Klyuchevskoy

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  • 56.056°N
  • 160.642°E

  • 4754 m
    15593 ft

  • 300260
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Most Recent Weekly Report: 1 January-7 January 2014


On 2 January KVERT reported that the explosive eruption at Kliuchevskoi had finished on 20 December 2013; the last strong explosion was detected on 17 December 2013. Video images showed gas-and-steam plumes continuing to rise from the volcano. Satellite images detected thermal anomalies over the summit and the lava flow on the SW flank; both areas were cooling. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


Most Recent Bulletin Report: July 2013 (BGVN 38:07)


Eruptions continue, 19 February 2010-15 November 2013

Kliuchevskoi (also called Klyuchevskaya and Klyuchevskoy) has been quite active for many decades. During January 2009-February 2010, the volcano experienced Strombolian activity, lava flows, vigorous plume emissions, and a growing cinder cone (BGVN 35:06). This report discusses activity from 19 February 2010 through 15 November 2013, based on reports from the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT). A map of the Kamchatka Peninsula is provided in figure 13. A summary of plumes between 12 Feb 2010 and 14 November 2013 is provided in Table 14 which, because of its length, is near the end of this report.

Figure 13. Map of Kamchatka Peninsula showing location of Kliuchevskoi. Courtesy of Lost World, Ltd. (Travel Kamchatka).

Active period: 19 February to 4 November 2010. Seismic activity during this period was consistently above background levels, and the explosive-effusive eruption of the volcano continued. Almost every week, KVERT reported periodic Strombolian activity that ejected material 100-300 m above the crater. Ash plumes and gas-and-steam emissions were common events, with some plumes rising to altitudes as high as 10 km (table 14). Nearby communities such as Klyuchi (30 km NNE) experienced ashfall. Satellite images consistently revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano.

Lava flows descended the NW, S, and NE flanks until about 1 May 2010 when such flows apparently ceased for more than two months. However, ground observations were sometimes prevented due to meteorological cloud cover. A satellite image from 9 March 2010 showed that the S-flank flow was about 1.3 km long.

A news article (Itar-Tass) reported a new lava flow from a fissure on 8-9 July. According to KVERT, during 16-23 July 2010, an effusive lava flow began to descend the SW flank. In subsequent weeks, lava flowed down the SSE flank (23 July-5 August), SW flank (6 August-29 October), NW flank (3-10 September), and W flank (8-29 October). These flows continued until about 29 October 2010. Phreatic explosions sometimes occurred from the fronts of the lava flows. KVERT specifically reported such explosions weekly during 19 February-12 March 2010, and on 29-30 August 2010 and 5 September 2010.

According to KVERT, ash plumes were common (table 14) and ashfall in nearby communities were sometimes reported.

Between 19 February 2010 until about the last week of October 2010, heightened seismic activity was relatively consistent. On 23 October KVERT reported increased seismicity, characterized by an abrupt increase in volcanic tremor and explosive activity. The Aviation Color Code, which had been at Orange throughout the reporting period, was raised to Red on 23 October 2010 (table 15 defines KVERT's Aviation Color Codes). On 30 October explosive activity decreased along with the magnitude of volcanic tremor. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange. (Table 15 indicates KVERT's Aviation Color Code levels.)

During 30 October through 3 November 2010, seismic activity was still above background levels. Strombolian activity was observed, and KVERT even reported Vulcanian activity that produced ash plumes rising to an altitude of 7 km. A news article (Associated Press) from 29 October stated that ash from Kliuchevskoi and Shiveluch caused area flight diversions. On 4 November, seismicity sharply decreased and only gas-and-steam activity was observed. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. According to KVERT, the eruption that had begun in August 2009 had finally terminated by 4 November 2010, and that seismicity had continued to decrease.

Less active period: 5 November 2010 to 31 October 2013. KVERT reported that during 8 November to 17 December 2010, seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was at background levels or slightly above. A weak thermal anomaly over the crater was observed in satellite images.

During 9-10 and 16-18 November 2010, KVERT observed strong fumarolic activity, and ash plumes and gas-and-steam plumes occurred periodically. Cloud cover frequently prevented observations. About 24 November 2010, the Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange, presumably due to daily strong fumarolic activity and an ash plume that rose 5 km on 24 November. Ash fell in Kozyrevsk (about 50 km W) on 27 November and in Klyuchi (30 km NNE) on 28 November 2010. Strombolian activity was observed during 1-2 December 2010.

According to KVERT, activity declined during 10-17 December 2010, and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. Gas-and steam emissions were observed during 10-13 December. Clouds frequently obscured the volcano during December.

During 4-11 February 2011, KVERT reported that seismic activity, although moderate, had essentially decreased, and lowered the Aviation Color Code to Green around 10 February. Satellite images showed a weak thermal anomaly over the crater on 6 and 7 February.

During 2011, KVERT observed only periodic ash plumes (table 14). An ash plume on 29 May 2011 that rose to an altitude of 5 km prompted KVERT to raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange. However, the lack of further activity the next day prompted KVERT to return it to Yellow, and then Green. Moderate gas-and-steam emissions were observed on 30 May and 1 June; cloud cover prevented observations on the other days of the week.

Based on information from the Yelizovo Airport (UHPP), the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption on 3 July produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 7 km.

The KVERT website has no reports on Kliuchevskoi between 10 February 2011 and the end of September 2012, other than the Aviation Color Code was Green. In October 2012, KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi had been gradually increasing since June 2012. Episodes of volcanic tremor first detected on 21 June continued through 14 October. A weak thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images during 1 September-14 October, 23-26 November, and 7-8, 10, 12-13, 16 and 18 December (and possibly additional dates). Strombolian activity was observed at night during 13-15 October, 23-30 November, and 30 November-21 December. Clouds frequently hampered detection on other dates. During periods of Strombolian activity, crater incandescence and gas-and-steam emissions were also detected. KVERT raised the Aviation Color Code to Yellow in mid-October. According to KVERT, activity at Kliuchevskoi decreased in late 2012 (around the same time the Tolbachik eruption began).

KVERT weekly reports noted that during January to the middle of March 2013, weak-to-moderate seismic activity, Strombolian explosions, and weak-to-moderate gas-and-steam emissions continued. (Gas-and-steam activity was moderate-to-strong in late February.) During January, incandescence at the summit was occasionally observed and satellite data sometimes showed a weak thermal anomaly at the summit. Clouds obscured the volcano frequently. On 18 March the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green.

KVERT issued no reports on Kliuchevshoi between 21 March 2013 and the middle of August 2013. Presumably, the aforementioned activity, with some Strombolian explosions, continued at a low level.

On 15 August, a new explosive eruption began, with renewed Strombolian activity. Video data showed incandescence at the summit at night, and gas-and-steam plumes containing a small amount of ash rose up to 5.5 km. Satellite data showed a large, bright thermal anomaly over the volcano during 15-17 August.

The moderate seismic activity and Strombolian eruption continued through early October 2013. Incandescence at the summit was observed at night, and gas-and-steam plumes containing a small amount of ash rose up to an altitude of 5.5 km. Satellite data showed a thermal anomaly over the lava dome during this time, except where clouds obscured the volcano. On 26 August, a new lava flow on the WSW flank was observed. By 26 September, four lava flows were observed on the NW, W, SW flanks (figure 14). On 1 October, satellite data showed an ash plume extending about 100 km to the ESE.

Figure 14. Photo of Kliuchevskoi on 27 September 2013 showing Strombolian activity and several lava flows on the NW flank. Courtesy of Yu. Demyanchuk, KVERT. [CAPTION STATES: ANY USE OF THE IMAGE MAY BE CARRIED OUT ONLY WITH THE PERMISSION OF THE AUTHOR (AUTHORS)]

In early October 2013, seismic activity gradually increased, and on 6 October a sharp increase of tremor occurred. According to video data, a flank eruption around this time began at the pass between Kliuchevskoi and Kamen volcanoes (Kamen's summit is only 5 km SW of Kliuchevskoi's). Local incandescence and gas-and-steam plumes were observed from the pass, and video data showed incandescence at Kliuchevskoi's summit and the W flank at night, and gas-and-steam plumes containing ash. Strombolian activity continued and several lava flows traveled down the NW, W, SW flanks. Occasionally, phreatic-generated plumes were observed at the fronts of lava flows. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 6 km during 9-10 October and minor ashfall was noted at Klyuchi Village. A large thermal anomaly was recorded.

By the middle of October, the increasing activity prompted KVERT to upgrade the Aviation Color Code to Red, the highest level. During 15-16 October, video data showed strong Vulcanian explosive activity, and an ash plume rose to an altitude of 10 km. Strong incandescence was observed at the summit and W flank at night. Strombolian activity, several lava flows, and phreatic plumes continued, with ash rising to 5 km and causing minor ashfall in nearby communities. Numerous lava flows on the SW flank and a probable flank eruption at the pass between Kliuchevskoi and Kamen volcanoes led to vigorous melting of Bogdanovich glacier; the resulting water increased the Studenaya River's flow, which then destroyed part of the road near Kozyrevsk village (about 50 km W).

During 18-20 October, the eruption peaked and was characterized by high seismic activity, strong Vulcanian explosions, lava flows, intense incandescence, and ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 12 km and extended in various directions. Strombolian activity continued with lava fragments ejected 500-800 m above the summit cinder cone. A photo of the volcano on 20 October 2013 is shown in figure 15.

Figure 15. NASA Earth Observatory photo of Kliuchevskoi taken on 20 October 2013 by the Operational Land Imager on Landsat 8. According to the caption (written by Adam Voiland and Robert Simmon), multiple lava flows streamed down Kliuchevskoi's N and W flanks. The top, false-color image shows heat from the flows in a combination of shortwave-infrared, near-infrared, and the green band. Ash, weather clouds, and steam appear gray, while snow and ice are bright blue-green. Bare rock and fresh volcanic deposits are nearly black. In the wider natural-color (red, green, blue) image, snow and clouds are white, the ash plume is light gray, and forests (with trees tall enough to stand above the snow cover) are dark brown. Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory (images by Robert Simmon).

The eruption intensity decreased on 20 October, and on 30 October, KVERT lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow. However, moderate seismic activity and strong Strombolian activity persisted into at least late November 2013, along with several lava flows on the SW, SE flanks. In addition, KVERT video data showed strong fumarolic emissions and occasional ash plumes. Large thermal anomalies continued to be recorded.

On 18 November 2013, KVERT raised the Aviation Color Code to Orange, probably due to weak Vulcanian activity.

An airline crew flying NW of the volcano at an altitude of 13 km saw the resulting ash cloud and sent the following information to the Anchorage Air Route Traffic Control Center: "Ash cloud 30 miles [48 km] NW of PSN [position], ash cloud F430 [13 km a.s.l.] then it steps down F400 [12 km] then lower F340 [10 km] right toward Mt. Klyuchevskoy[.] Aircraft deviated 50 miles [80 km] east to get around ash cloud. Ash cloud appears to be decreasing." The crew also reported "ash fallout."

For reporting, the crew used the Volcanic Activity Reporting form (in Appendix 2 of the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration's Aeronautical Information Manual, 9 February 2012). The above-mentioned completed form was sent to the Bulletin's staff on 18 November. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has proposed the use of a similar form. We encourage flight crews to complete one of these two forms when detecting an ash cloud and send it to the appropriate government agency; we also encourage U.S. and international government agencies to send these completed forms to us for use in preparing Bulletin reports.

Table 14. Plume characteristics during 12 February 2010-14 November 2013. Key: G&S is gas-and-steam, G&A is gas-and-ash, G&S (A) is gas-and-steam with a small amount of ash, NR is not reported. Frequently, cloud cover prevented observations. Data do not include low-rising emissions. Courtesy of KVERT, Tokyo VAAC, KEMSD, and Yelizovo Airport (UHPP).

  Time period   Plume type   Max plume altitude (km)   Drift direction and length
12-19 Feb 2010 G&S NR 240 km NE
19-26 Feb 2010 G&S NR 25-90 km various
26 Feb-5 Mar 2010 G&S 6.8 50 km NE (3 Mar)
5-12 Mar 2010 G&S 5-6.8 80 km E
12-19 Mar 2010 G&S Ash 5 4.9 NE (21 Mar)
19-29 Mar 2010 G&S Ash NR 80 km E 75 km NE
26 Mar-2 Apr 2010 G&S (A) 5.3 70 km E (30 Mar)
2-9 Apr 2010 G&S G&S (A) Ash 6.3 30-180 km NNE 55-60 km NE
9-15 Apr 2010 G&S NR 85 km NE (9 Apr)
16-23 Apr 2010 G&S Ash G&S Ash 5.7 7.9 45 km S (18 Apr) 90-100 km E (20-21 Apr) W (27 Apr)
22-30 Apr 2010 G&S (A) Ash G&S 7.3 W, SW 65 km W (24 Apr) 55 km W, SW (24-27 Apr)
30 Apr-7 May 2010 Ash Ash G&S Ash? 5.5 6.1 125 km N (2 May) 70 km W (3 May) 55 km W, W (2-3 May)
7-14 May 2010 G&S (A) G&A Ash 6.1 21 km N
14-21 May 2010 Ash G&A G&S (A) 5.8 NE, 20-145 km E
21-28 May 2010 G&S (A) Ash Ash 5.5 185 km various (24, 26 May)
28 May-4 Jun 2010 G&S (A) Ash 7.3 40 km NW
4-11 Jun 2010 G&S (A) Ash 7.3 60-190 km NE
11-18 Jun 2010 Ash 5.5 40 km SE
18-25 Jun 2010 Ash 5.5 120 km various
25 Jun-2 Jul 2010 Ash 5.3 32 km S
2-9 Jul 2010 G&S Ash 5.3 76 km S
9-16 Jul 2010 G&A Ash 5.2-6.8 45 km NW various
16-23 Jul 2010 G&S Ash 6.3 55-160 km various
23-30 Jul 2010    G&A NR 145 km SW
30 Jul-6 Aug 2010 G&A NR 65 km NW
6-13 Aug 2010    G&A, Ash NR NR
13-20 Aug 2010 G&A, Ash NR 325 km SE
20-27 Aug 2010 G&A, Ash 7.6-10.4 200 km SE
27 Aug-3 Sep 2010 Ash 5.2-7 various
3-10 Sep 2010 Ash 5.5-6.5 km 150 km S, SW
10-17 Sep 2010 Ash 6-9.8 Various
17-24 Sep 2010 Ash 5.2-7 60 km W, 240 km E
24 Sep-1 Oct 2010 Ash   6.5-7 78 km W, 185 km E
1-8 Oct 2010 G&A, Ash 6.3          50 km SE
8-15 Oct 2010 G&S, Ash 5.8-10.1 90 km E
15-22 Oct 2010 Ash 6.5-7.5 420 km E, SE
22-29 Oct 2010 Ash G&S(A) 8-9 6.5 N, SE SE
30 Oct-3 Nov 2010 Ash G&S 5-7          E, SE
3-8 Nov 2010 G&S NR NR
8-19 Nov 2010 Ash G&S NR 40 km NE (13 Nov) 28 km NE
19-26 Nov 2010 Ash G&S 5-7.9 E 111 km NE
27 Nov-1 Dec 2010 Ash G&A 5.8-6.7 6.3 NE 430 km N, NE
1-9 Dec 2010 G&S NR NR
10-18 Dec 2010 G&S NR NR
20 Dec 2010 Ash 6.7 N
23-24 December 2010 G&S NR NR
25 Dec 2010-23 Jan 2011 NR NR NR
24 Jan-3 February 2011 G&S NR NR
4-7 Feb 2011 G&S NR NR
30 Mar 2011 Ash 5.2 E
29 May 2011 Ash 5 SW
30 May-1 June 2011 G&S NR  
6 June 2011 Ash 6.1 NE (Tokyo VAAC stated plume could have come from Bezymianny volcano)
3 Jul 2011 Ash 7 E
2-8 Nov 2011 Ash 6.7 (Tokyo VAAC stated plume could have come from Bezymianny volcano)
9 Nov 2011-9 Oct 2012 NR NR (KVERT did not issue reports on Kliuchevskoi during this time)
23-30 Nov 2012 G&S NR NR
30 Nov-7 Dec 2012 G&S NR NR
7-14 Dec 2012 G&S NR NR
14-21 Dec 2012 G&S NR NR
18-25 Jan 2013 G&S NR NR
15-20 Aug 2013 G&S(A) 5.5-6 NE
23-30 Aug 2013 G&S(A) NR NR
30 Aug-6 Sep 2013 G&S(A) NR NR
6-13 Sep 2013 G&S(A) NR NR
13-24 Sep 2013 G&S(A) NR NR
1 Oct 2013 Ash NR ESE
15-22 October 2013 Ash 2-10 Various
30 Oct-5 Nov 2013 G&S(A) NR NR
6 Nov 2013 G&S NR 280 km SE
14 Nov 2013 G&S NR 120 km NE

Table 15. KVERT Aviation Color Code levels. Courtesy of KVERT.

  Aviation Color Code   Definition
Red Eruption is forecast to be imminent with significant emission of ash into the atmosphere likely OR Eruption is underway with significant emission of ash into the atmosphere.
Orange Volcano is exhibiting heightened unrest with increased likelihood of eruption OR Volcanic eruption is underway with no or minor ash emission.
Yellow Volcano is experiencing signs of elevated unrest above known background levels OR, after a change from higher level, Volcanic activity has decreased significantly but continues to be closely monitored for possible renewed increase.
Green Volcano is in normal, non-eruptive state OR, after a change from a higher level, Volcanic activity considered to have ceased, and volcano reverted to its normal, non-eruptive state.

A video of the Kliuchevskoi eruption during October 2013 taken by photographer Martin Rietze and uploaded by Gregg Morgan can be observed at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/russia/10415179/Eruption-of-Russias-Kliuchevskoi-volcano-filmed-in-timelapse.html.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/ ); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Yelizovo Airport (UHPP),(URL: http://www.airport-pkc.ru/); Associated Press (URL: http://www.ap.org/); Itar-Tass (http://www.itar-tass.com/); Kamchatka Travel (URL: http://www.travelkamchatka.com /); and NASA Earth Observatory, EOS Project Science Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/).

Index of Weekly Reports


2014: January
2013: January | March | August | September | October | November | December
2012: October | November | December
2011: February | March | May | June | November
2010: January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2009: January | April | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2008: August | October | November | December
2007: February | March | April | May | June | July | August
2006: December
2005: January | February | March | April | May | July | August | September | November
2004: January | February | March | September | November
2003: January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2002: February | May | June | November | December
2001: February | March | November

Weekly Reports


1 January-7 January 2014

On 2 January KVERT reported that the explosive eruption at Kliuchevskoi had finished on 20 December 2013; the last strong explosion was detected on 17 December 2013. Video images showed gas-and-steam plumes continuing to rise from the volcano. Satellite images detected thermal anomalies over the summit and the lava flow on the SW flank; both areas were cooling. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


25 December-31 December 2013

On 27 December KVERT reported that the explosive eruption at Kliuchevskoi had finished; the last strong explosion was detected on 17 December. Video images showed gas-and-steam plumes rising from the volcano during the previous weeks. Satellite images continued to detect thermal anomalies over the summit and the lava flow on the SW flank. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


18 December-24 December 2013

KVERT reported weak seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi during 13-20 December, and video images showed moderate gas-and-steam activity. Satellite images detected daily weak thermal anomalies over the summit and the SW flank. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


11 December-17 December 2013

KVERT reported that the explosive eruption at Kliuchevskoi continued during 6-13 December. Seismicity increased on 6 December but then declined on 10 December; during this period video images showed ash plumes rising to altitudes of 5-6 km (16,400-19,700 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images detected a weak thermal anomaly daily, and ash plumes that drifted 1,200 km E during 6-8 December, NW during 9-10 December, and E and SE during 10-11 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


4 December-10 December 2013

On 7 December activity at Kliuchevskoi significantly increased, prompting KVERT to raise the Alert Level to Red. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 5.5-6 km (18,000-19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted more than 212 km NE and over 1,000 km E. According to a news article, a warning to aircraft was issued for the area around the volcano. The next day KVERT lowered the Alert Level to Orange. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 5-5.5 km (16,400-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); United Press International (UPI)


27 November-3 December 2013

KVERT reported that moderate seismic activity continued at Kliuchevskoi during 22-29 November. Video data showed Strombolian activity during that period. Satellite images recorded a daily thermal anomaly on the volcano; gas-and-steam plumes containing small amounts of ash were visible drifting 90 km SE on 25 November. On 3 December KVERT noted that since 19 November ash-plume altitudes had been decreasing. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


20 November-26 November 2013

KVERT reported that at 1235 on 17 November an ash plume from Kliuchevskoi, detected in satellite images, rose to an altitude of 6.5 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 160 km NE. At 1322 an ash plume rose to an altitude of 7km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 130 km NE. Video data then showed a high-intensity explosion and Strombolian activity prompting KVERT to raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange.

At 1416 on 19 November seismicity indicated a strong explosion, and observers reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 10-12 km (32,800-39,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Red. Later that day the altitudes of the ash plumes were lower; video images showed ash plumes rising to altitudes of 5-5.5 km(16,400-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting NE. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


30 October-5 November 2013

The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow on 30 October. There was ongoing activity during the past week, including moderate seismicity. Video recordings captured Strombolian activity and strong gas-and-steam events. Satellite remote sensing detected a thermal anomaly over the volcano caused by the continuation of the flank eruption; lava flows effused on the SW and SE flanks.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


23 October-29 October 2013

KVERT reported that at 0100 on 21 October a sharp decrease in seismicity was detected at Kliuchevskoi and only fumarolic activity was observed. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange. Strombolian activity and the effusion of several lava flows continued through 25 October. Satellite images showed aerosol plumes over Canada during 20-23 October.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


16 October-22 October 2013

KVERT reported that a strong explosion from a new cinder cone low on Kliuchevskoi’s SW flank occurred between 2020 and 2030 on 11 October. An ash plume rose to altitudes of 6-7 km (19,700-23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Activity increased on 15 October, prompting KVERT to raise the Aviation Color Code to Red at 1311. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 7-8 km (23,000-26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 140 km SSW. Phreatic explosions on the SW flank generated ash plumes that rose 3-4 km (9,800-13,100 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images showed an ash plume rising to an altitude of 7.5 km (24,600 ft) a.s.l. at 1419 and drifting 103 km SSW. Activity increased again; ash plumes rose to altitudes of 9 km (29,500 ft) a.s.l. at 1655 and 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. afterwards. Ash plumes drifted SSW and S. At 2056 KVERT lowered the Aviation Color Code to Orange and noted that although activity had slightly decreased it still remained high. Ash plumes rose 8 km (26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE. Phreatic explosions at the SW flank continued, as well as lava flows on the SW, W, and SE flanks.

