 4-year interferogram (d) indicating at least 6 cm of uplift between August 1993 and August 1997.

From: Feigl et al. 2000.


Reference List: Feigl et al. 2000; Sigmundsson et al. 1997b.

Full References:

Feigl, K.L., Gasperi, J., Sigmundsson, F. and Rigo, A.,, 2000. Crustal deformation near Hengill volcano, Iceland 1993-1998: Coupling between magmatic activity and faulting inferred from elastic modeling of satellite radar interferograms. J. Geophys. Res., 105(B11), pp.25655-25670.

Sigmundsson, F., Einarsson, P., Rognvaldsson, S.T., Foulger, G.R., Hodgkinson, K.M. and Thorbergsson, G.,, 1997. The 1994-1995 seismicity and deformation at the Hengill triple junction, Iceland: Triggering of earthquakes by minor magma injection in a zone of horizontal shear stress. . J. Geophys. Res., 102(B7), pp.15151-15161.

Emission History

There is no Emissions History data available for Hengill.

Photo Gallery

An aerial perspective of Thingvellir, the site of Iceland's historical outdoor parliament, shows the NE-SW-trending Almannagjá fissure cutting diagonally across the left side of the photo. Other prominent fissures cutting lavas of the Hengill volcanic system appear at the right. The Logberg, or law-hill (located at the lower left below the 30-40 m high Almannagja fissure) was the site where the laws of the country were proclaimed during the annual two-week-long parliamentary session in late June and early July.

Copyrighted photo by Katia and Maurice Krafft.
The Hengill volcanic system, mostly located SW of Thingvallavatn lake, consists of a series of NE-SW-trending fissure vents, crater rows, and small shield volcanoes occupying a strongly faulted graben. This view looks NE from the margin of a graben containing Hengill lava at Thingvellir, the site of Iceland's old parliament. The latest eruption of the Hengill volcanic system was radiocarbon dated at about 1900 years before present. Geothermally heated greenhouses, hot springs, and geysers are found at Hveragerdi.

Copyrighted photo by Katia and Maurice Krafft.
An aerial view from the NE shows the Hengill central shield volcano on the center horizon rising above Thingvallavatn lake. Steam rises from the Nesjavallavirkjun geothermal area in front of the peak. NE-trending fault scarps extend into the lake. Holocene fissure-fed eruptions have occurred from vents both northeast and southwest of the Hengill central volcano, with fissures extending into the lake. Just out of the bottom of the picture (north) is an island where phreatomagmatic activity created a tephra ring called Sandey about 1,900 years ago.

Photo by Oddur Sigurdsson, 1998 (Icelandic National Energy Authority).
The Hengill central volcano in the right background rises above Thingvallavatn lake as seen from Thingvellir, the historical site of the Icelandic parliament. Steam clouds rise from the Nesjavellir geothermal area in this view from the northeast. Graben structures in the foreground cut the Thingvallahraun lava flow in the foreground, which was erupted about 10,000 years ago. The cone in the lake on the left is Sandey, a tuff ring formed in a phreatomagmatic eruption about 1,900 years ago.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 2008 (Smithsonian Institution).
GVP Map Holdings

The maps shown below have been scanned from the GVP map archives and include the volcano on this page. Clicking on the small images will load the full 300 dpi map. Very small-scale maps (such as world maps) are not included. The maps database originated over 30 years ago, but was only recently updated and connected to our main database. We welcome users to tell us if they see incorrect information or other problems with the maps; please use the Contact GVP link at the bottom of the page to send us email.


Title: Pjorsarnes
Publisher: DMA
Country: Iceland
Year: 1989
Series: C761
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:50,000
Map of Pjorsarnes

Title: Selvogur Vestmannaeyjar
Publisher: Icelandic Hydrographic Service (Sjomaellingar)
Country: Iceland
Year: 1988
Series: S Coast Maps
Map Type: Bathymetric
Scale: 1:100,000
Map of Selvogur Vestmannaeyjar

Title: Sudvesturland
Publisher: Geodetic Institute, Landmaelingar Islands
Country: Iceland
Year: 1987
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:250,000
Map of Sudvesturland

Title: Geomorphology of Iceland
Publisher: University of Goteborg, Dept Phys Geog
Country: Iceland
Year: 1984
Map Type: Geology (Geomorphology)
Scale: 1:1,750
Map of Geomorphology of Iceland

Title: Geographical Names of Iceland
Publisher: University of Goteborg, Dept Phys Geog
Country: Iceland
Year: 1984
Map Type: Unknown
Scale: 1:1,750
Map of Geographical Names of Iceland

Title: Selfoss
Publisher: US Army Map Service
Country: Iceland
Year: 1965
Series: C761
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:50,000
Map of Selfoss

Title: Hengill
Publisher: US Army Map Service
Country: Iceland
Year: 1965
Series: C761
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:50,000
Map of Hengill

Title: Hraungerdhi
Publisher: US Army Map Service
Country: Iceland
Year: 1962
Series: C762
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:50,000
Map of Hraungerdhi

Title: Mosfell
Publisher: US Army Map Service
Country: Iceland
Year: 1950
Series: C762
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:50,000
Map of Mosfell
Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Hengill in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

External Sites