At 0815 on 16 October satellite images detected ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2-3 km (6,600-9,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 480 km NNW. Activity again increased and at 1143 KVERT issued a notice stating that the Aviation Color Code was again being raised to Red. Seismic data indicated that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. Clouds prevented direct observations but satellite images showed ash plumes drifting NW. At 1624 satellite images showed ash plumes drifting WSW at altitudes of 7-7.5 km (23,000-24,600 ft) a.s.l. Strombolian and Vulcanian explosions continued. Activity again slightly decreased; the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange. Minor ashfall was reported in Mayskoe Village.

During 16-17 October the melting of the Bogdanovich glacier due to the volcanic activity caused increased water flow in the Studenaya River, which destroyed part of a road near Kozyrevsk village (about 50 km W).

On 18 October the Aviation Color Code was again raised to Red but lowered to Orange later that day. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 8-9 km (26,200-29,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 20-100 km SE. Strombolian activity continued and several lava flows continued to effuse onto the W, SW, and SE flanks. At 0559 on 19 October ash plumes observed in satellite images drifted 630 km SE at altitudes of 8-9 km (26,200-29,500 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Red. Ash plume altitudes fluctuated between 7-8 km (23,000-26,200 ft) a.s.l. later that day. A large amount of ash continued to drift 600 km SE. At 0100 on 21 October a sharp decrease in seismicity was detected and only fumarolic activity was observed. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


18 September-24 September 2013

KVERT reported that moderate seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was detected during 13-20 September. A video camera recorded incandescence from the summit and the WSW flank at night, and gas-and-steam plumes containing minor amounts of ash. Strombolian the activity continued and a lava flow effused onto the W and SW flanks. A large thermal anomaly from the lava dome was detected daily in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


11 September-17 September 2013

KVERT reported that moderate seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was detected during 6-13 September. A video camera recorded incandescence from the summit and the WSW flank at night, and gas-and-steam plumes containing minor amounts of ash. Strombolian activity continued and a lava flow effused onto the W and SW flanks. A large thermal anomaly from the lava dome was detected in satellite images. On 14 September, KVERT stated that lava flows on the NW, W, and SW flanks may soon interact with glaciers, potentially producing tall ash plumes from phreatic explosions. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


4 September-10 September 2013

KVERT reported that moderate seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was detected during 30 August-6 September. A video camera recorded incandescence from the summit and WSW flank at night, and gas-and-steam plumes containing minor amounts of ash. Strombolian activity continued and a lava flow effused onto the SW flank. A large thermal anomaly from the lava dome was detected in satellite images.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


28 August-3 September 2013

KVERT reported that moderate seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was detected during 23-30 August. A video camera recorded incandescence from the summit at night and gas-and-steam plumes containing minor amounts of ash. A large thermal anomaly from the lava dome was detected in satellite images. Strombolian activity that began on 15 August continued; a new lava flow effused onto the SW flank on 26 August, producing a thermal anomaly detected in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


21 August-27 August 2013

KVERT reported that moderate seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was detected during 16-23 August. A video camera recorded incandescence from the summit at night, and gas-and-steam plumes containing minor amounts of ash rising to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. A thermal anomaly from the lava dome was detected in satellite images during 16-18 and 20-23 August; cloud cover obscured views on 19 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


14 August-20 August 2013

Based on seismic data from the Kamchatka Branch of Geophysical Services (KBGS; Russian Academy of Sciences), KVERT reported that a Strombolian eruption from Kliuchevskoi began at 1830 on 15 August. Video images recorded incandescence from the crater that night, and gas-and-steam plumes containing minor amounts of ash rising as high as 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifting NE during 15-16 August. Satellite images detected a large, bright thermal anomaly during 15-16 August. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow, the second lowest of a four-color scale. Gas-and-steam plumes containing minor amounts of ash rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. during 16-17 August. Incandescence from the crater at night and a thermal anomaly in satellite images continued to be reported during 17-19 August.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


13 March-19 March 2013

KVERT reported that activity at Kliuchevskoi decreased in late 2012, around the same time the Tolbachik eruption started. In mid-January 2013 seismic activity decreased and Strombolian activity ceased. Starting in February incandescence at the summit and thermal anomalies were not observed. Weak seismic activity continued. On 18 March the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green, the lowest level.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


23 January-29 January 2013

KVERT reported that during 18-25 January video footage and satellite imagery showed Strombolian explosions at Kliuchevskoi, along with crater incandescence and gas-and-steam emissions. Views from satellite were obscured by cloud cover. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


19 December-25 December 2012

KVERT reported that during 14-21 December video footage and satellite imagery showed Strombolian explosions at Kliuchevskoi, along with crater incandescence and gas-and-steam emissions. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images on 16 and 18 December; cloud cover obscured views on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


12 December-18 December 2012

KVERT reported that during 7-14 December video footage and satellite imagery showed Strombolian explosions at Kliuchevskoi, along with crater incandescence and gas-and-steam emissions. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images during 7-8, 10, and 12-13 December; cloud cover obscured views on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


5 December-11 December 2012

KVERT reported that during 30 November-7 December video footage and satellite imagery showed Strombolian explosions at Kliuchevskoi, along with crater incandescence and gas-and-steam emissions. A weak thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images during 1 and 4-6 December; cloud cover obscured views on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


28 November-4 December 2012

KVERT reported that during 23-30 November video footage and satellite imagery showed Strombolian explosions at Kliuchevskoi, along with crater incandescence and gas-and-steam emissions. A weak thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images during 23-26 November; cloud cover obscured views on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


17 October-23 October 2012

KVERT reported moderate seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi during 12-19 October. Strombolian activity was observed during 13-15 October; clouds prevented views on the other days. A weak thermal anomaly was detected in satellite imagery during 14-15 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


10 October-16 October 2012

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi had been gradually increasing since June; episodes of volcanic tremor were first detected on 21 June and continued through 14 October. A weak thermal anomaly was detected in satellite imagery during 1 September-14 October. Strombolian activity was observed at night during 14-15 October. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


2 November-8 November 2011

The Tokyo VAAC reported that a possible ash plume from Kliuchevskoi, drifting at an altitude of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l., was observed in satellite imagery. The VAAC noted that the ash plume may have been from Bezymianny.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 June-5 July 2011

Based on information from the Yelizovo Airport (UHPP), the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption from Kliuchevskoi on 3 July produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 June-7 June 2011

KVERT reported that during 27 May-3 June seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was detected. Moderate steam-and-gas activity was observed on 30 May and 1 June; cloud cover prevented observations on the other days of the week. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green.

The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 6 June a possible eruption detected in satellite imagery produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. The VAAC stated that the ash could have also originated at Bezymianny.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 May-31 May 2011

Based on video data and ground-based observations, KVERT reported that on 29 May an ash plume from Kliuchevskoi rose to an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange. No activity was noted on 30 May and the volcano was obscured by clouds the next day. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


30 March-5 April 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that a possible eruption from Kliuchevskoi on 30 March produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Subsequent images that day showed continuing ash emissions that later dissipated. The Aviation Color Code remained at Green.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


9 February-15 February 2011

Although moderate seismic activity was recorded at Kliuchevskoi during 4-11 February, KVERT reported that seismicity had essentially decreased. Gas-and-steam activity was observed during 4-7 February; clouds prevented observations on later days. Gas-and-steam plumes drifted 20 km NE on 5 and 7 February. Satellite imagery showed a weak thermal anomaly over the crater on 6 and 7 February. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


15 December-21 December 2010

KVERT reported that during 10-17 December seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi did not exceed background levels. Steam-and-gas emissions were observed during 10-13 December. Satellite imagery showed a weak thermal anomaly over the crater on 11 and 12 December. The Aviation Color Code level was lowered to Yellow.

The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 20 December a possible eruption detected in satellite imagery produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 December-14 December 2010

KVERT reported that during 3-10 December seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was slightly above background levels. Satellite imagery showed a weak thermal anomaly over the crater during 3 and 6-8 December. Gas-and-steam plumes sometimes containing ash were observed during 3-4 and 8-9 December. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


1 December-7 December 2010

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was slightly above background levels during 26-27 November, and did not exceed background levels during 28 November-3 December. Satellite imagery showed gas-and-ash plumes drifting 430 km N and NE during 26-29 November and a weak thermal anomaly over the crater on 26, 28, and 29 November. Ash plumes were seen rising to an altitude of 6.3 km (20,700 ft) a.s.l. on 26 and 29 November and 1 December. Ash fell in Kozyrevsk (about 50 km W) on 27 November and in Klyuchi (30 km NNE) on 28 November. Strombolian activity was observed on 1 and 2 December. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


24 November-30 November 2010

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi did not exceed background levels during 19-26 November. Strong fumarolic activity was observed daily and an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. on 24 November. Satellite imagery showed a thermal anomaly over the crater during 19-21 November and a gas-and-steam plume that drifted 111 km NE on 24 November. The Aviation Color Code level was raised to Orange.

Based on information from the Yelizovo Airport (UHPP), the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 25 November an ash plume rose to an altitude of 7.9 km (26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Possible eruptions detected in satellite imagery on 27 and 29 November produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 5.8 km and 6.7 km (19,000 and 22,000 ft) a.s.l., respectively, and drifted NE.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


17 November-23 November 2010

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 12-14 November and at background levels during 15-19 November. A weak thermal anomaly over the volcano was detected daily in satellite imagery. Fumarolic activity was observed during 16-18 November; cloud cover prevented observations on the other days. Satellite imagery also showed an ash plume that drifted 40 km NE on 13 November and a gas-and-steam plume that drifted 28 km NE the next day. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


10 November-16 November 2010

KVERT reported that during 8-10 November seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was at background levels. During 9-10 November strong fumarolic activity was seen and a weak thermal anomaly over the crater was observed in satellite imagery. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and information from KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 13 November an eruption produced a plume that drifted NE. Later that day, images showed that the ash had dissipated. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Yellow.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 November-9 November 2010

KVERT reported that during 29 October-3 November seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and Strombolian activity was observed. Satellite imagery analyses showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano and ash plumes that drifted 480 km SE. Vulcanian activity produced ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. during 31 October and 1-4 November. Seismicity sharply decreased on 4 November, and only gas-and-steam activity was observed. On 9 November, KVERT reported that the eruption that began in August 2009 had finished on 4 November and that seismicity had continued to decrease. The Aviation Color Code level was lowered to Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


27 October-2 November 2010

KVERT reported that during 22-29 October seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and Strombolian activity was observed. Satellite imagery analyses showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly over the volcano and two lava flows descending the W and SW flanks from the summit crater. Ash plumes also detected in imagery drifted more than 2,300 km E. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 8-9 km (26,200-29,500 ft) a.s.l. during 22-25 and 27 October. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Red. A news article from 29 October stated that ash from Kliuchevskoi and Shiveluch caused area flight diversions.

On 30 October explosive activity decreased along with the magnitude of volcanic tremor. Based on visual observations and analysis of satellite imagery, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 5-5.5 km (16,400-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 100 km SE. The Aviation Color Code level was lowered to Orange. The Tokyo VAAC reported that, based on analyses of satellite imagery and information from KVERT, eruptions on 31 October and 2 November, and a possible eruption on 1 November produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 5.2-6.7 km (17,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC); Associated Press


20 October-26 October 2010

KVERT reported that during 15-22 October seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and two lava flows from the summit crater traveled down the SW and W flanks. Satellite imagery analyses showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly over the volcano and ash plumes that drifted 420 km E and SE. Strombolian activity, observed every day, ejected material 250 m above the crater. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 7.5 km (24,600 ft) a.s.l. during 20-21 October and to an altitude of 6.5 km (21,300 ft) a.s.l. on the other days during 15-22 October. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

On 23 October, KVERT reported increased seismicity, characterized by an abrupt change in volcanic tremor, and explosive activity. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 8-9 km (26,200-29,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted more than 300 km N. The Aviation Color Code level was raised to Red. The next day the magnitude of tremor decreased and gas-and-steam plumes rose to an altitude of 6.5 km (21,300 ft) a.s.l. Gas-and-steam plumes possibly containing ash drifted SE. The Aviation Color Code level was lowered to Orange. On 25 October, the magnitude of volcanic tremor fluctuated. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 8-8.5 km (26,200-27,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The Aviation Color Code level was again raised to Red. The VAAC reported on 26 October that ash was observed in satellite imagery.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 October-19 October 2010

KVERT reported that during 8-15 October seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava from the summit crater flowed down the SW and W flanks. Satellite imagery analyses showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. Strombolian activity was observed during 7-11 October. Daily gas-and-steam plumes rose to an altitude of 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l., but on 11 October the plumes rose to an altitude of 7.8 km (25,600 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes seen in satellite imagery drifted 90 km NE and E during 10 and 12-14 October. The Tokyo VAAC reported that ash was seen in satellite imagery on 16 October. The next day possible eruptions reported by KVERT, and seen in satellite imagery, produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 5.2-5.8 km (17,000-19,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Ash seen in imagery on 18 October may have been from an eruption earlier that day. Ash again seen in satellite imagery from a possible eruption on 19 October rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 October-12 October 2010

KVERT reported that during 1-8 October seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava from the summit crater flowed down the SW flank. Satellite imagery analyses showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. Strombolian activity was observed almost every day, and gas-and-ash plumes rose to an altitude of 6.3 km (20,700 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes seen in satellite imagery drifted 50 km SE during 5-6 October. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and information from KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC reported ash drifting NE on 11 October. The next day an eruption seen in satellite imagery produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 10.1 km (33,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. A subsequent notice stated that ash had dissipated. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 September-5 October 2010

KVERT reported that during 24 September-1 October seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava from the summit crater flowed down the SW flank. Satellite imagery analyses showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. Ash plumes were seen rising to altitudes of 6.5-7 km (21,300-23,000 ft) a.s.l. on 22 and 24 September, and Strombolian activity was observed during 23, 25, and 28-29 September. Ash plumes seen in satellite imagery drifted 185 km E on 22 and 28 September and 78 km W on 24 and 25 September. KVERT noted that eruptive activity from Kliuchevskoi had been continuous since 1 September 2009. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


22 September-28 September 2010

KVERT reported that during 17-24 September seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava from the summit crater flowed down the SW flank. Satellite imagery analyses showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. Strombolian activity was observed during 17 and 20-21 September, and ash plumes were seen rising to altitudes of 6.5-7 km (21,300-23,000 ft) a.s.l. on 20 and 21 September. Satellite imagery showed ash plumes drifting about 60 km W on 19 September and about 240 km E on 20 and 21 September. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


15 September-21 September 2010

KVERT reported that during 10-17 September seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava flowed down the SW flank. Satellite imagery analyses showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. During 9-15 September ash plumes rose to altitudes of 6-7 km (19,700-23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 575 km S and SE based on analyses of satellite imagery and visual observations. Strombolian activity was seen on 11 September. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and information from KEMSD, the Tokyo VAAC reported that possible eruptions on 21 and 22 September produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 5.2-6.1 km (17,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


8 September-14 September 2010

KVERT reported that during 3-10 September seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava flowed down the SW and NW flanks. Satellite imagery analyses showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. During 2-4 September ash plumes seen in satellite imagery drifted 150 km S and SW at an altitude of 6.5 km (21,300 ft) a.s.l. Phreatic bursts on the SW flank were observed on 5 September and Strombolian activity was seen during 5-7 September. Seismic data suggested that during 5-6 September ash plumes rose to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l.

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that a possible eruption on 12 September produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. On 13 September an ash plume rose to an altitude of 9.8 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE according to information sent from the Yelizovo Airport (UHPP). Ash was seen in subsequent satellite images during 13-14 September. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 September-7 September 2010

KVERT reported that 27 August-3 September seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava flowed down the SW flank. Satellite imagery analyses showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. On 27 August, activity increased; ash plumes rose to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 120 km SE. Strombolian activity was observed during 27-30 August. Phreatic explosions occurred on the SW flank on 29 and 30 August. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 6.5 km (21,300 ft) a.s.l. on 30 August and drifted 278 km SE.

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and information from the Yelizovo Airport (UHPP), the Tokyo VAAC reported a possible eruption on 3 September. Subsequent images showed continuing emissions. Later that day a notice stated that ash had dissipated. Another possible eruption that day produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. During 4-7 September eruptions reported by KVERT and seen in satellite imagery produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 5.2-7 km (17,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, E, and SE. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


25 August-31 August 2010

KVERT reported that 20-27 August seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava flowed down the SW flank. Strombolian activity and gas-and-ash emissions were observed on 20 and 21 August. Cloud cover prevented observations the other days. Satellite imagery analyses showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly from the volcano and ash plumes that drifted more than 200 km SE on 20 August. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and information from KEMSD, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption on 28 August produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 7.6-10.4 km (25,000-34,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Satellite imagery showed a possible eruption on 30 August. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 August-24 August 2010

KVERT reported that 13-20 August seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava flowed down the SW flank. Strombolian activity and gas-and-ash emissions were observed during 14-16 August. Cloud cover prevented observations the other days. Satellite imagery analyses showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly from the volcano and ash plumes that drifted more than 325 km SE. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


11 August-17 August 2010

KVERT reported that during 6-13 August seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava flowed down the SW flank. Strombolian activity and gas-and-ash emissions were observed during 6 and 8-12 August. Cloud cover prevented observations the other days. Satellite imagery analysis showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly on the volcano. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported a possible eruption on 16 August. A subsequent notice stated that ash had dissipated. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


4 August-10 August 2010

KVERT reported that 30 July-6 August seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava flowed down the SSE flank. Strombolian activity and gas-and-ash emissions were observed during 29-30 July and 4-5 August. Cloud cover prevented observations the other days. Satellite imagery analysis showed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano and a gas-and-ash plume that drifted 65 km NW on 30 July. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


28 July-3 August 2010

KVERT reported that during 23-30 July seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava flowed down the SSE flank. Strombolian activity and gas-and-ash emissions were observed during 23-24 and 29 July. Cloud cover prevented observations the other days. Satellite imagery analysis showed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano and gas-and-ash plumes that drifted 145 km SW on 28 July. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


21 July-27 July 2010

KVERT reported that during 16-23 July seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and Strombolian activity was seen. Gas-and-steam activity was noted with ash plumes periodically rising to an altitude of 6.3 km (20,700 ft) a.s.l. Effusive lava flows descended the SSW flank. Satellite imagery analysis showed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano and ash plumes that drifted about 55-160 km SW, SE, and NE. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


14 July-20 July 2010

KVERT reported that during 9-16 July seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Satellite imagery analysis showed a large daily thermal anomaly over the volcano and a gas-and-ash plume that drifted 45 km NW on 14 July. Strombolian activity and gas-and-ash emissions were observed during 9, 12, and 14-15 July. Ash plumes occasionally rose to an altitude of 6.8 km (22,300 ft) a.s.l. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and information from KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC reported a possible eruption on 17 July. Ash was seen in satellite imagery and then later dissipated. An eruption on 19 July and a possible eruption the next day produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 5.2-5.5 km (17,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and SE. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


7 July-13 July 2010

KVERT reported that during 2-9 July seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Satellite imagery analysis showed a large daily thermal anomaly over the volcano and a gas-and-steam plume that drifted 76 km S on 2 July. Ash plumes occasionally rose to an altitude of 5.3 km (17,400 ft) a.s.l., and gas-and-steam activity was seen during 2-4 July. According to a news article, lava flowed from a fissure during 8-9 July. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Itar-Tass News


30 June-6 July 2010

KVERT reported that during 25 June-2 July seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and Strombolian activity was observed on 24 and 29 June. Ash plumes occasionally rose to an altitude of 5.3 km (17,400 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery analysis revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano and an ash plume that drifted 32 km S on 1 July. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


23 June-29 June 2010

KVERT reported that during 18-25 June seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and Strombolian activity was sometimes observed. Ash plumes occasionally rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery analysis revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano and ash plumes that drifted 120 km in multiple directions during 19 and 22-23 June. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


16 June-22 June 2010

KVERT reported that during 11-18 June seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and Strombolian activity was observed. Ashfall was reported in Klyuchi, 30 km NNE on 11 June. Ash plumes occasionally rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. during 13-16 June. Satellite imagery analysis revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano and ash plumes that drifted 40 km SE on 13 and 15 June. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


9 June-15 June 2010

KVERT reported that during 4-11 June seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and Strombolian activity was seen. Gas-and-steam plumes, occasionally containing a small amount of ash, were also noted. On 5 June ash plumes rose to an altitude of 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano, and ash plumes that drifted 60-190 km NE on 5 and 8 June. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


2 June-8 June 2010

KVERT reported that during 28 May-4 June seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and Strombolian activity was seen. Gas-and-steam plumes occasionally containing a small amount of ash were also noted. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano, and ash plumes that drifted 40 km NW on 28 and 31 May. On 1 June an ash plume rose to an altitude of 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


26 May-1 June 2010

KVERT reported that during 21-28 May seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and Strombolian activity was seen. Gas-and-steam plumes occasionally containing a small amount of ash were also noted. During 23-26 May observed ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano, and ash plumes that drifted 185 km in multiple directions on 24 and 26 May. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


19 May-25 May 2010

KVERT reported that during 14-21 May seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and Strombolian activity was seen. Gas-and-steam plumes containing a small amount of ash were noted during 13-18 May. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano, and ash plumes that drifted 20-145 km E on most days. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


12 May-18 May 2010

KVERT reported that during 7-14 May seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and Strombolian activity was seen. Gas-and-steam plumes containing a small amount of ash were noted during 6 and 8-12 May. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano, and a gas-and-ash plume that drifted 21 km N on 7 May. Based on information from KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 18 May an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 May-11 May 2010

KVERT reported that during 30 April-7 May seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Ground observations were prevented due to meteorological cloud cover. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano. Ash plumes drifted 125 km N on 2 May and 70 km W at an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. on 3 May. Gas-and-steam plumes drifted 55 km W and SW both days. Based on information from KEMSD, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 10 May an eruption produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 April-4 May 2010

KVERT reported that during 22-30 April seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Strombolian activity was noted and lava continued to flow down the flanks. Gas-and-steam plumes containing small amounts of ash were seen on 22 April. Similar plumes rose to an altitude of 7.3 km (23,900 ft) a.s.l. during 25-27 April, and drifted W and SW. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano. An ash plume drifted about 65 km W on 24 April, and gas-and-steam plumes drifted 55 km W and SW during 24-27 April. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 3 May a possible eruption produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 April-27 April 2010

KVERT reported that during 16-23 April seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Strombolian activity was noted and lava continued to flow down the flanks. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to an altitude of 5.7 km (18,700 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano, and ash plumes that drifted about 45 km S on 18 April. Gas-and-steam plumes drifted 90-100 km E on 20 and 21 April. Based on information from the Yelizovo Airport (UHPP), the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 27 April an ash plume rose to an altitude of 7.9 km (26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 April-20 April 2010

KVERT reported that during 9-15 April seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Strombolian activity periodically ejected material 200 m above the crater and lava continued to flow down the flanks. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano, and gas-and-steam plumes that drifted about 85 km NE on 9 April. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


7 April-13 April 2010

KVERT reported that during 2-9 April seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Strombolian activity periodically ejected material 200 m above the crater and lava continued to flow down the flanks. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano, and gas-and-steam plumes that drifted 30-180 km NNE. On 7 April, gas-and-steam plumes containing small amounts of ash rose to an altitude of 6.3 km (20,700 ft) a.s.l. The next day, a diffuse ash plume drifted 55-60 km NE. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


31 March-6 April 2010

KVERT reported that during 26 March-2 April seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels, and gas-and-steam plumes containing small amounts of ash were sometimes seen rising to an altitude of 5.3 km (17,400 ft) a.s.l. Strombolian activity ejected material 300 m above the crater and lava continued to flow down the flanks. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano, and gas-and-steam plumes that drifted about 70 km E on 30 March. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


24 March-30 March 2010

KVERT reported that during 19-29 March seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Strombolian activity ejected material 100-300 m above the crater and lava continued to flow down the flanks. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano, and gas-and-steam plumes that drifted over 80 km E during 18-20 March. Ash plumes seen in satellite imagery drifted about 75 km NE on 21 and 24 March. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


17 March-23 March 2010

KVERT reported that during 12-19 March seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Strombolian activity ejected material 200 m above the crater and lava continued to flow down the flanks. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to altitudes of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. during 12 and 15-16 March. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. Based on information from KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 21 March an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 March-16 March 2010

KVERT reported that during 5-12 March seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Strombolian activity ejected material 300 m above the crater. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to altitudes of 5-6.8 km (16,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and were occasionally seen on satellite imagery drifting 80 km E. On 4 March new lava flows traveled down the S and NE flanks. A satellite image from 9 March showed that the S-flank lava flow was about 1.3 km long. Phreatic explosions sometimes occurred from the fronts of the lava flows. Satellite imagery also revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


3 March-9 March 2010

KVERT reported that during 26 February-5 March seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava continued to flow down the NW flank. Strombolian activity periodically ejected material 300 m above the crater, and phreatic explosions occurred from the fronts of the lava flows. Steam-and-gas plumes rose to an altitude of 6.8 km (22,300 ft) a.s.l. most days, and on 3 March one drifted 50 km NE. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly from the volcano. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


24 February-2 March 2010

KVERT reported that during 19-26 February seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava continued to flow down the NW flank. Strombolian activity periodically ejected material 300 m above the crater, and phreatic explosions occurred from the fronts of the lava flows. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano and gas-and-steam plumes that drifted 90 km NNW on 23 February and 25 km ESE the next day. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


17 February-23 February 2010

KVERT reported that during 12-19 February seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava continued to flow down the NW flank. Strombolian activity periodically ejected material 200 m above the crater, and phreatic explosions occurred from the front of the lava flow. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano and gas-and-steam plumes that drifted over 240 km NE. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


10 February-16 February 2010

KVERT reported that during 5-12 February seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava continued to flow down the NW flank. Strombolian activity periodically ejected material 300 m above the crater. Steam plumes rose to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. on 8, 9, and 10 February, and were seen on satellite imagery drifting 65 km NE. Satellite imagery also revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange. Based on information from KVERT and analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 13 February an ash plume rose to an altitude of 6.4 km (21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 February-9 February 2010

KVERT reported that during 29 January-5 February seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava continued to flow down the NW flank. Strombolian activity periodically ejected material 300 m above the crater, and phreatic explosions occurred from the front of the lava flow. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. On 30 and 31 January, gas-and-steam plumes rose to an altitude of 6.2 km (20,300 ft) a.s.l. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


27 January-2 February 2010

KVERT reported that during 22-29 January seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava continued to flow down the NW flank. Strombolian activity periodically ejected material 200 m above the crater, and phreatic explosions occurred from the front of the lava flow. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. Ashfall was reported in Klyuchi, about 30 km to the NE, on 22 January. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


20 January-26 January 2010

KVERT reported that during 15-22 January seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava continued to flow down the NW flank. Strombolian activity periodically ejected material 300 m above the crater. Phreatic explosions from the front of the lava flow ejected material that rose to altitudes of 4.5-8 km (14,800-26,200 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery also revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. Based on information from the Yelizovo Airport (UHPP) and analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 22-23 January ash plumes rose to altitudes of 7-10.1 km (23,000-33,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


13 January-19 January 2010

KVERT reported that during 8-15 January seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava continued to flow down the NW flank. Strombolian activity periodically ejected material above the crater. Phreatic explosions were seen from the front of the lava flow, which was about 1.2 km in length. Satellite imagery also revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. During 12-14 January, gas-and-steam plumes rose to an altitude of 6.8 km (22,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. Based on information from the Yelizovo Airport (UHPP), the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 18 January an ash plume rose to an altitude of 9 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


6 January-12 January 2010

KVERT reported that during 1-8 January seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava continued to flow down the ESE flank. Strombolian activity periodically ejected material 500 m above the crater. A new lava flow seen on the NW flank likely began during 2-3 January. On 5 January two lava flows, on the ESE flank and NW flanks, were seen in satellite imagery. Satellite imagery also revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


30 December-5 January 2010

KVERT reported that during 24-31 December seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava continued to flow down the ESE flank. Strombolian activity ejected material 500 m above the crater. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


23 December-29 December 2009

KVERT reported that during 18-25 December seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava continued to flow down the ESE flank. Strombolian activity ejected material 300 m above the crater. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


16 December-22 December 2009

KVERT reported that during 11-21 December seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


9 December-15 December 2009

KVERT reported that during 4-11 December seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava continued to flow down the ESE flank. Strombolian activity ejected tephra 200-300 m above the crater. Gas-and-steam plumes containing small amounts of ash rose to an altitude of 6.3 km (20,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E during 5-9 December. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


2 December-8 December 2009

KVERT reported that during 27 November-4 December seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava continued to flow down the ESE flank. Strombolian activity ejected tephra 300 m above the crater. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


25 November-1 December 2009

KVERT reported that during 20-27 November seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava continued to flow down the ESE flank. Strombolian activity ejected tephra 300 m above the crater during 21-25 November. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


18 November-24 November 2009

KVERT reported that during 13-20 November seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Strombolian activity ejected tephra 200 m above the crater during 13-15 November. On 14 November, a new lava flow traveled 500 m down the ESE flank. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


11 November-17 November 2009

KVERT reported that during 6-13 November seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Strombolian activity ejected tephra 300 m above the crater on 5, 7, and 10 November. Satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


4 November-10 November 2009

KVERT reported that during 30 October-6 November seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Strombolian activity ejected tephra 300 m above the crater and fumarolic activity was occasionally noted. Satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


28 October-3 November 2009

KVERT reported that during 23-30 October seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels; tremor increased on 26 October. Strombolian activity ejected tephra 200 m above the crater and fumarolic activity was occasionally noted. Satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


21 October-27 October 2009

KVERT reported that during 16-23 October seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels. Satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. During 16 and 18-22 October, Strombolian activity ejected tephra 500 m above the crater and fumarolic plumes were noted. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


14 October-20 October 2009

KVERT reported that during 9-16 October seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and weak tremor was detected. Satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. On 11 October, Strombolian activity ejected tephra 200 m above the crater. Fumarolic plumes containing small amounts of ash rose to an altitude of 5.7 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


7 October-13 October 2009

KVERT reported that during 2-9 October seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels; many earthquakes and weak tremor were detected. Satellite imagery revealed a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano. During 2-3 October, Strombolian eruptions sent tephra 70-100 m above the crater and fumarolic activity was noted. On 7 October a fumarolic plume containing some ash rose to an altitude of 5.7 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. The Level of Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


30 September-6 October 2009

KVERT reported that during 25 September-2 October seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was slightly above background levels and weak tremor was detected. Satellite imagery revealed a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano. Strombolian activity ejected tephra 70-100 m above the crater during 28-30 September. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


16 September-22 September 2009

KVERT reported that although seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi did not exceed background levels during 11-18 September, weak tremor was detected. Satellite imagery revealed a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano from 13 to 17 September. Strombolian activity that ejected tephra 70 m above the crater was seen at night on 16 and 17 September. The Level of Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


12 August-18 August 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and information from KEMSD, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 17 August an eruption from Kliuchevskoi produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


29 July-4 August 2009

On 2 August, KVERT reported that seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi had gradually increased since 30 July, and continuous seismic tremor was detected. A strong thermal anomaly was seen in satellite imagery at night. The Level of Concern Color Code was raised to Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


10 June-16 June 2009

On 11 June, KVERT reported that seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi had remained at background levels since 12 May. Weak intermittent volcanic tremor and fumarolic activity continued to be detected. The Level of Concern Color was lowered to Green.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


15 April-21 April 2009

KVERT reported that seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was slightly above background levels on 11 April and at background levels the other days during 12-17 April. Satellite imagery revealed gas-and-ash plumes that drifted 90 km NE on 9 and 10 April, and a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano on 14 April. Fumarolic activity was seen on 15 and 16 April. The Level of Concern Color remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


8 April-14 April 2009

KVERT reported that fumarolic activity from Kliuchevskoi was observed during 3-10 April. Satellite imagery indicated a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 5 and 6 April, and weak volcanic tremor was detected during 5-8 April. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that a possible eruption on 9 April produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Imagery later indicated that any ash that may have been present had dissipated. On 11 April, imagery again indicated a possible eruption; any resultant ash plumes had dissipated by a few hours later. The Level of Concern Color remained at Yellow.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 January-3 February 2009

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was at background levels during 22-24 and 28 January, and above background levels during 25-27 January. Diffuse steam-and-gas plumes were noted. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a weak daily thermal anomaly in the crater. The Level of Concern Color Code was lowered to Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


21 January-27 January 2009

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 15-18 and 26-27 January and at background levels during 19-21 January. Diffuse steam-and-gas plumes were noted. The magnitude of volcanic tremor rapidly decreased during 16-21 January. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a weak daily thermal anomaly in the crater. The Level of Concern Color Code was lowered to Yellow. Strombolian activity in the summit crater was noted on 26 January. Ash plumes were seen drifting NE and E at altitudes of 5.3 km (17,400 ft) a.s.l. during 26-27 January, and were detected on satellite imagery drifting 80 km E at an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. on 27 January. The Level of Concern Color Code was raised to Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


14 January-20 January 2009

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 9-16 January. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to an altitude of 6.8 km (22,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 50 km S and E. Strombolian activity was noted on 9 and 10 January. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly in the crater and gas-and-steam plumes that drifted 70 km W on 12 January. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


7 January-13 January 2009

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 1-9 January. Strombolian activity and lava effusion on the NW flank continued. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly in the crater. Ashfall was reported in Kozyrevsk village (about 50 km W) on 1 January. Ash plumes drifted 60 km N on 1 January and 35 km SW on 2 January.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


31 December-6 January 2009

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels 26 December-2 January. Strombolian activity was noted on 25 and 27 December, and lava effusion on the NW flank continued. On 25 December gas-and-steam plumes containing ash rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly in the crater. Ash plumes drifted 250 km NE during 25-26 December. On 27 December ashfall was reported in Kozyrevsk village. The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 2 January ash plumes were continuously observed on satellite imagery.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 December-30 December 2008

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 19-26 December. Gas-and-steam plumes containing ash rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. during 20-24 December. Lava effusion on the NW flank continued and Strombolian activity was noted during 21-25 December. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly in the crater. Ash plumes drifted 270 km E and NE during 20-25 December.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


17 December-23 December 2008

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 12-19 December. Strombolian activity was noted on 12, 13, 14, and 16 December, and lava effusion on the NW flank continued. Gas-and-steam plumes containing ash rose to an altitude of 8 km (26,200 ft) a.s.l. during 12-14 and 18 December. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly in the crater. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 4-8 km (13,100-26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 500 km E, NE, and SE during 12-14 and 16-18 December.

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 21 December a possible eruption produced a plume to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted N. Ash emissions continued the next day. An eruption on 23 December produced an ash plume to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


10 December-16 December 2008

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 5-12 December. Strombolian activity ejected bombs 500 m above the crater and lava effusion on the NW flank continued. Phreatic bursts occurred where the lava flow front contacted the Erman Glacier. On 6 and 9 December, ashfall was reported in Klyuchi, about 30 km to the NE. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly in the crater. Gas-and-steam plumes containing small amounts of ash rose to altitudes of 5-6 km (16,400-19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted more than 300 km E. During 8-10 December, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 7.5-8 km (24,600-26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 700 km E. The Level of Concern Color Code remained Orange.

Based on information from KVERT and analysis of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 13-15 December eruptions ash produced plumes to altitudes of 5.2-8.2 km (17,000-27,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted E and NE.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 December-9 December 2008

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 28 November-10 December; Strombolian activity ejected bombs 500 m above the crater and lava effusion on the NW flank continued. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly in the crater. During 27-29 November, and 2 and 4 December, gas-and-steam plumes with little ash content rose to altitudes of 6-6.2 km (19,700-20,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 40-115 km NE, E, SE, and SW. During 4-5 December, the ash content in plumes increased. On 8 December, phreatic bursts occurred where the lava flow front contacted the Erman Glacier. On 9 December, a 50-km-wide ash plume drifted about 550 km ENE. The Level of Concern Color Code was raised to Red. KVERT warned that the activity was dangerous for international and low-flying aircraft. On 10 December, the Level of Concern Color Code was lowered back to Orange because explosive activity decreased. A gas-and-steam plume with a small amount of ash drifted NE.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


26 November-2 December 2008

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 21-28 November; Strombolian activity and lava effusion continued. On 21 November, a lava flow traveled 1.5-1.8 km down the NW flank. Gas-and-steam plumes drifted 80 km NW on 24 November and 20-40 km SE during 25-26 November. Gas-and-steam plumes containing slight amounts of ash rose to altitudes of 5.3-5.5 km (17,400-18,000 ft) a.s.l. during 26-27 November. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly in the crater during 21-28 November. The Level of Concern Color Code remained Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


19 November-25 November 2008

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 14-21 November and Strombolian activity continued. Video and visual observations showed that during 13-17 November gas-and-steam plumes containing a small amount of ash rose to an altitude of 5.3 km (17,400 ft) a.s.l. On 17 November, "bursting" sounds from the volcano were heard in Klyuchi, about 30 km to the NE. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly in the crater during 14-21 November. On 22 November a lava flow traveled 1.5-1.8 km down the NW flank. The Level of Concern Color Code remained Orange. [Correction: a lava flow traveled down the NW flank on 21 November.]

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


12 November-18 November 2008

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 7-13 November. Video and visual observations showed that during 8 and 10-12 November gas-and-steam plumes that contained a small amount of ash rose to an altitude of 5.1 km (16,700 ft) a.s.l. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly in the crater. The Level of Concern Color Code remained Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


5 November-11 November 2008

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 31 October-7 November. Video and visual observations showed that during 31 October, and 1-2 and 5-6 November, gas-and-steam plumes that contained a small amount of ash rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,100 ft) a.s.l. On 3 and 4 November, "bursting" sounds from the volcano were heard in Klyuchi, about 30 km to the NE. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly in the crater. The Level of Concern Color Code remained Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


29 October-4 November 2008

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 24-31 October. Video and visual observations showed fumarolic activity during 24-25 and 28-30 October. "Bursting" sounds from the volcano were heard in Klyuchi, about 30 km to the NE. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly in the crater. The Level of Concern Color Code remained Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


22 October-28 October 2008

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 17-24 October. Fumarolic activity was noted during 17-19 and 22-23 October by video and visual observations. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly in the crater. The Level of Concern Color Code remained Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


15 October-21 October 2008

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 10-17 October. Fumarolic activity was noted during 10-11 and 13-16 October. Observers in Klyuchi, about 30 km to the NE, reported nighttime incandescence in the crater on 13 and 14 October. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a thermal anomaly in the crater during 10-11 and 13-15 October. The Level of Concern Color Code remained Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


8 October-14 October 2008

KVERT reported that fumarolic activity from Kliuchevskoi was seen during 2-6 and 8-9 October. During approximately 4-9 October analysis of satellite imagery revealed a thermal anomaly in the crater; seismic activity was above background levels. On 8 October after KVERT staff detected Strombolian activity in the summit crater the level of Concern Color Code was raised to Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


6 August-12 August 2008

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi had slowly increased since June and was slightly above background levels during 1-8 August. Observations of satellite imagery revealed that the size and intensity of a thermal anomaly in the crater increased. On 8 August, the level of Concern Color Code was raised to Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


15 August-21 August 2007

On 17 August, KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was at background levels during the past five weeks, and ash plumes had not been noted for the last four weeks. Satellite imagery showed a thermal anomaly on 11 August. The Level of Concern Color Code was lowered from Yellow to Green.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


18 July-24 July 2007

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was at background levels during 13-20 July. Based on observations of satellite imagery, ash plumes drifted E on 13 July and a thermal anomaly in the crater was noted during 13-20 July. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E during 13-15 July, according to video and visual observations. Gas-and-steam plumes were observed on 12, 16, and 18 July. The Level of Concern Color Code was lowered from Orange to Yellow due to a decrease in seismicity and an absence of ash plumes during 17-20 July.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


11 July-17 July 2007

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi had decreased, but remained above background levels during 6-13 July. Ash plumes were visible on satellite imagery drifting NE and NW during 5-11 July. Plumes rose to estimated altitudes of 5-6.5 km (16,400-21,300 ft) a.s.l. based on atmospheric profiles. Based on video data, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. during 9-11 July. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


4 July-10 July 2007

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi had decreased, but remained above background levels during 29 June-6 July. Based on seismic interpretation, ash plumes possibly rose to altitudes of 6-7 km (19,700-23,000 ft) a.s.l. On 4 July, the Level of Concern Color Code was lowered from Red to Orange. During 2-5 July, ash plumes rose to estimated altitudes of 5-6 km (16,400-20,000 ft) a.s.l. based on atmospheric profiles. Plumes were visible on satellite imagery drifting NNW, W, and SE.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


27 June-3 July 2007

KVERT reported that during 22-29 June, seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi continued above background levels. Based on atmospheric profiles, ash plumes rose to estimated altitudes of 4.5-9.5 km (14,800-31,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions during 21-24 and 28 June. A thermal anomaly continued to be detected in the crater on satellite imagery during 22-23 and 26-27 June. On 28 June, seismicity increased and indicated that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 9 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. The Level of Concern Color Code was raised to Red.

Ash plumes were visible on satellite imagery drifting E more than 2,000 km on 29 June and drifting SW more than 900 km on 30 June. Based on video and visual observations, ash plumes rose to an altitude greater than 10 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W on 30 June. Ash plumes were visible on satellite imagery drifting E. On 1 July, plumes drifted N.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


20 June-26 June 2007

KVERT reported that during 15-22 June, seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi continued above background levels and a thermal anomaly in the crater was detected on satellite imagery. Based on video and visual observations, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE on 15 June. Clouds inhibited observations on other days. Plumes were seen drifting N, W, and S on satellite imagery during 15-22 June.

A large ash cloud, about 300 km in diameter, was observed near Yelizovo airport during 20-21 June. Based on atmospheric profiles, the plumes rose to estimated altitudes of 6.5-9.5 km (21,300-31,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

On 25 June, KVERT reported that seismic activity decreased during 22-24 June. Ash plumes were visible on satellite imagery drifting multiple directions. The plumes rose to estimated altitudes of 5.5-6.5 km (18,000-21,300 ft) a.s.l. based on atmospheric profiles. A thermal anomaly continued to be detected in the crater. The Level of Concern Color Code was lowered to Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


13 June-19 June 2007

KVERT reported that during 8-15 June, seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi continued above background levels and a thermal anomaly in the crater was detected on satellite imagery. Strombolian and Vulcanian activity at the summit crater, lava flows, and phreatic bursts at the SE flank of the volcano were observed on 8 and 13 June. Based on video and visual observations, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. during 8-10 and 13 June and drifted E, SE, and NW. Ash plumes were visible on satellite imagery drifting multiple directions during 8-15 June.

KVERT reported that seismicity increased on 19 June at 1010. Beginning at 0400 on 20 June, ash plumes were visible on satellite imagery, drifting W. Based on atmospheric profiles, plume altitudes rose to an altitude of 6.5-7.5 km (21,300-24,600 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported from Kozyrevsk village. The Level of Concern Color Code was raised to Red.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


6 June-12 June 2007

KVERT reported that during 1-8 June, seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi continued above background levels and a thermal anomaly in the crater was detected on satellite imagery. Video and visual observations during 1-4 June indicated Strombolian and Vulcanian eruptions at the summit crater. Lava flows generated phreatic bursts from places where hot lava interacted with ice on the NW and SE flanks. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE during 1-6 June. Plumes were seen on satellite imagery drifting E and S during 1-8 June. Based on information from KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW on 12 June. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


30 May-5 June 2007

KVERT reported on 1 June that the Level of Concern Color Code for Kliuchevskoi was lowered from Red to Orange. During 25 May-1 June, seismic activity continued above background levels and a thermal anomaly in the crater was detected on satellite imagery. According to video data and visual observations on 27 and 31 May, there was Strombolian and Vulcanian activity at the summit crater, lava flows, and phreatic bursts on the NW flank from where lava interacted with ice. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 5-7 km (16,000-26,200 ft) a.s.l. during 29-31 May and drifted in multiple directions. Strong phreatic bursts were seen from the front of a new lava flow from on the E flank on 31 May.

Based on information from KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash emissions produced plumes on 2 and 5 June to an altitude of about 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery. During 3-4 June, ash plumes to altitudes of 5.2-7 km (17,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l. were possibly identified on satellite imagery.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


23 May-29 May 2007

KVERT reported that during 18-25 May, seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi continued above background levels and a thermal anomaly in the crater was detected on satellite imagery. On 18 May, ashfall was reported from the town of Klyuchi, about 30 km to the NE. According to video data and visual observations, Vulcanian activity at the summit crater and phreatic bursts on the NW flank of the volcano were observed during 22-24 May. Ash plumes rose to 5-8 km (16,000-25,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Plumes were visible on satellite imagery drifting N, NE, and SE during the reporting period. Clouds inhibited observation on other days. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Red.

Based on satellite image observations and information from KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash emissions produced possible plumes on 26 May to an altitude of 6.4 km (21,000 ft) a.s.l. and on 27 May to an altitude of 10.1 km (33,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted E, S, SW, and W. Ash plumes were also observed on satellite imagery during 28-29 May drifting S, SW, and W.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


16 May-22 May 2007

KVERT reported that during 11-22 May, seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi continued above background levels and a thermal anomaly in the crater was detected on satellite imagery. According to video data and visual observations, Vulcanian activity at the terminal crater and phreatic bursts at the NW flank of the volcano were observed on 11 and 16 May. Also on 11 and 16 May, ash plumes rose to 9.7 km (31,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NE, respectively. Clouds inhibited observation on other days. Ashfall was reported from the town of Klyuchi, about 30 km to the NE, during 11-12 and 16-17 May. KVERT raised the Level of Concern Color Code from Orange to Red on 17 May.

On 18 May, KVERT reported that deposits from a mudflow filled the Krivaya river. During 18-22 May, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 8.5 km (27,900 ft) a.s.l. Based on observations from satellite imagery, ash plumes drifted N, NE, NW, and E during 11-22 May.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


9 May-15 May 2007

KVERT reported that during 4-11 May, seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi continued above background levels and a thermal anomaly in the crater was detected on satellite imagery. Lava flows continued to advance on the NW flank. Phreatic activity and ash plumes from lava-flow fronts were noted. Gas-and-steam plumes containing ash rose to altitudes of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N during 4-7 May. Ash plumes were seen on satellite imagery drifting NE, NW, W, and E during the reporting period. Ashfall was reported on 4 May and explosions were heard during 3-6 May in the town of Klyuchi, about 30 km to the NE. Based on information from KEMSD and satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 11 May ash plumes rose to altitudes of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E. On 12 May, the Anchorage VAAC reported that ash plumes were visible on satellite imagery. On 15 May, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption plume was possibly seen on satellite imagery to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. drifting N. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC); Anchorage Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


2 May-8 May 2007

Based on observations and video data, KVERT reported that Strombolian activity occurred at Kliuchevskoi during 27 April-4 May. Seismic activity continued above background levels and a thermal anomaly in the crater was detected on satellite imagery. Mudflows and lava flows continued to advance on the NW flank. Phreatic activity and ash plumes from lava-flow fronts were noted. Gas-and-steam plumes containing ash rose to altitudes of 6.2 km (20,400 ft) a.s.l. during the reporting period and were visible on satellite imagery drifting S and SE. Based on information from KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5.2 (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE on 3 May. According to a news article, an ash plume rose to altitudes of 5.3-5.5 km (17,400-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE on 7 May. Ashfall was reported from the town of Klyuchi, about 30 km to the NE. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC); Itar-Tass News


25 April-1 May 2007

During 20-27 April, KVERT reported that Strombolian activity occurred at Kliuchevskoi, based on observations and video data. Seismic activity continued above background levels and a thermal anomaly in the crater was detected on satellite imagery. Mudflows and lava flows continued to advance on the NW flank. Phreatic activity and ash plumes from lava-flow fronts were noted. Gas-and-steam plumes containing ash rose to altitudes of 7.2 km (23,600 ft) a.s.l. and were visible on satellite imagery drifting E and SE. Based on satellite imagery and information from KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5.2 (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E during 25-26 April. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 April-24 April 2007

During 13-20 April, Strombolian activity occurred at Kliuchevskoi, based on observations and video data. Seismic activity continued above background levels and a thermal anomaly in the crater was detected on satellite imagery. Fumarolic activity intensified during 15 and 17-18 April. Gas-and-steam plumes possibly containing small amounts of ash rose to altitudes of 6.3-7.2 km (20,700-23,600 ft) a.s.l. during 15 and 17-18 April and drifted in multiple directions. Based on pilot reports, satellite imagery, and observations in the Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky Flight Information Region (FIR), the Tokyo VAAC reported several E-drifting ash plumes. They rose to altitudes of 5.2 (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and 8.8 km (29,000 ft) on 18 and 22 April, respectively. On 24 April, KVERT reported mudflows and phreatic activity at lava flow fronts on the NW flank. Resultant ash plumes rose from the lava flow fronts to an altitude of 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


11 April-17 April 2007

Seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi continued above background levels during 10-13 April. Based on observations and video data, lava flowed down the NW flank and Strombolian activity occurred at the crater. Everyday during 10-13 April a gas-and-steam plume possibly containing a small amount of ash rose to an altitude of 6.3 km (20,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. A thermal anomaly in the crater was detected on satellite imagery during 10-12 April. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


4 April-10 April 2007

Seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi continued at above background levels during 4-10 April. A gas-and-steam plume with a small amount of ash rose to an altitude of 5.3 km (17,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and SW during 4-8 April. Strombolian activity was seen at the crater during 4-9 April. Based on observations and video data, lava was observed flowing down the NW flank on 9 April. A thermal anomaly in the crater was detected on satellite imagery during 2-10 April. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


28 March-3 April 2007

Based on observation and video data, lava from Kliuchevskoi flowed down the NW flank on 29 March. On 31 March, lava bombs from Strombolian activity were projected about 100-200 m above the crater. According to a news article, lava flows are interacting with snow and ice and producing vapor plumes.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); RIA Novosti


21 March-27 March 2007

Strombolian activity from Kliuchevskoi was observed during 16-18 February and 21-22 March. Lava bombs were ejected about 50-100 m above the crater. Clouds inhibited visual observations during most of February and March, but a thermal anomaly was detected on satellite imagery each day.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


21 February-27 February 2007

Seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi continued at above background levels during 16-22 February. Based on observation and video data, gas-and-steam plumes rose to an altitude of 5.3 km (17,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. These plumes possibly contained some ash. A thermal anomaly at the summit was seen on satellite imagery during 16-19 and 21 February. Based on information from KEMSD and satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruption plumes possibly reached altitudes of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E during 22-23 February.

According to a news article, ash particles up to 2 mm in diameter fell on the village of Klyuchi, about 40 km N on 26 February.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC); RIA Novosti


14 February-20 February 2007

Increased summit activity at Kliuchevskoi on 15 February led KVERT to raise the Concern Color Code from Yellow to Orange. Ash explosions and incandescence at the summit were observed. Strombolian explosions expelled bombs about 300 m above the crater. Based on video data and observations, gas-and-steam plumes with small amounts of ash rose to altitudes of 5.3 km (17,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. A thermal anomaly at the summit was seen on satellite imagery.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


13 December-19 December 2006

On 19 December, KVERT reported that the Level of Concern Color Code for Kliuchevskoi was raised from Green to Yellow due to a slight increase in seismicity above background levels. Moderate fumarolic activity was noted from the crater. A thermal anomaly in the crater was detected on satellite imagery on 14, 15, and 18 December.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


2 November-8 November 2005

Seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was at background levels during the previous 3 weeks and no activity was observed on satellite imagery. Since there were no indications that an eruption was imminent at Kliuchevskoi, KVERT reduced the Concern Color Code from Yellow to Green on 4 November.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


14 September-20 September 2005

An increase in seismicity at Kliuchevskoi during 9-16 September led KVERT to raise the Concern Color Code from Green to Yellow. The amplitude of volcanic tremor at the volcano increased. Weak gas-and-steam emissions and a thermal anomaly were visible on satellite imagery during the week.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


10 August-16 August 2005

Seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi decreased to background levels during 5-12 August, so KVERT reduced the Concern Color Code from Yellow to Green (the lowest level). Only weak fumarolic activity was observed at the volcano.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


3 August-9 August 2005

Seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi decreased to the background levels. Fumarolic activity was observed the week of 3-9 August.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


27 July-2 August 2005

A decrease in volcanic tremor at Kliuchevskoi during the end of the week of 22-29 July led KVERT to reduce the Concern Color Code from Orange to Yellow. On 22 July, weak ash-and-gas plumes rose to ~100 m above the crater (16,200 ft a.s.l.).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


20 July-26 July 2005

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 15-22 July, with spasmodic volcanic tremor and shallow earthquakes occurring. A gas-and-steam plume rose ~5.5 km above the crater (~33,900 ft a.s.l.) on 19 July. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


13 July-19 July 2005

Seismicity increased to above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 8-15 July. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to low levels above the volcano during 8, and 10-13 July. KVERT raised the Concern Color Code from Yellow to Orange around 15 July.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


11 May-17 May 2005

Seismic activity was slightly above background levels until 7 May and at background levels on 8-9 May. Weak gas-and-steam plumes were seen rising up to 100 m above the crater and extended E on 6 May and for 5 km to the SE on 7 May. Clouds obscured the volcano at other times. A weak thermal anomaly was detected in satellite data during 6-9 May. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


13 April-19 April 2005

Seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi decreased during 8-15 April, but remained above background levels. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to low levels above the crater. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


6 April-12 April 2005

Seismic activity was above background levels during 1-8 April, with a large number of shallow earthquakes occurring. Ash-and-gas plumes rose to 1 km above the crater (19,100 ft. a.s.l.). Eruptive and seismic activity decreased significantly on 7 April. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


30 March-5 April 2005

Seismic activity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 25 March to 1 April. Ash-and-gas plumes rose 2.5-3 km above the crater (24,100-25,700 ft a.s.l.). Incandescence was observed above the summit crater on 28 March. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


23 March-29 March 2005

On 24 March KVERT raised the Concern Color Code at Kliuchevskoi to Red (the highest level) due to an increase in seismic and volcanic activity. According to visual and video data, a gas-and-steam plume containing ash rose to ~7.5 km (24,600 ft) a.s.l. on 22 March, and ~8.5 km (~27,900 ft) a.s.l. on 23 March, extending NW. Ash fell in the town of Kluchi during 23-24 March. According to data from AMC Yelizovo, an ash plume that rose to ~7 km (~23,000 ft.) a.s.l. and extended 70-80 km (44-50 mi) to the NW was observed by pilots on 23 March.

During about 27-28 March seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi decreased, leading KVERT to reduce the Concern Color Code to Orange. According to visual and video data, a gas-and-steam plume containing some ash rose ~200 m above the crater (~16,500 ft a.s.l.) and extended W during 27-28 March.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


16 March-22 March 2005

Eruptive activity continued at Kliuchevskoi during 11-18 March. Strombolian explosions occurred intermittently from a cinder cone in the summit crater. Lava flows extended from this cinder cone down the NW flank of the volcano. Occasional vigorous explosions from the summit crater and along the path of the lava flow produced ash plumes that reached as high as 7-8 km (23,000-26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted many tens or hundreds of kilometers downwind.

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during the report period. Ash-and-gas plumes rose to 3.2 km above the crater (~26,300 ft a.s.l.) on 11-12 March. Ash fell in the town of Kozyrevsk on 11 March. Strombolian bursts rose 500-1,000 m (1,600- 3,300 ft) above the summit crater. On 15 March two lava flows were observed on the NW slope of the volcano. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


2 March-8 March 2005

Moderate seismic and volcanic activity continued at Kliuchevskoi during 24 February to 4 March. On 24 February a lava flow continued to travel down the Krestovsky channel on the volcano's NW flank. Strombolian activity occurred during the report period, with plumes rising to ~1 km above the volcano. Ash fell in the village of Icha on 26 February, and in Kozyrevsk on 1 March. Ash plumes were visible on satellite imagery on several days. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


16 February-22 February 2005

During 11-18 February, seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi, with a large number of shallow earthquakes occurring daily. Ash plumes rose ~3 km above the volcano's crater during 12-14 February. Phreatic bursts, which occurred when lava flows contacted a glacier, were seen on 12 and 13 February. During 12-16 February, volcanic bombs were hurled 300-500 m above the crater, Strombolian activity occurred in the crater, and lava traveled into Krestovsky channel on the volcano's NW flank. During a flight on 16 February, a mudflow was seen extending 27 km. According to a news report, a lava flow from Kliuchevskoi melted a large section of Ehrman glacier. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


9 February-15 February 2005

During 4-11 February, seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi and ash plumes rose above the volcano. On 6, 8, and 9 February, ash plumes rose ~2.5 km above the volcano's crater. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to ~3 km during 6-9 February. A cinder cone was noted in the volcano's crater on 6 February. Fresh ash deposits were seen on the SW flank of Ushkovsky volcano (NW of Kliuchevskoi) on 7 February, and in the town of Kluchi on 9 February.

During 31 January to 9 February, Strombolian activity occurred in the terminal crater of Kliuchevskoi and a lava flow traveled into Krestovsky channel on the volcano's NW flank. Phreatic bursts occurred in this channel when a lava flow contacted glaciers during 6-9 February. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


2 February-8 February 2005

On 1 February around 1000, a mudflow traveled ~6 km down Kliuchevskoi's NW flank into the Kruten'kaya River. The mudflow reached a height of a few meters and trees were covered with mud to about 1.5 m. Large blocks and trees were carried by the flow. A possible lava flow traveled down Krestovsky channel on the volcano's flank on 31 January.

During 28 January to 4 February, seismicity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels, with a large number of shallow earthquakes occurring daily. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to ~1 km above the volcano's crater and drifted SW on 29 January and NW on January 31. A small amount of ash fell in Klyuchi on 31 January. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


26 January-1 February 2005

Strombolian activity occurred at Kliuchevskoi during 20-23 and 27 January. Explosions sent volcanic bombs 50-300 m above the crater on several nights. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to a maximum height of 1.5 km above the crater. On 21 January a gas-and-steam plume with small amounts of ash extended as far as 23 km NE of the volcano. During 21-28 January seismicity was above background levels, with a large number of shallow earthquakes recorded daily. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


19 January-25 January 2005

During 14-21 January, seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi and the total number of shallow earthquakes continued to increase. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to ~800 m above the lava dome. Incandescence was visible in the volcano's crater during several nights. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


12 January-18 January 2005

KVERT raised the Concern Color Code at Kliuchevskoi from Green to Yellow on 14 January as seismic activity at the volcano increased. On 12 January, around 21 shallow earthquakes of M=1.0-1.7 and weak volcanic tremor were recorded. According to visual observations, weak gas-and-steam plumes were noted during 6-8 and 12 January. The plumes extended E from the volcano on 7 January and SW for 5 km from the volcano on 12 January.

KVERT again raised the Concern Color Code from Yellow to Orange as seismic activity increased significantly. During 13-14 January, 15 shallow earthquakes of M > 1.25 were recorded, along with an increase in the amplitude of volcanic tremor. Visual observations on 14 January noted a weak gas-and-steam plume that extended N from the volcano. Satellite data showed a bright thermal anomaly over the summit on 15 January.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


24 November-30 November 2004

Around 26 November, the Concern Color Code at Kluichevskoi was reduced from Yellow to Green, the lowest level. During 19-26 November, seismicity was at background levels. Gas-and-steam plumes were seen up to 5 km a.s.l. on 24 November and weak fumarolic activity was observed on several days.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


15 September-21 September 2004

Seismic activity was at background levels this week. About 102 earthquakes (M 1.0-2.3) at a depth up to 30 km were recorded this week. A strong ash-and-gas plume rose up to 7 km a.s.l. on 15 September. Weak fumarolic activity was observed the next day. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


3 March-9 March 2004

KVERT reduced the Concern Color Code at Kliuchevskoi from Orange to Yellow during 27 February to 5 March. Seismicity was slightly above background levels during 26-27 February and at background levels the rest of the week. Several shallow earthquakes up to M 2.2 were recorded, along with spasmodic tremor. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to low levels.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


25 February-2 March 2004

Seismicity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 20-27 February, with ~160 M 1.25-1.75 earthquakes and 12 M 1.25-2.25 earthquakes occurring at depths of 3-7 km beneath the volcano. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to ~700 m above the volcano. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


18 February-24 February 2004

During 13-20 February seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi, with 135 earthquakes of M 1.25-1.7 and 1-6 earthquakes up to M 1.85 occurring daily at depths of 3-6 km beneath the volcano. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to ~1 km above the volcano. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


11 February-17 February 2004

During 6-13 February, seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi, with ~225 shallow M 1.25-2 earthquakes recorded during the week. The amount of spasmodic tremor decreased during the report period. In addition, gas-and-steam plumes rose ~700 m above the volcano. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


4 February-10 February 2004

During 30 January to 6 February, seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi, with ~430 strong shallow earthquakes recorded during the week and gas-and-steam plumes rising to low levels. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


28 January-3 February 2004

During 23-30 January, seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi, with ~130 shallow M 1.9-2.3 earthquakes and a large number of weaker events occurring. Probable Strombolian activity was seen at the volcano on the evenings of 24 and 26 January. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to ~3 km above the volcano. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


21 January-27 January 2004

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 16-23 January, with ~130 shallow M 1.9-2.3 earthquakes and a large number of weaker events recorded. Ash explosions produced low-level plumes on 15 January that drifted NW. According to the Tokyo VAAC, an eruption on 24 January produced an ash plume to ~2.7 km a.s.l. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


14 January-20 January 2004

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 9-16 January, with ~175 shallow M 1.9-2.5 earthquakes and a large number of weaker events recorded. Ash explosions rose 0.5-1 km above the volcano during 11-13 January. Strombolian activity was observed at the central crater during 11-12 January. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


7 January-13 January 2004

During 2-9 January, seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi, with ~115 shallow M1.9-2.3 earthquakes and a large number of weaker events recorded. On 2 January an ash explosion rose slightly above the volcano. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


31 December-6 January 2004

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 26 December to 2 January, with ~33 shallow M 1.9-2.2 earthquakes and a large number of weaker events recorded. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to low levels above the volcano. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


24 December-30 December 2003

During 19-26 December, seismicity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels, with the occurrence of ~135 large shallow earthquakes between M 1.9-2.3 and a large number of weaker events. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to low levels above the volcano. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


17 December-23 December 2003

At Kliuchevskoi seismicity was above background levels during 12-19 December, with ~150 shallow M 1.75-2.25 earthquakes occurring along with a large number of weaker events. Strombolian activity was noted on the nights of 11 and 13 December. Gas-and-steam plumes, possibly containing small amounts of ash, rose to low levels above the volcano. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


3 December-9 December 2003

Seismicity remained above background levels at Kliuchevskoi with ~130 M 2-2.5 and many smaller earthquakes recorded during 28 November to 5 December. Strombolian activity was observed on the nights of 27 and 29 November and on 29 November a gas-and-steam plume with some ash was emitted. On 2 December a gas-and-steam plume rose to 1 km above the crater and extended to over 20 km E. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


26 November-2 December 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 21 to 28 November, with 80 shallow M 2-2.5 earthquakes and a large number of weak shallow events recorded. Strombolian activity was seen on the night of 21 November. Gas-and-steam plumes containing some ash rose to low levels above the crater on 23-24 November. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


19 November-25 November 2003

Strombolian activity was observed at Kliuchevskoi on 14-15 November. During 14-15 and 18 November, gas-and-ash plumes rose to ~2.5 km above the crater and extended more than 10 km W, E, and NE. During 15-20 November, seismic activity continued to be above background levels with 75 shallow M 1.9-2.5 earthquakes and many small, shallow earthquakes recorded. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


12 November-18 November 2003

During 7-14 November, seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi, with the occurrence of 43 large shallow earthquakes (M 1.9-2.5), a large number of weak shallow earthquakes, and spasmodic tremor. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to ~2.5 km above the crater. Strombolian activity was visible at the volcano's central crater during the evening of 9-10 November. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


5 November-11 November 2003

A 7 November report noted continued unrest, with recent (late October) activity including unusual numbers and kinds of earthquakes. During the week ending 7 November tremor took place and earthquakes remained elevated. A 9 November satellite observation revealed an ash and steam plume to ~7 km a.s.l. and extending ~100 km from the summit.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


29 October-4 November 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 24-31 October, with one to five earthquakes (M 1.6-2.3) occurring per day at depths around 30 km. Several large shallow earthquakes (M 1.7-2.6), and weaker earthquakes occurred. Gas plumes rose to ~700 m above the volcano. Incandescence was seen in the crater during 23-24 October. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


22 October-28 October 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 17-24 October, with one to five M 1.7-2.1 earthquakes occurring per day at depths around 30 km. Four larger (M 2.1-2.5) earthquakes occurred, as well as a large number of weak shallow ones. Gas-and steam plumes were emitted during the week. On 18 October pilots saw an ash plume at a height of ~6.8 km a.s.l., extending more than 10 km NNE. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


15 October-21 October 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 11-17 October, with one to six magnitude 1.6-2.1 earthquakes per day at depths of ~30 km. Nine shallow M 1.7-2.2 earthquakes were recorded along with many smaller ones. On 9, 10, and 11 October, gas-and-steam plumes with little ash rose to 0.5-1.5 km above the volcano's crater and extended more than 10 km E. Similar plumes on 12 and 16 October extended more than 46 km and 50 km to the E and NE, respectively. Strombolian activity was observed on the night of 10-11 October. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


8 October-14 October 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 3-10 October, with up to 30 M 1.7-2.2 earthquakes occurring at depths around 30 km. Gas-and-steam plumes, with little ash, rose 1-3 km above the volcano's crater and extended more than 10 km, mainly E. Strombolian activity at the volcano's center crater was visible during several evenings. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


1 October-7 October 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 26 September to 3 October. Each day, 2-6 earthquakes (M 1.7-2) occurred at depths around 30 km. During the report period, ash-and-gas plumes rose to ~1 km above the volcano and extended as far as 100 km. During the evenings of 25 and 30 September, and 2 October, Strombolian activity was visible in the volcano's central crater. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


24 September-30 September 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 19-26 September, with 1-3 earthquakes (M 1.7-2.2) at depths around 30 km. A gas-and-steam plume rose to ~700 m above the crater on 24 September. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


17 September-23 September 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 12-19 September, with 2-6 earthquakes between M 1.7 and 2.2 occurring. Ash-and-gas plumes rose to 100 m above the crater and drifted W. The volcano's western flank was covered by fresh ash. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


10 September-16 September 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 5-12 September, when 2-9 earthquakes with magnitudes less than 2.1 occurred per day at depths of ~30 km. During the week, ash-and-gas, and gas-and-steam plumes were seen. The highest rising ash-and-gas plume reached ~1.5 km above the volcano on 10 September. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


3 September-9 September 2003

During 29 August to 5 September, seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi, with 4-7 earthquakes less than M 2.2 occurring per day. at depths around 30 km On 29 August gas-and-steam plumes with minor amounts of ash rose to 1 km above the crater. On the evening of 4 September incandescence was visible in the center of the crater. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


27 August-2 September 2003

During 22-29 August, seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi, with 3-8 earthquakes per day of magnitude less than 2.2 occurring at depths around 30 km. On 26 August at 2300 Strombolian activity was seen in the volcano's center crater. Volcanic bombs were hurled to ~200 m above the crater. There were 5-minute intervals between explosions. During 27-28 August, gas-and-steam plumes with minor amounts of ash rose 1.5-2 km above the volcano's crater and drifted SW. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Associated Press


20 August-26 August 2003

During 15-22 August, seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi. Up to 15 earthquakes were recorded per day at depths around 30 km. Spasmodic tremor was also recorded. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to 700 m above the volcano, weak fumarolic activity was recorded, and a thermal anomaly was visible on satellite imagery. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


13 August-19 August 2003

Seismicity was above background levels during 7-15 August at Kliuchevskoi, with 37-60 earthquakes recorded during 7-9 August with magnitudes up to 2.3. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to 800 m above the volcano and extended ~15 km S. A thermal anomaly was visible on satellite imagery. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


6 August-12 August 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 1-8 August. During 1-6 August, up to 18 earthquakes occurred per day with magnitudes less than 2.1 at depths around 3 km. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to 2 km above the crater. Thermal anomalies were seen on satellite imagery on several days. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


30 July-5 August 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 24 July to 1 August. During 24-28 July, 14-17 earthquakes with magnitudes less than 2.1 occurred each day. The number of earthquakes decreased to 9 on 29 July, and 7 on 30 July. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to a maximum height of ~700 m above the crater. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


23 July-29 July 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi, with 6-17 M 1.8-2.4 earthquakes occurring each day at depths of ~30 km and at shallower levels. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to a maximum height of ~1 km above the crater. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


16 July-22 July 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 11-18 July. Several earthquakes occurred each day with magnitudes of 1.3-2.2 at depths around 30 km and at shallower levels. Explosions sent ash clouds to a height of ~1 km above the volcano and during 12-16 July ash clouds reached ~2 km above the volcano. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


9 July-15 July 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 4-12 July. Several earthquakes with magnitudes of 1.5-2.2 occurred at depths around 30 km and at shallower levels. The amount of spasmodic tremor decreased by the end of the report week. Ash explosions reached ~1 km above the volcano each day of the report week, except 6 July. On 4 July ash from an explosion reached ~2 km above the volcano. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


2 July-8 July 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 27 June-4 July, with earthquakes occurring at depths around 30 km and at shallower levels. The character of seismicity indicated that weak gas-and-ash explosions possibly occurred. Spasmodic tremor was recorded the entire week. On 2 July ash plumes rose to 1 km above the volcano and drifted ESE. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


25 June-1 July 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 20-27 June, with earthquakes occurring at depths around 30 km and at shallower levels. The character of seismicity indicated that weak gas-and-ash explosions possibly occurred. Spasmodic tremor was recorded the entire week. Gas-and-steam plumes rose 50-700 m above the volcano. On 23 June a thermal anomaly and possible ash deposits on the volcano's SE flank were seen on satellite imagery. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


18 June-24 June 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 13-20 June, with the level of spasmodic tremor remaining near the level of the previous week. Earthquakes continued to be registered at depths around 30 km and at shallower levels. The character of seismicity indicated that weak gas-and-ash explosions possibly occurred. On 14,16, and 17 June explosions produced ash-poor plumes 50-500 m above the volcano. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


11 June-17 June 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 6-13 June. After some diminishing, the level of continuous spasmodic volcanic tremor returned to the same level as the previous week. Earthquakes continued to be registered at depths around 30 km and at shallower levels. The character of seismicity indicated that weak gas-and-ash explosions possibly occurred. A thermal anomaly and an ash-poor plume were visible on satellite imagery. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


4 June-10 June 2003

During 30 May to 6 June, seismicity remained above background levels at Kliuchevskoi. The amount of spasmodic volcanic tremor continued to grow slowly and consistently. Earthquakes continued to be registered at depths around 30 km and at shallower levels. The character of seismicity indicated that weak gas-and-ash explosions possibly occurred. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


28 May-3 June 2003

Volcanic unrest continued at Kliuchevskoi during 23-30 May. Seismicity was above background levels and the amount of continuous spasmodic volcanic tremor slightly increased. Shallow earthquakes and others at depths around 30 km continued to occur. Gas-and-steam plumes were occasionally visible, but the volcano was obscured by clouds most of the report week. On 30 May at 0030 observers in the town of Klyuchi saw pulsing glow above the volcano's crater. Light bursts occurred every 1-10 minutes, but volcanic bomb traces were absent. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Pravda News


21 May-27 May 2003

Volcanic unrest continued at Kliuchevskoi during 16-23 May. Seismicity was above background levels, with five M 2-2.1 earthquakes occurring at depths around 30 km during 15-21 May. Continuous spasmodic volcanic tremor occurred during the report period. Gas-and-steam plumes rose above the crater to low levels. On 18 May during 0000-0500, incandescence was visible above the volcano's crater from the town of Klyuchi. This is the first such observation since 1994. Thermal anomalies were visible on satellite imagery during 15-22 May. On 17 May ash deposits were visible on the volcano's E and SE flanks. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


14 May-20 May 2003

Several explosions occurred at Kliuchevskoi during 9-16 May, and seismicity was above background levels. On 14 May KVERT raised the Concern Color Code to Orange from Yellow. An eruption on 14 May at 1120 produced the week's highest rising ash cloud (~8.5 km a.s.l.). During the report period, instruments recorded 26 to 59 earthquakes per day. They were greater than M 1.25 and at depths of ~30 km. A large number of weak shallow earthquakes and tremor also occurred.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Pravda News


30 April-6 May 2003

KVERT reported above-background seismicity at Kliuchevskoi during the week ending 1 May. Specifically, there were 25 earthquakes over M 1.25 at ~30 km depth, and 19 earthquakes over M 1.25 at shallower depths, including some within the edifice. In addition, during the same week instruments registered numerous weak, shallow earthquakes, and continuous spasmodic tremor. Residents in the city of Klyuchi saw various gas-and-steam plumes rising to these heights above the crater: on 25 April up to 300 m; and several other late April plumes up to ~ 2 km. The plume of 28 April extended over 5 km to the SE. Videos suggested that plumes escaping the crater in the early morning hours of 2 May could have contained ash.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


23 April-29 April 2003

A KVERT report on Kliuchevskoi issued on 25 April stated that above-background seismicity, including abundant tremor, prevailed during the week. This report also revealed that the ash explosions of 17-18 April had sent material 1-2 km above the crater. Modest thermal anomalies registered in satellite data for 18-19 April and plumes around that time extended E for 20-200 km. The respective ash-bearing plumes of 20 and 23 April traveled over 10 km NE and 20 km SW. As of 25 April the Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


16 April-22 April 2003

A moderate vulcanian eruption of Kliuchevskoi began 15 April; it continued through at least 16 April. The eruption was preceded by above-background seismicity, and on 15 April there were ~70 earthquakes per day at ~30-km depth. Instruments registered continuous spasmodic volcanic tremor (up to 4.0 µm/second) and numerous weak shallow earthquakes. According to observers in Klyuchi, on 15 April a series of ash plumes rose up to 300 m above the crater and extended for 10 km. According to satellite data, on 16 April a thin, 175-km-long plume headed E. Observations on 17 April disclosed a zone of ash deposits extending ESE for 20 km from the crater. The Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


9 April-15 April 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 4-11 April, with 10-15 earthquakes occurring per day at depths of ~30 km. Continuous spasmodic volcanic tremor and a large number of weak shallow earthquakes were recorded. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to low levels above the crater and fumarolic activity was observed on 7 April. The Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


2 April-8 April 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 28 March to 4 April, with 24-63 earthquakes occurring per day at depths of ~30 km. Continuous spasmodic volcanic tremor was recorded and a large number of weak shallow earthquakes were registered. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to low levels above the crater. The Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


26 March-1 April 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 21-28 March. During 20-24 March, 6-9 earthquakes occurred at depths of ~30 km. Later seismicity increased, with 26 and 41 earthqakes recorded on 25 and 26 March, respectively. The amount of continuous spasmodic volcanic tremor increased in comparison to the previous week. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to low levels above Kliuchevskoi's crater. The Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


19 March-25 March 2003

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 14-21 March, with 7-9 earthquakes occurring at depths of ~30 km. Continuous spasmodic volcanic tremor was recorded. Gas-and-steam plumes rose 700-1,500 m above Kliuchevskoi's crater on 18-19 March. The Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


26 February-4 March 2003

Seismicity at Kliuchevskoi was slightly above background levels during 21-28 February, with 10-14 earthquakes occurring per day at depths of ~30 km. Continuous, spasmodic volcanic tremor was recorded all week. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to low levels and possible ash deposits on the volcano's SE summit were visible on satellite imagery. The Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


19 February-25 February 2003

Seismicity was above background levels during 13-15 February at Kliuchevskoi, and slightly above background levels during 16-19 February. From 14 to 81 earthquakes occurred each day at depths of ~30 km. Continuous spasmodic volcanic tremor was registered during the report week, and gas-and-steam plumes rose to 1 km above the crater. The Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


12 February-18 February 2003

Seismicity was slightly above background levels during 7-14 February at Kliuchevskoi, with 17-30 earthquakes occurring each day at depths of ~30 km. Continuous spasmodic volcanic tremor was registered during the report week, and gas-and-steam plumes rose to 1.5 km above the crater. The Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


5 February-11 February 2003

Seismicity was slightly above background levels during 31 January to 7 February at Kliuchevskoi, with 16-39 earthquakes occurring each day, at depths of ~30 km. Continuous spasmodic volcanic tremor was registered during the report week, and gas-and-steam plumes rose to 1.3 km above the crater. The Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


15 January-21 January 2003

Seismicity was slightly above background levels during 10-17 January at Kliuchevskoi, with 12-28 earthquakes occurring each day during 10-12 January and 33-35 earthquakes during 13-15 January. Intermittent spasmodic volcanic tremor was registered during the report week, and gas-and-steam plumes rose to 300 m above the crater. The Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


8 January-14 January 2003

Seismicity was slightly above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 6-9 January, with 10-23 earthquakes recorded per day. Steam-and-gas plumes were seen rising to 1 km above the crater. Thermal anomalies were visible on satellite imagery. A probable mudflow, seen on the volcano's SE slope on 7 January, may have emerged after a short explosion to the SE or E, or after powerfulfumarolic activity in the crater. The Concern Color Code was reduced from Orange to Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


31 December-6 January 2003

Seismicity was slightly above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 26 December to 3 January, with 3-11 earthquakes occurring per day. On 5 January a faint thermal anomaly, and probable mud flow down the volcano's SSE slope were visible on satellite imagery. According to KVERT, the thermal anomaly and mud flow indicate that a lava flow may have begun to travel down the SSE slope. During 4-6 January, seismicity was slightly above background levels. The Concern Color Code was raised on 6 January from Yellow to Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


24 December-30 December 2002

A gas-and-ash explosion at Kluichevskoi on 24 December led KVERT to increase the Concern Color Code from Yellow to Orange. Seismicity was above background levels during 19-25 December, with 6-9 earthquakes recorded each day at ~30-km depth. Intermittent spasmodic volcanic tremor was also recorded. On 19, 21, and 23 December gas-and-steam plumes rose 1-2 km above the crater. Visual observations and video data from the town of Klyuchi revealed that a plume from a gas-and-ash explosion on 24 December at 1210 rose 4 km above the crater and drifted WSW. By the 27th the Concern Color Code had been reduced back to Yellow.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


18 December-24 December 2002

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 13-20 December. Seismographs recorded 6-12 earthquakes per day during the report period at depths of ~ 30 km. In addition, intermittent spasmodic volcanic tremor was recorded. Gas-and-steam plumes rose ~1.5 km above the crater and extended E and SE. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


11 December-17 December 2002

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 6-13 December. Seismographs recorded 12-24 earthquakes per day during the report period at depths of ~ 30 km. In addition, intermittent spasmodic volcanic tremor was recorded. Gas-and-steam plumes rose 1.5 km above the crater and extended N and NE. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


4 December-10 December 2002

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 29 November to 6 December. Up to 33 earthquakes occurred per day during 28 November to 4 December at a depth of ~ 30 km. In addition, intermittent spasmodic volcanic tremor occurred during the report week. On 3 December a gas-and-steam plume rose ~1.3 km above the crater and drifted N and NE. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


27 November-3 December 2002

Seismicity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 21-24 November, and at background levels during 25-27 November. Each day during the report week 7 to 11 earthquakes occurred at a depth of ~30 km. Gas-and-steam plumes were observed rising to ~2 km above the crater and drifting N and NW. On 24 November weak ashfall was observed around Bylinkina's crater on the volcano's NE slope. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


20 November-26 November 2002

Seismicity remained above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 15-22 November. The number of deep earthquakes decreased from 26 to 9 during 14-17 November, and remained at nine during the 17th to 20th. Gas-and-steam plumes were seen rising to 1-2 km above the crater and drifting to the W. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


13 November-19 November 2002

KVERT raised the Concern Color Code at Kliuchevskoi from Green to Yellow during 8-15 November. According to data from KMSD GS RAS, seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during the report week. During 8-10 November, five to nine earthquakes occurred per day, and during 11-13 November 33-56 earthquakes occurred per day. Intermittent spasmodic volcanic tremor slowly decreased during 8-12 November. A gas-and-steam plume was seen rising 100-900 m above the crater and extended more than 10 km to the E and SE.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


19 June-25 June 2002

Shallow seismic activity declined during 14-21 June at Kliuchevskoi, but 10-15 earthquakes ~30 km beneath the volcano occurred daily, and weak spasmodic tremor continued to be registered during the week. By the end of the week, shallow seismic events occurred again. Low-level gas-and-steam clouds rose above the volcano on several days. No thermal anomalies or plumes were visible on satellite imagery. KVERT decreased the Concern Color Code at Kliuchevskoi from Yellow ("volcano is restless") to Green ("volcano is in quiet, "dormant" state").

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


12 June-18 June 2002

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during most of 7-14 June. On 11 June a ~30-minute-long series of earthquakes (ML less than or equal to 2.8) occurred in the volcano's edifice. Continuous spasmodic tremor continued to be recorded during the week and 22-48 earthquakes occurred per day ~30 km below the volcano. Based on visual and seismic data there was no evidence of recent explosive activity at the volcano. No thermal anomalies or ash plumes were observed on satellite imagery. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Yellow ("volcano is restless").

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


5 June-11 June 2002

During most of the week of 31 May-7 June seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi, and continuous spasmodic tremor was registered. On 31 May a series of earthquakes less than or equal to ML (local magnitude) 2.3 were registered in the volcano's edifice, and about 20 ~30-km-deep earthquakes occurred per day under the volcano. On 5 June at 1820 volcanic tremor began to gradually diminish and by the end of the week shallow seismic activity had decreased. Low-level gas-and-steam plumes rose above the crater and no thermal anomalies or plumes were observed on satellite imagery. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Yellow ("volcano is restless").

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


29 May-4 June 2002

An increase in volcanic tremor at Kliuchevskoi led KVERT to raise the Concern Color Code from Green ("volcano is in quiet, "dormant" state") to Yellow ("volcano is restless") on 31 May. During most of the report week (24-31 May) seismicity was near background levels. Weak shallow earthquakes, other earthquakes ~30 km under the volcano, and episodes of weak spasmodic tremor were registered. On 24 and 27 May gas-and-steam plumes rose 100 m above the crater. Spasmodic volcanic tremor began to increase on 30 May at 0810, declined at 1000, and began to increase again around 2200. Tremor was still recorded on 31 May. No thermal anomalies or plumes were observed on satellite imagery.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


27 February-5 March 2002

The Tokyo VAAC received reports that Kliuchevskoi began erupting on 27 February at 1455. Reportedly, an ash cloud was produced to a height of ~6.4 km a.s.l. and drifted to the NE. No ash was visible on satellite imagery. According to reports KVERT received from the Research Laboratory of Seismic and Volcanic Activity in Kamchatka, there was neither a seismic signal detected at Kliuchevskoi on 27 February at 1455 nor an ash plume visible on video footage.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


21 November-27 November 2001

A gradual decrease in seismicity under Kliuchevskoi during 16-23 November led KVERT to reduce the Concern Color Code from Yellow to Green. The tallest gas-and-steam plume of the reporting interval was produced on 19 November. The plume rose 700 m above the dome and extended SE for more than 10 km.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


14 November-20 November 2001

An increase in seismicity at Kliuchevskoi during 13 November to at least 16 November led KVERT to raise the Concern Color Code from Green to Yellow. On 13 November at 1619 seismicity sharply increased from background levels when a swarm of shallow earthquakes began; these had magnitudes less than or equal to 3. During 13-15 November more than 150 earthquakes occurred with magnitudes less than or equal to 1.7. Prior to the seismicity increase, on 9 November a steam plume rose 600 m above the crater and during 11-13 November gas-and-steam plumes rose 50-100 m above the crater.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


28 March-3 April 2001

The KVERT reported that during the beginning of the report period (23-30 March), seismic activity was above background levels with spasmodic tremor and shallow earthquakes registered, but gradually decreased towards the end of the week. The KVERT lowered the Level of Concern Color Code from Yellow to Green.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


21 March-27 March 2001

The KVERT reported that during 16-22 March seismic activity was above background levels, with interrupted spasmodic tremor and shallow earthquakes registered. On 18-19 March a gas and steam plume rose 50-100 m above the volcano. On 22 March the volcano was quiet. On other days, the volcano was obscured by clouds. The level of Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


14 March-20 March 2001

The KVERT reported that during 9-15 March seismic activity was above background levels, with interrupted spasmodic tremor and shallow earthquakes registered. Between 1925 and 1940 on 15 March, an intense series of shallow earthquakes were registered. Gas-and-steam plumes rose 2 km above the volcano on 12 and 14 March, and others reached 100-250 m above the volcano on 9, 11, and 13 March. The Concern Color Code remained at Green.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


7 March-13 March 2001

The KVERT reported that during 2-8 March seismicity was at background levels, with weak spasmodic tremor occasionally registered. On 4 March a gas-and-steam plume rose 600-1,000 m above the volcano and extended more than 10 km to the NE. As reported by the Tokyo VAAC, GMS-5 imagery showed that the plume rose to a height of ~9.5 km a.s.l. The Concern Color Code remained at Green.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


28 February-6 March 2001

Based on satellite imagery and pilot reports, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption may have occurred at Kliuchevskoi. The ash cloud produced from the eruption rose to a height of ~9.5 km and was visible on GMS-5 imagery at 1532 on 4 March. By 1832 the same day the ash cloud was no longer visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


Index of Bulletin Reports


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

10/1974 (CSLP 74-135) Lava flow moves into glacier; weak explosions

07/1978 (SEAN 03:07) Lava flow accompanied by crater wall collapse and moderate seismicity

01/1980 (SEAN 05:01) Tephra and lava flow

03/1980 (SEAN 05:03) Large ash explosions from summit; lava from flank fissure

12/1981 (SEAN 06:12) Hot spot and plume on satellite images

12/1982 (Ref 1988) Intermittent eruptive activity from March through December 1982

03/1983 (SEAN 08:03) Earthquake swarm then lava flow from NE flank vent

05/1983 (SEAN 08:05) Numerous flank lava flows; weak summit explosions

05/1984 (SEAN 09:05) Strombolian activity builds cinder cone; lava flow

08/1984 (SEAN 09:08) Tephra ejection; lava flows; lahars

01/1985 (SEAN 10:01) Tephra ejection; lava flow with fountains

11/1985 (SEAN 10:11) Ash explosions; lava flows

12/1985 (SEAN 10:12) Large ash column; lava melts ice, producing mudflow

12/1985 (SEAN 11:12) Lava flow and incandescent tephra

01/1987 (SEAN 12:01) Lava flows; directed explosions; plumes on satellite images

02/1987 (SEAN 12:02) Strong explosions; lava from flank fissure

03/1988 (SEAN 13:03) Summit/flank eruption; seismic swarm; plume

04/1988 (SEAN 13:04) Strong summit explosions; lava from flank fissures

01/1990 (BGVN 15:01) Strong summit explosions cause ashfalls 375 km away; SE flank lava fountains feed lava flow

03/1990 (BGVN 15:03) Strong summit tephra eruption; basaltic lava from SE flank vent

03/1991 (BGVN 16:03) Small summit eruption

04/1991 (BGVN 16:04) Small summit plume; ash on SE flank

06/1991 (BGVN 16:06) Small plume seen from satellite image

01/1992 (BGVN 17:01) Explosions feed small ash plumes

05/1992 (BGVN 17:05) Small explosions eject ash

04/1993 (BGVN 18:04) Small gas and ash explosions

05/1993 (BGVN 18:05) Seismicity continues; small explosions

06/1993 (BGVN 18:06) Lava fountaining and explosive ash eruptions

07/1993 (BGVN 18:07) Gas-and-ash plumes; lava flows down W slope; high seismicity

08/1993 (BGVN 18:08) Gas-and-ash plume persists; lava flow stops

10/1993 (BGVN 18:10) Gas-and-ash plumes, minor seismicity, and weak fumarolic activity continues

11/1993 (BGVN 18:11) Low seismicity; 15-km-long plume in early December

12/1993 (BGVN 18:12) Spasmodic tremor and temporally coincident shallow earthquakes

01/1994 (BGVN 19:01) Weak volcanic tremor at variable levels; fumarolic activity

03/1994 (BGVN 19:03) Weak seismicity and fumarolic activity continue

04/1994 (BGVN 19:04) Weak fumarolic activity, seismicity, and tremor

06/1994 (BGVN 19:06) Phreatic explosions; variable seismicity continues

08/1994 (BGVN 19:08) Eruption sends gas-and-ash bursts at least 3 km high; lava fountaining

09/1994 (BGVN 19:09) Eruption sends plume to 15-20 km altitude and produces lava flows

10/1994 (BGVN 19:10) Eruption sends plume to 15-20 km altitude and produces lava flows

11/1994 (BGVN 19:11) Moderate explosive eruption causes minor ashfall 30 km away

12/1994 (BGVN 19:12) Small eruption in mid-January

06/1996 (BGVN 21:06) Normal seismic activity, but degassing persists

08/1996 (BGVN 21:08) Background seismicity and noteworthy tremor

10/1996 (BGVN 21:10) Seismicity above background; fumarolic plumes up to 1 km tall

12/1996 (BGVN 21:12) Above-background seismicity; ash-and-steam plumes up to 3 km tall

02/1997 (BGVN 22:02) Seismicity remains elevated; gas-and-ash plume to 4 km over crater

03/1997 (BGVN 22:03) Continuous presence of gas-and-steam plume up to 4 km above crater

09/1997 (BGVN 22:09) Frequent gas-and-steam plumes; infrequent ash plumes; low seismicity

11/1997 (BGVN 22:11) Elevated seismicity during 13 October-1 December; gas-and-steam plumes

01/1998 (BGVN 23:01) Earthquakes, tremor, and modest gas-and-steam plumes through early January

02/1998 (BGVN 23:02) Earthquakes, tremor, and gas-and-steam plumes throughout February

03/1998 (BGVN 23:03) Earthquakes and frequent fumarolic plumes

04/1998 (BGVN 23:04) Seismicity above background, various fumarolic plumes

06/1998 (BGVN 23:06) Fumarolic plumes; 43-minute-long series of earthquakes on 12 July

08/1998 (BGVN 23:08) Gas-and-ash explosions during 23-25 July

09/1998 (BGVN 23:09) Explosions, ash 2-3 September raise concern to yellow alert

10/1998 (BGVN 23:10) Background seismic and fumarolic activity during October

12/1998 (BGVN 23:12) Series of shallow earthquakes 23 December

01/1999 (BGVN 24:01) Series of deep and shallow earthquakes

03/1999 (BGVN 24:03) Elevated seismicity and large steam plumes continue through March

05/1999 (BGVN 24:05) Series of ash explosions and shallow earthquakes during May

07/1999 (BGVN 24:07) May-August seismicity weak; traces of ash in emissions

11/1999 (BGVN 24:11) Variable fumarolic plumes and episodes of increased seismicity

04/2000 (BGVN 25:04) Frequent fumarolic plumes, one to 10 km altitude on 30 January

09/2000 (BGVN 25:09) Seismic swarms, fumarolic activity, and gas-and-ash explosions

04/2001 (BGVN 26:04) Consistent gas-and-steam emissions; high seismicity

06/2002 (BGVN 27:06) Increased seismicity prompts KVERT to raise hazard status to Yellow

11/2002 (BGVN 27:11) Above-background seismicity June-November 2002

02/2003 (BGVN 28:02) Seismicity above background levels; explosion and thermal anomaly

07/2003 (BGVN 28:07) Gas-and-steam plumes June-August with occassional ash plumes

11/2003 (BGVN 28:11) Ash explosions and Strombolian activity through early December

12/2003 (BGVN 28:12) 2003 ends with ~3-km-tall steam plumes, M 2 earthquakes, tremor

04/2004 (BGVN 29:04) Background seismicity March-April 2004; ash plumes on 8 April

03/2005 (BGVN 30:03) Strombolian eruptions and lava flows during January-March 2005

06/2007 (BGVN 32:06) Significant eruptive activity resumes in mid-February 2007

03/2009 (BGVN 34:03) Eruption in 2007 changed summit crater; ongoing 2008-2009 lava flows

06/2010 (BGVN 35:06) Ongoing 2009-2010 eruptions; 243-km-long plume during February 2010

07/2013 (BGVN 38:07) Eruptions continue, 19 February 2010-15 November 2013




Bulletin Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.


10/1974 (CSLP 74-135) Lava flow moves into glacier; weak explosions

A lava flow from a new radial fissure on the SSW slope of Kliuchevskoi has reached a length of 2.5 km. The flow has moved into the glacier. Weak explosive activity is continuing.

Information Contacts: Y.M. Doubik, Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk.

07/1978 (SEAN 03:07) Lava flow accompanied by crater wall collapse and moderate seismicity

Activity in the summit crater increased in March, preceded by an earthquake swarm. After a 3 month recess, new lava appeared in the crater and poured through a breach in the NW rim onto the flanks. An 80-m cone was built in the center of the crater and "intense" collapse occurred on the crater walls and the NW Sciarra. Moderate seismicity accompanied the activity.

Information Contacts: B. Ivanov, IVP.
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01/1980 (SEAN 05:01) Tephra and lava flow

Tass reported, in an article dated 24 January, that Kliuchevskoi had begun to erupt. Gas, ash, and "hot rocks" were ejected, and a lava flow was extruded. Heavy snowfall impeded observation of the crater, but the staff of the local IVP station were monitoring the volcano with instruments.

Information Contacts: Tass.
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03/1980 (SEAN 05:03) Large ash explosions from summit; lava from flank fissure

Soviet press sources described a renewed eruption at Kliuchevskoi. After a series of volcanic earthquakes, ash was ejected from the summit in bursts that rose as much as 5 km. Ashfall covered an area of more than 6,000 km2. On 6 March, a fissure more than 1 km long opened on the NE flank and began to emit gases. The next day, lava extrusion from the fissure started at 1.5 km altitude (the summit is at 4,850 m above sea level). Four small cones, up to 20 m high, formed along the fissure. As of 14 March, lava had flowed 1 km downslope and ash emission from the summit crater was continuing. IVP personnel were investigating the activity at the eruption site.

Further Reference. Stepanov, V.V., and Chirkov, A.M., 1981, Activity of the upper crater of Kliuchevskoi volcano in January-March 1980: Volcanology and Seismology, no. 1, p. 103-106.

Information Contacts: Tass; V. Khudyakov; 14 March 1980 edition of "Sovetskaya Rossiya", Moscow.
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12/1981 (SEAN 06:12) Hot spot and plume on satellite images

A small hot area, apparently centered on the summit, was first noted on the thermal infrared band of a NOAA 6 satellite image on 21 December at 1057, and a hot spot was present 22 hours later. An average temperature of 320°C within a given image element (or "pixel", corresponding to a 1.1 x 1.1 km ground area) will saturate the sensors for this band, so it is not possible to determine the actual temperature of the heat source nor its true dimensions. On the next image, at 1233 on 22 December, the hot spot was accompanied by a diffuse plume that extended about 350 km SE. The hot spot had decreased in size 24 hours later, and the plume was smaller (detectable only to 60 km to the E) and more diffuse. Clouds partially obscured the volcano for the next several daily images, but a small plume seemed to be present. On the next clear-weather image, at 1400 on 28 December, there appeared to be a small warm area at the summit, but no plume was evident. No additional activity has been observed on satellite imagery. There have been no reports from ground observers.

Information Contacts: M. Matson, NOAA/NESS.
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12/1982 (Ref 1988) Intermittent eruptive activity from March through December 1982

Occasional small explosions ejected ash and incandescent bombs 24 March-2 May 1982. A mid-September overflight revealed a collapse depression 300 m in diameter in place of the 1977-80 cinder cones. Ash emission resumed 7-8 October. Activity became progressively more intense through November, and bomb ejection resumed in December.

Reference. Ivanov, B.V., Chirkov, A.M., Dubik, Yu. M., Khrenov, A.P., Dvigalo, V.N., Razina, A.A., Stepanov, V.V., and Chubarova, O.S., 1988, Active volcanoes of Kamchatka and Kurile Islands: status in 1982: Volcanology and Seismology, v. 6, p. 623-634 (English translation of paper in Volcanology and Seismology, 1984, no. 4, p. 104-110).

Information Contacts:

03/1983 (SEAN 08:03) Earthquake swarm then lava flow from NE flank vent

An earthquake swarm on the NE flank began 28 February. The majority of the events had foci above sea level (Kliuchevskoi's summit elevation is 4,850 m) and their maximum magnitude was 3. Based on the swarm's character, the IVP predicted that a flank eruption would start between 4 and 9 March. On 8 March a crater opened at 3,000 m altitude on the NE flank. Activity from the crater was purely effusive, producing an andesitic basalt flow that was 3 km long by 18 March.

Further References. Special issue on the 1983 eruption of Kliuchevskoi: Volcanology and Seismology, 1988, 148 pp. (English translation of Volcanology and Seismology, 1985, no. 1) (8 papers) .

Panov, V.K., and Slezin, Y.B., 1985, The mechanism of formation of a lava field during the Predskazanny flank eruption, 1983, Klyuchevskoy volcano, Kamchatka: Volcanology and Seismology, no. 3, p. 3-13.

Tokarev, P.I., 1985, Prediction of lateral eruption of Kliuchevskoy volcano in March 1983: JVGR, v. 25, p. 173-180.

Information Contacts: B. Ivanov, IVP.
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05/1983 (SEAN 08:05) Numerous flank lava flows; weak summit explosions

The NE flank eruption was continuing in early June. As many as 15 lava flows were simultaneously active, some reaching 5 km in length. At the end of May, the maximum discharge rate was 10 m3 per second. Weak explosions occurred from the summit crater. The activity was not visible on NOAA weather satellite imagery returned in May.

Information Contacts: G. Bogoyavlenskaya, IVP; M. Matson, NOAA.
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05/1984 (SEAN 09:05) Strombolian activity builds cinder cone; lava flow

Continuous volcanic tremor and night glow over the crater began in March. Tremor and the number of explosive earthquakes increased from late March through May. During this period, the amplitude of volcanic tremor at 14 km distance and the maximum amplitude of explosive earthquakes reached 2 and 5 µ respectively. Since mid-May, a cinder cone has been visible in the central part of the crater. On 22 May, as moderate Strombolian activity continued, lava began to pour into the NW valley.

Further Reference. Tokarev, P.I., 1985, Eruption of Kliuchevskoi volcano in March-April 1984 and estimation of the observation data: Volcanology and Seismology, no. 1, p. 106-108.

Information Contacts: B. Ivanov, IVP.
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08/1984 (SEAN 09:08) Tephra ejection; lava flows; lahars

Eruptive activity continued through August. During periods of maximum activity ash was ejected to 5 km and bombs to 1 km above the crater rim. Lava flowed to the NW, NE, and SW from the central crater; the largest flow advanced along the NW valley to about 3 km above sea level and crossed a glacier, forming mud flows. A cinder cone has formed inside the central crater.

On 17 August between 0733 and 1027, high-resolution thermal infrared and visual images from polar orbiting weather satellites showed a plume extending about 200 km SE from the volcano below about 6 km altitude. Soviet volcanologists confirmed these observations, reporting that on 16-17 August a 15 km-wide ash plume extended 200 km from the volcano.

Information Contacts: B. Ivanov, IVP.
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01/1985 (SEAN 10:01) Tephra ejection; lava flow with fountains

Kliuchevskoi's summit eruption continued in November and December. Lava flows reached 1.5 km in length. Gas and ash columns rose 2-4 km above the summit and bombs reached 300 m height. At times lava fountains were observed above the crater rim. Eruption character remained constant through mid-January.

Thermal infrared images from the NOAA 6 polar orbiting satellite on 23 November (at 1852) and 24 November (at 0839) showed narrow plumes emerging from Kliuchevskoi and extending roughly 60 km E. Soviet volcanologists reported that the ash column rose to about 4 km above the crater 23-24 November.

Further Reference. Gordeev, E.I., Mel'nikov, Yu.Yu., Sinitsin, V.I., and Chebrov, V.N., 1986, Volcanic tremor of Kliuchevskoi volcano (eruption of summit crater in 1984): Volcanology and Seismology, no. 5, p. 39-53.

Information Contacts: B. Ivanov, IVP; M. Matson and W. Gould, NOAA.
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11/1985 (SEAN 10:11) Ash explosions; lava flows

The quoted part of the following report is from S. Fedotov. "Activity at Kliuchevskoi's summit crater has increased since 17 August, following a period of slight fumarolic activity. Since then, the height of steam and gas explosions increased gradually from 200 to 1,000 m, and reached 3,000 m between 5 and 11 November; the number of ash explosions has increased as well. Since 4 November, lava fountains 300-500 m high from two vents in the crater have been observed. Lava flows more than 2 km long poured from the summit crater onto the SW and NE flanks of the volcano."

Moscow Domestic Service reported that powerful explosions occurred on the slope of the volcano on 2 December, and that eruptions at the summit were continuing.

[This report was not included in GV 75-85.]

Information Contacts: S. Fedotov, IV; Moscow Domestic Service.
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12/1985 (SEAN 10:12) Large ash column; lava melts ice, producing mudflow

B.V. Ivanov reported that the eruption that began in August continued through early January. Lava fountaining from two flank vents was almost continuous. On 1 December, a series of NW-flank phreatic explosions produced an eruption column that rose to 5.2 km above the crater rim (10 km altitude). These explosions were accompanied by Vulcanian ash explosions from the summit crater and by lightning discharges. During subsequent days, ash explosions reached 1.5 km height. Lava flows descended the NW flank to 2.8 km above sea level. In early January, lava fountains were 200 m high, explosions ejected tephra to 100 m height, and short (300 m) lava flows poured onto the SE flank.

Moscow television reported that during the night of 1-2 December, a 50-m-wide lava flow melted a channel in glacial ice, producing a mudflow that traveled 35 km to the Kamchatka River. The 1 December eruption column was reported to have reached its 5.2-km height in 6 minutes. S.A. Fedotov noted (in the television interview) that data collected during a flight the morning of 12 December suggested that 10 metric tons of ash were being ejected per second, and that lava was probably being discharged at more than 50 metric tons per second.

Infrared images from polar-orbiting weather satellites showed plumes from the Kliuchevskoi/Bezymianny area on several days in early December, although weather clouds often obscured the Kamchatka Peninsula. On 2 December at 0237, a NOAA 9 image showed a faint plume emerging from the vicinity of Bezymianny. Two days later at 0216, two weak plumes seemed to be emerging from the area, perhaps one from Kliuchevskoi and one from Bezymianny. On 8 December at 0832, a narrow plume extended about 25-30 km N, probably from Kliuchevskoi.

[This report was not included in GV 75-85.]

Information Contacts: S.A. Fedotov and B.V. Ivanov, IV; Moscow Television Service; Will Gould, NOAA/NESDIS.
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12/1985 (SEAN 11:12) Lava flow and incandescent tephra

Geologists from the IV noted vigorous activity . . . during an aerial survey . . . at the beginning of January. Incandescent bombs were thrown to [500 m] above the crater, accompanied by vigorous gas emission. A large lava flow was advancing down the W flank [see also 13:4].

Information Contacts: Moscow Domestic Service.
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01/1987 (SEAN 12:01) Lava flows; directed explosions; plumes on satellite images

On 26 December, after 5 months of quiet [but see 13:4], two vents from an intracrater scoria cone ejected bombs and ash. Bombs reached 300 m height. Rare gas/steam explosions, mixed with some ash, fed a 1-km eruption column. On 29 December, lava flows poured from a vent near the foot of the scoria cone (last active in July) onto the N and NW flanks. In January, pyroclastic material was ejected obliquely from the crater onto the volcano's flanks. The eruption decreased in intensity on 20 January. Images from the NOAA 9 polar orbiting satellite at 1617 on 21 January showed a 25-km-long plume spreading SW that had grown to 40 km by 0843 the next day.

Weather satellite images showed renewed activity on 17 February with larger plumes late 19 February. Plumes extended as much as 300 km from the volcano (table 1) and were continuing to form as of 20 February. Comparisons of plume temperatures and directions of plume movement with temperature and wind data recorded by radiosondes (launched 15 km to the N) indicated that plumes reached as much as 9 km altitude.

Table 1. Descriptions of Kliuchevskoi plumes from infrared weather satellite images, 17-20 February 1987. Plume altitudes were estimated by comparing wind data from radiosondes launched 15 km N of the volcano with directions of plume movement.

     Date         Time      Altitude      Description
     17 Feb 1987  1800      ~9 km         125 km to the SE
                  2100      ~9 km         250 km to the SSE
     18 Feb 1987  0000      ---           Small `cold sport' indicating
                                               activity
                  0900      ~3 km         125 km to the SSW
                  1017      ~3 km         65 km to the SSW, curving SE
                                               at its distal end
     19 Feb 1987  0000      ---           100 km to the SW
                  0150      ---           180 km to the SE
                  1126      ---           180 km to the SSE
                  1800      ---           190 km to the ESE
                  2100      ---           250 km long, about 50 km wide
     20 Feb 1987  0000      >7.5 km       250 km long
                  0600      ~7.5 km       300 km ESE

Information Contacts: A. Khrenov and G. Bogoyavlenskaya, IV; M. Matson, S. Kusselson, and W. Gould, NOAA/NESDIS.
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02/1987 (SEAN 12:02) Strong explosions; lava from flank fissure

Soviet geologists reported that after intense summit crater explosive activity a NE-trending fracture (azimuth 135°) opened 24 February [but see 13:4] on the SE flank at 3,900-3,400 m altitude. Small amounts of lava were quietly emitted along the fracture. The flank eruption ceased on 26 February.

Small plumes had been intermittently visible on satellite images (figure 1) since 18 January. More vigorous activity was evident beginning 17 February and was almost continuous through 24 February (table 2). Maximum plume length was 500 km and maximum altitude may have reached 13.7 km.

Figure 1. NOAA 10 thermal infrared (3.8 µm) satellite image on 18 February at 1017. A plume extends 65 km from Kliuchevskoi at ~3 km altitude. Courtesy of NOAA/NESDIS.

Table 2.Descriptions of Kliuchevskoi plumes from infrared weather satellite images, 21-28 February 1987. Plume altitudes were estimated by comparing wind data from radiosondes launched 15 km N of the volcano with directions of plume movement.

     Date       Time      Altitude      Length      Direction      Satellite
     21 Feb 87  1022      1.5-7.2       65          ESE            NOAA 10
                1200      1.5-7.2       375         ESE            GMS
                1500      1.5-7.2       250         ESE            GMS
                1800      9.2-10.4      125         E              GMS
                2100      1.5-3.0       150         E              GMS
     22 Feb 87  0000      1.5-3.0       440         E              GMS
                0600      3.0           125         E              GMS
                0900      5.6-11.8      250         ENE            GMS
                1031      9.2-13.7      105         ENE            NOAA 10
                1200      9.2-13.7      440         ENE            GMS
                1500      9.2-13.7      500         ENE            GMS
                1800      5.6-10.4      500         ENE            GMS
                2100      5.6-10.4      500         ENE            GMS
     23 Feb 87  0000      10.4-11.8     310         ENE            GMS
                0300      ---           cloudy      ---            GMS
     24 Feb 87  0600      ---           cloudy      ---            GMS
                0900      5.6           190         NW             GMS
                1448      5.6           125         NW             NOAA 9
                1500      5.6           500         NW             GMS
                1800      3.0           500         NW             GMS
                2100      3.0           500         NW             GMS
     25 Feb 87  0000      ---             no activity              GMS
     28 Feb 87  0442      ---           20          WSW            NOAA 9

Information Contacts: A. Khrenov, IV; M. Matson and W. Gould, NOAA/NESDIS.
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03/1988 (SEAN 13:03) Summit/flank eruption; seismic swarm; plume

Simultaneous summit and flank eruptions at Kliuchevskoi 6-9 April were accompanied by a swarm of M 2.5 earthquakes. On 10 April at 1021, an image from the NOAA 10 polar orbiting weather satellite showed a plume extending 20-30 km SW from the Kliuchevskoi/Bezymianny area.

Information Contacts: S. Fedotov and N. Zharinov, IV; W. Gould, NOAA/NESDIS.
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04/1988 (SEAN 13:04) Strong summit explosions; lava from flank fissures

"Kliuchevskoi has been very active during the past several years. Most eruptions took place from the summit crater but there were occasional flank eruptions. The 1980 and 1983 flank eruptions were limited to effusive activity.

"A violent Vulcanian-Strombolian eruption started at the end of November 1986 and was continuing in January-February 1987. In January, the eruption column rose 1-2 km and bombs were ejected to 100-300 m height. Two or three vents were active in the central crater, forming a cinder cone. Lava flowed onto the SW and NW flanks.

"The eruption intensified in February (figure 2). Eruption column heights reached 3-4 km at times and bombs were ejected to 600 m above the crater. Lava flowed down the NE flank, reaching 3,200 m elev, 1,650 m below the summit. The most violent activity was observed on 19 February, when the eruption column rose 5.5 km and bombs reached 1 km height. Explosive intensity decreased after 20 February. On 22 February, a radial fissure opened at 3,750 m altitude on the SE flank. Lava from the fissure advanced <1 km. On 6 March a new flow originated from a fissure lower on the SE flank. Some of this lava flowed under Schmidt Glacier at 2,900 m altitude. Flank eruptions ended on 10 March. The summit cinder cone collapsed in June, forming a pit 200 m in diameter.

Figure 2. Oblique airphoto of Kliuchevskoi from the NE on 9 February 1987, showing an eruption column emerging from the summit. Photo by A.B. Belousov.

"Summit activity resumed in July. Activity was primarily Strombolian, ejecting bombs to 200-300 m height from 3-5 new vents. A weak eruption cloud rose 0.5-1 km, with occasional ash ejections to 1.5 km. Between 11 and 13 September, lava began to flow onto the NW flank, advancing about 1 km before activity became less intense in early October and ended on the 12th. The pit formed in June by cinder cone collapse was filled with another cinder cone.

"Activity resumed on 1 December when a series of explosions ejected a 0.4-1 km plume and ash and bombs that rose to 50-150 m height. A small lava flow descended the NW flank 13-24 December. Lava effusion started on the SW flank on 22 December. Activity continued into 1988."

Further Reference. Gorelchik, V.I. and Zharinov, N.A., 1988, Mechanism of Klyuchevskoy flank eruptions of 1974, 1980, 1983 and 1987 as shown by seismological and geodetical data: Proceedings, Kagoshima International Conference on Volcanoes, p. 75-78.

Information Contacts: G. Bogoyavlenskaya and A.B. Belousov, IV.
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01/1990 (BGVN 15:01) Strong summit explosions cause ashfalls 375 km away; SE flank lava fountains feed lava flow

Explosive activity from summit and flank vents emitted ash and lava October-December 1989 and January 1990. Up to 5 ejections/minute from three vents in the summit crater sent ash to 2 km above the summit in December, with a visible plume stretching 20 km from the volcano. Lava fountaining, 30-50 m high from SE flank vents at 4100-4200 m altitude, fed two lava flows that moved SE and E to 2,500 m altitude. Violent explosive activity from the summit crater resumed 29 January, ejecting a 6-km ash plume that extended 60 km from the volcano [see also 15:3]. An incandescent cloud 600-1,500 m high pulsated at the base of the plume, which generated lightning at its top. Ashfall on the Bering Islands (~375 km SE of the volcano) was reported 1 February. Activity also occurred from a SE-flank crater.

Information Contacts: B. Ivanov and E. Zhdanova, IV.
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03/1990 (BGVN 15:03) Strong summit tephra eruption; basaltic lava from SE flank vent

During an overflight by geologists on 2 February, vigorous ash emission fed a large eruption column that rose to ~5 km height and had a basal diameter of ~400-600 m (figure 3). Individual ash bursts were visible at the base of the column, although ash emission appeared to be continuous. A new vent was noted at 4,500 m elev on the NE slope of the Apakhonchich valley, on the upper SE flank. Vapor jets 200-300 m high were distinctly visible above this vent. A subsidiary vent downslope (at 3,970 m elev) fed basaltic lava flows. An ash plume extended 60-80 km E. The ashfall area on 2 February was ~1,600 km2.

Figure 3. Tephra cloud from Kliuchevskoi's summit crater on 2 February 1990, in photograph looking roughly E. Arrow 1 indicates the new vent at 4,600 m elev on the SE flank, arrow 2 the effusive vent at 3,970 m elev. Courtesy of B. Ivanov.

Images from the NOAA 10 and 11 polar orbiting satellites showed several plumes from Kliuchevskoi. On 22 February at 1548, a thin plume extended ~80 km SE. A plume was next visible on 10 March at 0956. Although obscured by weather clouds a short distance ENE of the volcano, it formed a distinct cold area on the infrared image, indicating that it was at relatively high altitude. On 12 March at 0335, a very thin plume stretched 15-20 km NE from the Kliuchevskoi area, and on 15 March at 0942, a small diffuse plume extended S from the volcano. A thin plume extended 250 km NE on 3 April at 0903. Weather clouds . . . may have obscured additional eruptive activity.

Information Contacts: B. Ivanov, IV; W. Gould, NOAA/NESDIS.
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03/1991 (BGVN 16:03) Small summit eruption

A small eruption from the summit crater occurred at 1033 on 8 April. No activity has been reported since then.

Information Contacts: E. Gordeev, IV; T. Miller, AVO.
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04/1991 (BGVN 16:04) Small summit plume; ash on SE flank

A Space Shuttle photograph on 29 April at 1248 shows a plume, apparently containing ash, rising about 1 km above the summit and extending about 15 km downwind. Snow on the SE flank appeared to be ash-covered. A small summit eruption occurred on 8 April, but no additional eruptive activity has been reported.

Information Contacts: C. Evans, Lockheed, Houston.
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06/1991 (BGVN 16:06) Small plume seen from satellite image

The NOAA 10 polar-orbiting weather satellite showed a plume ~20 km long, extending S from the summit then turning SW, on 24 June at 1024.

Information Contacts: W. Gould, NOAA/NESDIS.
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01/1992 (BGVN 17:01) Explosions feed small ash plumes

Distinct, single explosions produced ash columns rising 1,000 m on 25-26 January. Although the volcano was not visible from the ground on 27-29 January, a 29 January Space Shuttle photograph showed a steam plume rising from the apparently ash-covered summit region. Earthquake swarms had been recorded in the vicinity of the volcano since the beginning of January.

Information Contacts: A. Ovsiannikov, E. Zhdanova, and S. Zharinov, IVGG; C. Evans, Lockheed, Houston.
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05/1992 (BGVN 17:05) Small explosions eject ash

During a 13 May visit, two explosions (at 1130 and 1428) ejected ash clouds to 1,000 m above the summit. A third explosion was noted at 0140 the next day, but no additional activity was observed during the 14-15 May journey from the volcano.

Information Contacts: H. Gaudru, SVE, Switzerland; G. de St. Cyr, T. de St. Cyr, and I. de St. Cyr, A.V. Lyon, France; T. Vaudelin, Genève, Switzerland.
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04/1993 (BGVN 18:04) Small gas and ash explosions

IV noted an increase in activity . . . in mid-March 1993, after a short period of repose, when explosions in the central crater sent an ash-and-gas cloud 1-2 km above the summit. On 15 March, volcanic tremor was noted, increasing in amplitude after 15 April.

A significant increase in seismicity beneath the volcano 24-27 April was reported by IVGG. Observers reported a glow near the summit area during the night of 25-26 April. A snowstorm prevented observation of the volcano 28-29 April, as volcanic tremor continued. Small steam and ash bursts inside the crater rose 200-300 m above the rim on 6 May. The plume extended 40 km NW from the volcano. Volcanic tremor remained above background.

IVGG reported three ash explosions from the summit crater on 10 May between 2030 and 2045, producing a plume that rose ~1 km above the crater rim and extended 7 km about SE. That same day, tremor amplitude measured by IV reached a maximum of 2.4 µm. Occasional steam and ash bursts occurred in the summit crater again 14 May; the plume rose 0.5-1 km above the crater rim and extended 1-7 km SW. Tremor amplitude had decreased by 19 May.

IV geologists note that tremor at Kliuchevskoi is common and is related to eruptive activity in the summit crater and, to a lesser degree, to flank eruptions. Tremor amplitude is largely dependent on the style of volcanic activity: amplitudes <0.5 µm are associated with steam-gas emission; 0.5-3 µm with Vulcanian explosions; and >3 µm with Strombolian explosions or lava spouting. Aircraft observations on 4 April 1993 revealed a newly formed crater at the summit with a diameter of 500 m and a depth of 200 m. A July 1992 overflight by S. A. Fedotov (IV) had previously revealed the almost complete subsidence of the 1984-90 cone. The last episode of dome collapse followed by renewed dome growth took place during 1962-68 when a new small volcanic cone was seen on the floor of the crater and minor lava fountaining was observed from its vent.

Information Contacts: V. Ivanov and V. Dvigalo, IV; V. Kirianov, IVGG
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05/1993 (BGVN 18:05) Seismicity continues; small explosions

Seismicity decreased in May . . . , returning to background levels by 21 May. Seismicity rose above background again on 1 June, when a few steam and ash bursts reached 400 m above the crater rim with a plume drifting to the S. A geologist from IVGG climbed to the crater rim that same day and observed a small explosive eruption from a growing cinder cone in the central crater. All volcanic bombs fell back into the crater, and no lava flows were present. Volcanic tremor was continuing as of 10 June, and there have been rare volcanic earthquakes at depths of >=10 km.

Information Contacts: V. Kirianov, IVGG.
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06/1993 (BGVN 18:06) Lava fountaining and explosive ash eruptions

On 19 June at 1100, a gas-and-ash burst generated a plume that rose 800 m above the crater rim, extending 20 km NW. Seismicity increased in late April before decreasing again in May, and remained at background levels in June. By 5 July, the level of volcanic tremor had increased significantly. Lava fountains, characteristic for this volcano, were observed rising 400 m above the crater rim on the night of 4-5 July. Late in the evening on 9 July, 10-12 lava bursts/minute were producing a lava fountain 100-400 m above the crater rim. Sporadic volcanic tremor was also recorded during the week of 5-12 July. On 13 July at 2345 gas-and-steam bursts produced a dark, ash-laden plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim and was blown SE. Lava fountaining to heights of 100-400 m above the crater rim was also observed.

Although ground observations of the summit were obscured by clouds on 15 July, the level of seismicity indicated that lava fountaining was occurring, possibly to heights up to 1 km above the crater rim. Gas-and-steam bursts that day were also producing a dark, ash-laden plume that, based on seismicity, may have risen several kilometers above the crater rim. Volcanic tremor was registered at seismic stations 11 and 19 km from the volcano.

An explosive eruption on 15 July at 1445 sent an ash cloud to an approximate altitude of 7.8 km. Satellite imagery later that evening showed multi-layered cloudiness E of the Kamchatka Peninsula, but no distinct ash plume. There were no pilot reports of ash after 1640, and one report indicated no ash above 6 km. Multi-layered cloudiness without a definitive ash cloud persisted on satellite imagery through 0700 on 16 July. A second eruption around 1500 on 16 July sent ash to 6 km. Satellite imagery did not detect a definitive ash cloud by 2500, and there were no pilot reports of ash between 7.5 and 11 km altitude.

Information Contacts: V. Kirianov and S. Zharinov, IVGG; J. Lynch, SAB.
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07/1993 (BGVN 18:07) Gas-and-ash plumes; lava flows down W slope; high seismicity

Steam-and-ash explosions . . . continued in late July and early August. A gas-and-ash plume was rising as high as 3 km above the crater (8 km altitude) and extending to the NW at 1400 on 25 July according to visual observations made from a helicopter by S. Zharinov and O. Braitseva. Lava flows were observed to extend from the summit crater down the W slope of the volcano, entering and melting the glacier at ~3,000 m elev. Seismic activity, including tremor, was stable but at a high level. The direction and height of the plume was about the same the next day as seen from a helicopter, and ashfall took place in Kliuchi [(30 km NNE)]. On 27 July at 2200, the gas-and-ash plume was as high as 5 km above the crater, extending to the S for an unknown distance. A W-flank lava flow was observed at 0030 on 28 July as well as lava fountains 600-700 m above the crater. On July 29 at 1500, the gas-and-ash cloud was 5 km above the crater and extended SW.

Airborne observations in early August indicated that the gas-and-ash plume was generally 1-3 km above the crater, extending to the N or NW for ~50 km. On 3 August, the gas-and-ash plume, as observed from a helicopter by V. Dvigalo and A. Belousov, rose to 6-7 km altitude and extended to the E in the afternoon and to the N that night. Lava continued to flow down the W slope of the volcano, and ash fell again on Kliuchi. Volcanic tremor remained high and steady in late July and early August.

Information Contacts: S. Zharinov, IVGG.
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08/1993 (BGVN 18:08) Gas-and-ash plume persists; lava flow stops

The summit eruption . . . continued, but the volcano was obscured by clouds 6-12 August. On 13 August, the gas-and-ash plume rose 200 m above the crater. By 20 August, lava had stopped flowing from the crater. That same day, the gas-and-ash plume reached a height of 500 m above the crater and extended ~2 km SE. Reports of a flank eruption were investigated on 8 September, but no new eruptive activity was found. On 9 September, the gas-and-ash plume rose 200 m above the crater and extended SE for ~15 km. Within the summit crater, eruptive outbursts occurred throughout the day. Seismicity decreased in early August, but increased again in early September, when constant volcanic tremor was registered.

Information Contacts: V. Kirianov, IVGG.
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10/1993 (BGVN 18:10) Gas-and-ash plumes, minor seismicity, and weak fumarolic activity continues

Activity continued through early November with minor seismicity, weak fumarolic activity, and gas-and-ash plumes rising at least 200 m. On 11 September, a gas-and-ash plume was as high as 200 m above the crater, and extended NE for ~1 km. Constant volcanic tremor was registered in mid-September, but other seismicity was at background levels. A gas-and-steam plume rose to 400 m above the crater rim and rare shallow tectonic earthquakes occurred under the central crater area during the week of 7-14 October. A small seismic event (possibly related to a small explosion) was noted on the afternoon of 21 October. On 6 November observers noted a gas-and-steam plume rising 300-500 m above the crater rim, directed to the SE for ~30 km. Weak fumarolic activity in the crater continued through 6 November, with seismicity near background levels.

Information Contacts: V. Kirianov, IVGG.
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11/1993 (BGVN 18:11) Low seismicity; 15-km-long plume in early December

Due to bad weather and poor visibility, monitoring . . . relied heavily on seismic observations. Through November and December the reported duration of tremor ranged from several hours/day (for the weeks ending 26 November and 4 December) to "background levels" (for the week ending 18 November). During the first week in December observers saw a gas-and-steam plume 500 m above crater rim, it was blown W and visible for a distance of ~15 km. Several other plume observations confirmed persistent degassing as late as the week of 22 December.

Information Contacts: V. Kirianov, IVGG.
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12/1993 (BGVN 18:12) Spasmodic tremor and temporally coincident shallow earthquakes

Spasmodic tremor and temporally coincident shallow earthquakes of amplitude <= 0.7 µm were recorded on 30-31 December at several seismic stations in the vicinity of Kliuchevskoi and Bezymianny volcanoes. A lack of seismic stations hampered precise estimates of location and the resolution of which volcano was closer to the focal points. The observed pattern of seismic activity was judged more characteristic of Kliuchevskoi. In addition, on 3 January another swarm of shallow earthquakes accompanied by spasmodic tremor was recorded near Kliuchevskoi's NE slope. Scientists use a color code to characterize the level of concern about volcanic activity. To indicate increased concern at Kliuchevskoi the color was shifted from green to yellow on 4 January indicating restlessness. For the week ending on 12 January, tremor at Kliuchevskoi prevailed for 7-9 hours a day, and shallow earthquakes took place 2-4 times/day.

Information Contacts: V. Kirianov, IVGG.
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01/1994 (BGVN 19:01) Weak volcanic tremor at variable levels; fumarolic activity

Weak volcanic tremor (5-9 hours/day) and shallow volcanic earthquakes (5-12 events/day) were recorded during the third week of January. Volcanic tremor increased in late January to nearly continuous levels (19-21 hours/day), although the number of shallow volcanic earthquakes decreased (1-6 events/day). High volcanic tremor levels continued into early February (16-22 hours/day), but had declined by 10 February to 0.3 hour/day. Tremor increased again slightly the following week (10-16 February) to 0.6-1.3 hours/day; 1-3 volcanic earthquakes/day were registered during that period. Weak fumarolic activity continued in the central crater throughout January and early February.

Information Contacts: V. Kirianov, IVGG.
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03/1994 (BGVN 19:03) Weak seismicity and fumarolic activity continue

Weak volcanic tremor (0.6-1.3 hours/day) and 1-3 volcanic earthquakes/day were registered in mid-February. During late February and early March, weak tremor continued and the number of seismic events increased slightly (2-5/day). Weak volcanic tremor was consistently registered for 1-3 hours/day throughout March, although it was slightly higher (<=4.5 hours/day) during the third week. Shallow volcanic earthquakes were more variable, ranging from 2 to 18 events/day. Seismic activity during the last week of March included both deep (3-13 events/day) and shallow (1-2 events/day) earthquakes, as well as weak volcanic tremor (4.5-6 hours/day). Weak fumarolic activity from the central crater was observed throughout most of March, and on 29 March a plume extended ~1 km above the crater.

Seismicity continued to increase in the first half of April, consisting of weak deep and shallow earthquakes (4-37 events/day) and weak volcanic tremor (0.5-6 hours/day). Weak fumarolic activity was observed in the central crater on 1-4 and 13 April, and the gas-and-steam plume reached as high as 800 m above the crater.

Information Contacts: V. Kirianov, IVGG.
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04/1994 (BGVN 19:04) Weak fumarolic activity, seismicity, and tremor

Seismic stations continued to register both deep and shallow weak earthquakes (average of 6 events/day) and weak volcanic tremor (0-1.5 hours/day) through the end of April. On 29 April there were 11 events/day, but the number of events decreased to 4/day by 5 May. Weak volcanic tremor decreased to 0.1-0.3 hours/day. Seismicity increased during the second week of May when 11-18 earthquakes/day were recorded. As of 18 May, both deep and shallow earthquakes (8-22 events/day) and weak volcanic tremor were continuing beneath the volcano. When the volcano was not obscured by clouds, weak fumarolic activity above the crater was observed in late April and May with a steam plume to <=1 km above the crater.

Information Contacts: V. Kirianov, IVGG.
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06/1994 (BGVN 19:06) Phreatic explosions; variable seismicity continues

Deep and shallow earthquakes, as well as volcanic tremor, continued to be recorded beneath the volcano in late May, June, and early July. In late May, between 13 and 44 events/day were recorded. The duration of volcanic tremor increased from 2.5 hours/day on 28 May to 21 hours on 30 May, but then decreased again to 2 hours on 31 May. During the first half of June, 5-20 weak, intermediate-depth earthquakes/day were detected; average duration of volcanic tremor increased from 16 to 24 hours/day during this period. This approximate level of activity continued through 25 June. In the last week of June, the number of weak intermediate-depth earthquakes increased to 18-46/day, but average tremor duration decreased to 0.3-1 hour/day. In early July, weak intermediate-depth earthquakes were recorded at a rate of 14-36/day; tremor was in the 14-24 hours/day range.

Weak fumarolic activity from the central crater was observed throughout June and early July. A steam plume on 10-11 June, possibly caused by a phreatic explosion, rose from the NW slope (2,500 m elev) to ~4,500 m altitude. A phreatic explosion on 15 June from the NE slope produced a plume that rose 2-2.5 km.

Information Contacts: V. Kirianov, IVGG.
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08/1994 (BGVN 19:08) Eruption sends gas-and-ash bursts at least 3 km high; lava fountaining

An eruption began on 8 September with lava fountaining and ash plumes that rose to an altitude of at least 8 km on 12 September. Explosive activity increased on 30 September, and on 1 October the ash column rose to >15 km altitude.

During 7-24 July, seismic stations continued to register weak intermediate-depth (10-30 km) earthquakes under the volcano (15-55/day); the duration of volcanic tremor averaged 8-22 hours/day. Weak fumarolic activity from the central crater was observed during the week of 7-14 July. Clouds frequently obscured the volcano through mid-August, but British climbers who visited the summit in early August reported no unusual activity. Seismicity increased from 24 July to 2 August, when 15-149 weak intermediate-depth earthquakes were recorded each day, accompanied by 1-20 hours/day of volcanic tremor. The number of weak intermediate-depth events decreased again during the next three weeks to 8-37 earthquakes/day. Tremor averaged 5-10 hours/day through 11 August, 3-4.5 hours/day the following week, and 5-17 hours/day by 2 September. Weak intermediate-depth earthquakes decreased from 2 to 8 September, averaging only 1-4 events/day. However, volcanic tremor was recorded for an average of 19-22 hours/day. Normal fumarolic activity was observed from the central crater early in September.

Seismic data indicated that an eruption began from the central crater at about 0400 on 8 September. Lava was observed fountaining 200-300 m above the crater from two separate vents. Gas and ash outbursts to 1 km were recorded every 10 minutes. Pilots from American Airlines reported an ash cloud as high as 11 km above sea level around 1445 on 9 September, and at 1010 the next day the cloud was reportedly moving SE at the same altitude.

On 12 September ground observers reported that the eruption sent gas and ash to 1.5 km above the crater. The ash plume reached an estimated 3 km above the 4.7-km-high volcano, to an altitude of ~8 km. The plume extended to the NE for more than 50 km and ashfall was reported in Kliuchi, [30 km NNE]. A 1-km-long lava flow was observed on the SW slope of the volcano; mudflows were also noted. Continuous volcanic tremor was recorded as far as 65 km from the volcano.

Kliuchevskoi was obscured by clouds on 13 September, but gas and ash explosions on 14 September rose 600-800 m above the crater with an ash column extending to 2 km above the crater. The ash plume was carried E for at least 50 km. A new lava flow 1.5 km long was observed on 14 September issuing from two NW-flank vents ~200 m below the crater rim. This flow is in addition to the lava flow on the SW flank of the volcano. Lava fountains were again observed extending to 200 m above the crater rim. Continuous volcanic tremor, with a maximum amplitude of 6.3 µm, was recorded at distances of 11 km from the volcano.

Information Contacts: V. Kirianov, IVGG; J. Lynch, SAB.
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09/1994 (BGVN 19:09) Eruption sends plume to 15-20 km altitude and produces lava flows

During 15-19 September, gas-and-ash bursts rose 500-700 m above the crater. The eruption column reached 1.5-2.0 km above the crater and extended >50 km downwind to the SE. Lava flows extruding from two vents 200 m below the crater rim had moved down to 2,800 m elevation on the NW and SW flanks. Phreatic explosions were occurring at the contact of the NW lava flow and the glacier. Lava fountains in the central crater reached heights of 300-500 m. Continuous volcanic tremor, with a maximum amplitude of 6.1 µm, was recorded at the seismic station 11 km from the volcano.

From 20 to 23 September, gas-and-ash bursts increased in height to 800-1,000 m above the crater. The eruption column continued to reach ~2 km above the crater, but extended >100 km SE. Lava flows on the NW and SW flanks remained active, and fountains in the central crater increased to heights of 500-700 m. Volcanic tremor was continuous with a maximum amplitude of 8.2 µm.

Eruptive activity increased on the afternoon of 30 September. Ash bursts rose 3 km above the crater and the ash column reached an estimated altitude of 10 km and extended SE for >100 km. Lava flows on the NW and SW slopes of the volcano remained active, and mudflows were noted on the N slope. Continuous volcanic tremor had a maximum amplitude of 8.4 µm.

At 0600 on 1 October the eruption entered a paroxysmal stage with lava bursts rising 4,500 m above the crater rim. The ash column was estimated at 15-20 km altitude and extended >100 km SE. Phreatic explosions along the margin of the flank lava flows generated steam clouds >1 km high. Avalanches of incandescent blocks were observed descending the N slope. Between 0900 and 1100, ash and lava bursts produced a dark, ash-laden plume rising to a height of 15-18 km and moving ESE. GMS satellite imagery showed ash ~565 km SE moving at ~140 km/hour. By 1400 the dark ash plume reached 15 km altitude. Lava and ash explosions continued from the central crater at 1500, when the ash column rose to 12-14 km above sea level and moved ESE at an altitude of 10-11 km. Pilot reports indicated that the ash was at 9-11 km (FL300-370 = 30,000-37,000 feet). A 747 aircraft reported an ash encounter at 11 km altitude, but avoided the cloud by climbing to ~12 km (FL390). Helicopter observations at 1500-1700 revealed two lava flows on the N and NW slopes and lava fountaining to 900 m above the crater rim. The eruption appeared to reach its maximum intensity between 0600 and 1630. By 1900 the ash plume was at a maximum altitude of 9-11 km and drifting E for >100 km. Volcanic tremor was continuous with a maximum amplitude of 8.4 µm. Analysis of GMS infrared imagery at 2330 showed a thin concentrated plume extending generally SE, surrounded by areas of thinner ash.

After about 0530 on 2 October, layered weather clouds moving from the W had obscured the summit from GMS satellite observation, although the dissipating ash cloud could be seen SE of the volcano. At 0920 a dark ash plume rose to ~8.4-8.7 km altitude and drifted E, but by 1100 the plume was only rising to 6-7 km and drifting NNE. Areas of thick, moderate, and thin dispersing ash, E and S of the volcano beyond the obscuring weather clouds, continued to be tracked by satellite through 2030. By that time, the ash cloud was becoming more diffuse and harder to distinguish from underlying low-level clouds.

The volcano was obscured by clouds on 3 October. Volcanic tremor with a maximum amplitude of 1-2.5 Nm indicated that the eruption was continuing, but at a reduced rate. On 4 October, only fumarolic activity appeared to be occurring inside the summit crater and no incandescence could be seen at night. The gas-and-steam plume rose ~1 km above the crater and was directed S for ~5 km.

Meteor-3 TOMS overflew the eruption plume at 1347 on 1 October. Preliminary results showed an extended SO2 cloud ~800 km long to the SE, with an approximate area of 150,000 km2. Estimated cloud mass was 90 kt SO2 +- 50%. A pass at 1520 on 2 October did not find an SO2 cloud.

Information Contacts: V. Kirianov, IVGG; J. Lynch, SAB; I. Sprod, GSFC.
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10/1994 (BGVN 19:10) Eruption sends plume to 15-20 km altitude and produces lava flows

Activity had decreased by 4 October, and continued to decline the following week. Continuous tremor after 3 October and into early November had a maximum amplitude of 0.23-0.53 µm, registered 11 km from the volcano. On 5 and 7-9 October the volcano was obscured by clouds, but on 6 October the fumarolic plume from the summit crater rose ~600 m above the rim and was directed NE. Observers in Kliuchi [(30 km NNE)] reported decreased activity during 8-15 October. Gas-and-steam columns rising from two apertures at the summit reached 2,500 m above the crater on 10 October and 800 m on 14 October. Once again during clear weather a gas-and-steam column was seen rising 200 m above the summit crater on 17, 22, and 23 October and to 800-1,500 m on 18-20 October. During 27-29 October the column rose 200-800 m above the summit. The volcano was obscured by clouds from 30 October to 2 November.

Information Contacts: V. Kirianov, IVGG; AVO.
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11/1994 (BGVN 19:11) Moderate explosive eruption causes minor ashfall 30 km away

Although clouds obscured the volcano in early November, continuous tremor (maximum amplitude 0.1-0.3 Nm) was recorded, and 4-11 earthquakes/day were detected under the volcano except on 7 November, when 23 events occurred. On 10 November, a gas-and-steam plume seen from Kliuchi (30 km NNE) was directed ESE for ~1 km. An observer in Kliuchi saw a gas-and-steam plume on 12 November rising 1 km above the summit that extended ~10 km ENE. On 18 November, observers in Kozirevsk (50 km W) saw a gas-and-steam column rising 50 m above the summit crater. Seismicity on the 18th consisted of continuous tremor (maximum amplitude 0.24 µm), one weak deep earthquake, and 9 shallow events.

A moderate explosive eruption occurred beginning about 0400 on 23 November, based on interpretations of seismicity. The volcano was completely obscured by clouds, but as much as 0.5 mm of ash fell in Kliuchi. Thirteen strong and shallow earthquakes beneath the volcano between 0400 and 1200 had maximum amplitudes of 14.25 µm at a seismic station 14 km from the volcano, and were recorded at stations up to 70 km away; persistent volcanic tremor had a maximum amplitude of ~0.33 µm. Comparing the seismicity to that of 30 September-1 October, the ash plume may have reached an altitude of ~7 km.

On 24 November, observers in Kliuchi noted a vigorous gas-and-steam plume containing minor ash rising 1 km above the volcano and extending >30 km NE. Weak volcanic tremor (amplitude ~0.15 µm) and 22 shallow earthquakes were registered beneath the crater area. The next day, observers in Kozirevsk reported a gas-and-steam plume above the volcano. Continuous tremor was recorded ~32 km from the volcano, and 12 shallow earthquakes were recorded beneath the crater area. On 28 November, a gas-and-steam plume seen from Kliuchi rose 2 km above summit and extended 3 km SW. A vigorous gas-and-steam plume of unknown height was also seen from Kliuchi on the 30th, continuous tremor (0.4 µm) was recorded 11 km away, and 73 shallow earthquakes were detected as far as 70 km away.

Information Contacts: V. Kirianov, IVGG; AVO.
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12/1994 (BGVN 19:12) Small eruption in mid-January

During the week of 8-14 December, 3-14 shallow earthquakes/day and 1.5-8.0 hours/day of volcanic tremor were recorded, down from the previous week. No visual observations were made because of a snow storm in the area. No information was available for the second half of December because of the suspension of communications from KVERT.

While in Petropavlovsk in mid-January 1995, Tom Miller (AVO) reported a small eruption that occurred sometime between 0630 and 1830 on 14 January. Weather in the area was poor, but an ash cloud was observed at ~9 km altitude. Seismic data indicated a single eruptive burst and not a continuous eruption. Satellite imagery showed weather clouds cover the area. However, at 0857 on 14 January a short, narrow plume, ~35 km long, was very evident on satellite imagery blowing NE. The apex of this plume appeared to start at the SE flank of the volcano, but at 1 km resolution this is uncertain. A band 4 minus band 5 image showed a distinct plume.

Information Contacts: V. Kirianov, IVGG; AVO.
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06/1996 (BGVN 21:06) Normal seismic activity, but degassing persists

During 26 May-22 July, seismicity remained at normal background levels. Gas and steam plumes rose 50-300 m above the crater and extended up to 15 km downwind. Regular reports from KVERT (via AVO) resumed in June after funding problems in Russia halted communications in December 1994 (BGVN 19:11).

Information Contacts: Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA, b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA; Vladimir Kirianov, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia.
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08/1996 (BGVN 21:08) Background seismicity and noteworthy tremor

Seismicity remained at normal background levels in late July and August. Seismic activity at a depth of 20-30 km continued. Volcanic tremors were detected on 24-25 August at a distance of 11 km. The amplitude of tremors dropped four-fold on 26 August. Only usual fumarolic activity was observed. On 29-30 August a fumarolic plume reached 50 m above the crater.

Information Contacts: Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA; Vladimir Kirianov, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia.
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10/1996 (BGVN 21:10) Seismicity above background; fumarolic plumes up to 1 km tall

Seismicity was a little above background levels for most of September. Small earthquakes were registered at a depth of 20-30 km beneath the volcano. Seismic activity returned to normal background levels during late September, October, and the first ten days of November. During this period, fumarolic plumes were commonly observed and extended as high as 1,000 m above the crater.

During late November seismic activity increased to above background levels with some tremor. On 13 November two swarms of shallow earthquakes were registered. At 1200 on 14 November, eruptive activity began. Surface observers estimated that gas-and-ash clouds rose to an altitude of 6,700 m and drifted WSW for 20 km. On 15 November explosions sent gas and ash to 600 m above the crater. A gas-and-ash plume extended to the ENE for ~15 km. On 16-17 November gas-and-ash explosions 400-600 m above the crater were observed with a plume rising 2-2.5 km above the crater and extending 30 km NE. During 18-23 November gas-and-steam plumes reached 150-200 m above the crater with a plume extending SE-NE for 10-20 km. During 25 November-1 December, observers in the vicinity could hear discrete explosions in the crater. On 28 November a gas-and-steam plume rose to 2,000 m above the volcano.

Information Contacts: Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA; Vladimir Kirianov, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; NOAA/NESDIS Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), Room 401, 5200 Auth Road, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA.
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12/1996 (BGVN 21:12) Above-background seismicity; ash-and-steam plumes up to 3 km tall

The seismicity at Kliuchevskoi remained above background levels during December and 1-20 January. Fumarolic plumes were observed during December rising 100-1,200 m above the volcano and extending 5-15 km downwind. On 28 December and 4 January, gas-and-steam explosions rose to 200-300 m above the crater, and plumes extended 10-20 km to the NW.

An increase in eruptive activity was first noticed at 1740 on 7 January 1997 from the town of Kliuchi, ~30 km NE of the volcano. An ash-and-steam plume was observed rising 2,500-3,000 m above the crater and extending 20 km SE. Seismic activity, while still elevated, did not show an increase. An AVO analysis of a satellite image taken early on the morning of 8 January indicated that the plume had subsided. On 9 and 11 January, gas-and-steam explosions, possibly with minor ash, rose to 300-700 m above the crater, and the plumes traveled 10-15 km to the W or SW. On 13-14 and 16 January gas-and-steam plumes reached a height of 300-600 m and extended 10 km E. On 15 January, a gas-and-steam explosion rose 1,200 m above the crater, and its plume moved 15 km SE.

Information Contacts: Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA; Vladimir Kirianov, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia.
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02/1997 (BGVN 22:02) Seismicity remains elevated; gas-and-ash plume to 4 km over crater

Seismicity remained above background during February and 1-24 March. On 6 March, the largest gas- and-ash plume of February and March rose ~ 4,000 m above the crater (~9,000 m above sea level). AVHRR satellite imagery acquired at 0119 and 0630 showed the eruption plume extending 25-40 km SE. Smaller gas- and-steam plumes were more common during these two months with plume heights extending 100-2,000 m above the crater. Most of these plumes contained gas and steam exclusively but occasionally included ash.

Information Contacts: Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA; Vladimir Kirianov, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia.
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03/1997 (BGVN 22:03) Continuous presence of gas-and-steam plume up to 4 km above crater

Seismicity remained above background during 24 March-25 April. The presence of a gas-and-steam plume was reported from 25 March to 13 April at a height variable between 50 and 500 m above the crater and drifting NE to SE with the prevailing winds. On 27 March the plume rose to 1,500-4,000 m and spread 70 km to the E, and on 2 April to 1,500-3,000 m, moving 50 km to the E.

Information Contacts: Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA; Vladimir Kirianov, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia.
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09/1997 (BGVN 22:09) Frequent gas-and-steam plumes; infrequent ash plumes; low seismicity

Although the volcano was often obscured by clouds, gas-and-steam plumes were frequently observed between mid-July and mid-October. On 14 July, a plume rose from two vents to a height of 50 m. Gas-and-steam plumes were seen on 21 and 25-26 July rising as high as 200 m above the summit. Similar plumes occurring on 1, 5-6, 21, and 27-29 August had variable heights of 50-600 m.

Gas and steam plumes were seen on 6, 8-12, 15-22, 25, 27-28, and 30 September, and 8-9 October, usually rising 50-100 m with some reaching 1,000 m. On 7 September an ash-rich plume rose at least 150-300 m above the summit crater. An ash-and-gas plume on 26 September rose 300 m and extended 8 km SE. Another plume of gas and steam on 27-28 September rose 300-600 m and extended 10 km ESE.

During most of July seismicity remained at background level, with the exception of an hour or more of intense activity on the 23rd. From 28 July through 29 September seismicity was above background level; seismicity was concentrated near the summit crater and at depths of 25-30 km between 25 August and 22 September. Volcanic earthquakes registered inside the crater on 1-4, 7, and 20 August. During 30 September-12 October seismicity remained at about background level.

Information Contacts: Vladimir Kirianov, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.
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11/1997 (BGVN 22:11) Elevated seismicity during 13 October-1 December; gas-and-steam plumes

During 13 October-29 December, seismicity under Kliuchevskoi was above background level. During 13 October- 2 November the activity occurred at depths of 20-30 km, but during 3-16 November, hypocenters were concentrated both near the summit crater and at depths of 25-30 km. Volcanic tremor recorded on 10-16 November was followed by tremor under the volcano and earthquake hypocenters 25-30 km deep during 17 November-14 December.

Gas-and-steam plumes rose 100 m above the crater on 18, 25, and 30 October, and on 1-2, 17-18, 23, and 28 November. A gas-and-steam plume rose 70 m above the summit crater on 6-7 November; by 8 November the plume rose 1 km above the crater and extended 5 km NW. By 9 November, the plume returned to a more typical height of 50-100 m. On 11-12 and 14-16 November, gas-and-steam plumes rose 100-200 m. During 2-6 December a gas-and- steam plume rose 300-1,000 m and extended 5-10 km SE to SW. On 7 December, a fumarolic plume rose less than 300 m above the summit crater. A gas-and-steam plume rose 300-700 m above the summit crater and extended 3-10 km NE and SW on 8-9 and 12 December. On 23, 24, and 28 December, a gas- and-steam plume rose 100-300 m and extended 3-5 km SE to SW. A fumarolic plume rose 2 km above the volcano on 25 December.

The level of concern was upgraded to yellow from green during 3-16 November, indicating that normal activity could possibly change into an eruption. During 17-23 November, although seismicity continued above background, the level of concern returned to green. On 1 December, the level of concern was again upgraded to yellow but returned to green as of 15 December.

Information Contacts: Vladimir Kirianov, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk- Kamchatskiy 683006, Russia; Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.
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01/1998 (BGVN 23:01) Earthquakes, tremor, and modest gas-and-steam plumes through early January

During 22-29 December, above-background seismicity prevailed under Kliuchevskoi. Gas-and-steam plumes rose 100-300 m above the crater on 23, 24, and 28 December; these extended 3-5 km from the crater, generally SE or SW. On 25 December, a gas-and-steam plume rose 2,000 m above the summit crater. Poor weather obscured observation on other days.

Volcanic tremor under the volcano caused the level of concern to be upgraded to yellow from green during 30 December to 5 January. The upgrade indicated that normal activity could possibly change into an eruption. On 30 December a plume rose 1,500 m and extended 3-5 km SE of the crater. During 31 December-2 January the plume returned to a height of 200-500 m. Poor visibility continued during 3-5 January.

On 6 January the level of concern returned to green where it remained until the end of the month. Despite persistent bad weather, gas-and-steam plumes were observed rising to typical heights of 50 m above the crater on 11 and 19 January. More such plumes were observed 21-24 January rising 100-300 m and extending 2-3 km SE or NE.

Information Contacts: Vladimir Kirianov, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.
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02/1998 (BGVN 23:02) Earthquakes, tremor, and gas-and-steam plumes throughout February

Beginning at 0616 on 28 January and continuing until 1 March, seismicity at Kliuchevskoi was above background level. During 28 January-8 February, earthquakes registered at depths of 25-30 km under the volcano and were accompanied by volcanic tremor. Surface earthquakes accompanied by volcanic tremor were recorded during 9-22 February, and deep earthquakes were detected during 23 February-1 March.

Fumarolic plumes rose 1-3 km above the volcano on 27 January, 3 February, and 17 February. Gas-and-steam plumes rose 50-2000 m on 30 January, 4-5, 9, 11-15, 18-22, 24-28 February, and 1 March. The plumes drifted 1-10 km with prevailing winds.

Information Contacts: Vladimir Kirianov, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.
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03/1998 (BGVN 23:03) Earthquakes and frequent fumarolic plumes

During 2 March-5 April, seismicity under the volcano remained above background level and earthquakes at 25-30 km depth were recorded. Surface earthquakes were detected on 14 March from 0040-0105.

Fumarolic plumes rose 50-100 m above the volcano on 5, 7, 10, 13-15, 16, 18-20, and 22 March. On 30-31 March, and 1, 3, and 5 April the fumarolic plume rose 50-400 m above the volcano and moved 3-10 km SE. A gas-and-steam plume on 12 March rose 200-1,000 m and traveled more than 5 km ESE. On 17 March, a gas-and-steam plume rose 2-3 km above the volcano and drifted 5-10 km SE.

Information Contacts: Vladimir Kirianov, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.
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04/1998 (BGVN 23:04) Seismicity above background, various fumarolic plumes

During the period 13 April-25 May, seismicity under the volcano remained above background level and earthquakes at depths of 25-30 km were recorded. Fumarolic plumes rose 50-200 m above the volcano during 6-9, and 11-16 April. These plumes were seen to move 5 km to the SE of the volcano.

At 1608 on 17 April, a series of shallow earthquakes of up to M 2 were recorded. The following day there was no measurable activity. A series of strong, explosive earthquakes lasting up to 10 minutes was recorded as far as 70 km from the volcano on 22 April. Hypocenters of earthquakes recorded in late May were concentrated at two levels: near the summit crater and at depths of 25-30 km. Starting at 2300 local time 24 May, a series of shallow earthquakes in the M 1.5-2.0 range were recorded.

Fumarolic plumes were seen 50-500 m above the volcano on 24, and 26 April, although clouds prevented observation during most of the week 20-27 April. Plumes 50-100 m above the summit were recorded on 27-29 April, and 11 and 14 May. During 13-24 May, a fumarolic plume rose 50-100 m above the volcano and drifted 1-5 km S and SE. On 25 May the plume rose 50 m above the summit.

Information Contacts: Olga Chubarova, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.
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06/1998 (BGVN 23:06) Fumarolic plumes; 43-minute-long series of earthquakes on 12 July

During the period 29 June-20 July, seismicity under the volcano remained near background levels. Hypocenters of earthquakes recorded through the period were concentrated at two levels: near the summit crater and at depths of 25-30 km. Shallow events predominated deeper ones. Beginning at 1749 on 12 July, a 43-minute series of shallow earthquakes was recorded. The color coded level of concern was raised to yellow on 20 July.

Fumarolic plumes rose to only 50 m above the volcano during 22-24 June, but rose 100-300 m during 29 June-2 July. Plumes rising to 100 m and extending a few kilometers to the S or SW were also seen on 6, 7, 11, 13, and 14 July. On other days the summit was obscured by clouds.

Information Contacts: Olga Chubarova, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.
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08/1998 (BGVN 23:08) Gas-and-ash explosions during 23-25 July

During 27 July-1 September seismicity under the volcano was generally above background. Hypocenters of earthquakes were concentrated at two levels: near the summit crater and at depths of 25-30 km. Shallow events were more numerous than deeper ones. Clouds often prevented direct summit observations. The level-of-concern fluctuated between Yellow and Green throughout the period.

Beginning on the afternoon of 23 July gas-and-ash explosions occurred every 15-20 minutes. A plume rose 300-500 m over the summit. No unusual changes in seismicity were recorded until noon on 25 July, when earthquake numbers and energy abruptly decreased, and tremor amplitude increased. During the first two weeks of August, earthquakes were concentrated near the summit accompanied by weak tremor. On 19 August tremor decreased but the number of shallow earthquakes increased. No tremor was recorded after 21 August, but on 23 August there was a 23-minute series of shallow earthquakes.

Fumarolic plumes rose to only 50 m above the volcano on 2 August, but some rose to 100 m by 9 August. Plumes rising to 400 m and extending 10 km NE were seen on 18 August. No plumes were seen on 11 and 16 August. On other days the summit was obscured by clouds.

Information Contacts: Olga Chubarova, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.
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09/1998 (BGVN 23:09) Explosions, ash 2-3 September raise concern to yellow alert

During 2-28 September, seismicity under the volcano was generally above background levels. Hypocenters were concentrated at two levels: near the summit crater and at depths of 25-30 km. Clouds often prevented observations.

On 2 September a fumarolic plume was observed during the daylight hours rising 50 m above the summit. Beginning at 2218 that day, a 33-minute series of explosive earthquakes was recorded, and at 2245 an ash explosion produced a plume that rose 4-5 km above the crater. On 3 September, scientists noticed that ash had been deposited in a 2-km-long zone on the NE slope. A plume of gas, with no ash content, rose 500 m above the volcano during 3-4 September, but had stopped by 5 September. Because of the increase in activity, the alert status was changed to Yellow, meaning more significant eruptions may occur.

No fumarolic plumes were seen during 8, 18, and 27 September, but plumes rising up to 100 m above the summit were seen during 13, 16, 17, 21, and 24 September. The alert color code returned to Green on 21 September, indicating normal activity.

Information Contacts: Olga Chubarova, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.
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10/1998 (BGVN 23:10) Background seismic and fumarolic activity during October

During October seismicity under the volcano was generally above background levels. Hypocenters of earthquakes recorded through the period were concentrated at two levels: near the summit crater and at depths of 25-30 km. On 1, 14, 15, 18, and 19 October a fumarolic plume was observed during the daylight hours rising 50 m above the summit. On 9 October the plume rose to 100 m above the summit. No fumarolic plumes were seen on 30 September, 2, 3, 6, 11, or 16 October. Clouds prevented direct observation of the summit during the remainder of the month. The alert status remained "green" indicating normal activity through October.

Information Contacts: Olga Chubarova, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.
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12/1998 (BGVN 23:12) Series of shallow earthquakes 23 December

During 7-27 December seismicity under the volcano was generally at background. Hypocenters concentrated both at shallow depths near the summit crater and at depths of 25-30 km. On 7 December a fumarolic plume rose 500 m above the crater and extended >10 km E. During 8-11 December a plume rose 50 m above the crater before moving 2-3 km SE and E. On 21 December the plume rose 100 m above the crater, extending 10 km NW. On most other days during December, the volcano was obscured by clouds.

Beginning at 2352 on 23 December a series of shallow earthquakes with magnitudes smaller than M 2 began to be recorded beneath the volcano and at distances of >100 km. At 0400 on 24 December the activity abruptly decreased, although remaining still slightly above background until 1000 that day. Satellite images obtained during and after this anomaly did not show large areas of airborne ash. The level of concern color code was increased to yellow.

Information Contacts: Vladimir Kirianov, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.
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01/1999 (BGVN 24:01) Series of deep and shallow earthquakes

Elevated seismicity persisted through January. Background seismicity was concentrated near the summit crater and at depths of 25-30 km. Beginning at 1514 on 2 January, a series of shallow earthquakes began to be detected. These earthquakes prevailed until 13 January when a 22-minute series was recorded. At 0055 on 15 January a series of deep (25-50 km) earthquakes began. By the end of the month, seismicity had returned to background levels and the alert level was lowered from yellow to green.

Fumarolic plumes rising several hundreds of meters above the summit were seen on 8, 13, 14, 19, and 23-28 January. Some of these plumes were blown by winds as far as 20 km from the volcano. On many days during January direct observation was prevented by poor weather.

Information Contacts: Olga Chubarova, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.
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03/1999 (BGVN 24:03) Elevated seismicity and large steam plumes continue through March

Elevated seismicity persisted through February and March. Earthquake hypocenters were concentrated at levels near the summit crater and at depths of 25-30 km. Visual observations were hindered by bad weather on many days. Because of increases in activity, the Level of Concern Color Code was changed to Yellow from Green and back three times during the reporting period.

Deeper earthquakes increased toward the end of 1-7 February, and fumarolic plumes rose several hundred meters above the crater during this week. On 5 February a gas explosion sent a plume 2,500 m above the crater. Earthquakes at both shallow and deeper depths continued through 25 February, as did the fumarolic plumes.

Fumarolic or steam plumes were observed during most of the period 15-30 March rising hundreds of meters above the summit before being blown about 5 km. At 1422 on 17 March satellite images showed a steam plume extending 40 km NE. On 20 March separate gas and steam explosions occurring at a rate of 2-3 per hour rose 500 m above the crater. A 17-minute series of earthquakes and tremor was recorded on 3 March and low-amplitude tremor began to be recorded again on 12 March. Between 1918 and 2137 on 20 March a series of near-surface M <1.6 earthquakes occurred.

Information Contacts: Olga Chubarova, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.
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05/1999 (BGVN 24:05) Series of ash explosions and shallow earthquakes during May

Seismicity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during most of May. Earthquakes were concentrated near the summit crater and at depths of 25-30 km. On 29-30 April, a plume rose 200-400 m above the crater. An ash explosion began at 1330 on 1 May and on the evening of 2 May a fumarolic plume rose 2,700 m above the crater. During 3-5 May plumes rose 200-1,500 m above the crater before extending a few kilometers NE.

Short-lived explosive eruptions began at 1143 on 7 May, as seen from the nearby town of Klyuchi [(30 km NNE)]. Activity began with a powerful gas-and-steam blowout that became dark gray as ash mixed with steam rose above the summit. Ash explosions continued to occur every three minutes until the series ended abruptly at 1217. The height of the ash column reached 3,000 m and the plume extended 8 km NW. Authorities increased the color-coded warning level to yellow. Less vigorous gas-and-steam explosions, with plume heights of 400-700 m, occurred during the day at intervals of 7-10 minutes. At 1453 an ash-poor explosion column rose 2,500 m above the crater. Explosions were observed every 3-5 minutes with plumes 200-1,000 m above the crater during much of 8-9 May. A plume released on 8 May extended 30 km to the S and at 1230 on 9 May a plume rose 2,000 m above the crater. Moderate seismic and fumarolic activity returned and continued until the end of May.

Information Contacts: Olga Chubarova, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.
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07/1999 (BGVN 24:07) May-August seismicity weak; traces of ash in emissions

During the period from 17 May to 9 August 1999, seismicity at the volcano was generally at or below background levels. Tremors and shallow earthquakes were registered occasionally, and earthquake hypocenters were concentrated near the summit crater. Gas-and-steam plumes containing ash occurred weekly, rising from a few hundred meters to as high as 2 km above the crater. Ash in these plumes dispersed in various directions to distances from 1 to 15 km (the latter on 18 June and extending to the S). On numerous days during this period, the volcano was obscured by clouds.

In one interval, starting on the afternoon of 28 May, a series of small (M 0.5) shallow earthquakes and tremor was recorded. Seismicity increased markedly on 30 May with a series of shallow earthquakes (M <2). This declined at 1122 on 30 May and remained at background levels. During the first half of July and again on 21 and 25 July, weak fumarolic activity was again observed at the summit.

During 12-18 July, seismicity rose above background as tremor and shallow earthquakes registered. On the morning of 12 July a gas-and-steam plume rose 200 m above the crater and extended up to 4 km. In the evening, a gas-and-steam plume with a mixture of light brown ash rose 1.5 to 2 km above the crater extending as much as ~5 km downwind.

Information Contacts: Olga Chubarova, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.
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11/1999 (BGVN 24:11) Variable fumarolic plumes and episodes of increased seismicity

Highly variable activity continued throughout August-December 1999. Typical daily activity observed during clear weather consisted of a small fumarolic plume rising 50-200 m above the crater and extending a few kilometers downwind, usually E or SE. Seismicity was generally at background levels, consisting of shallow earthquakes with some periods of tremor. However, higher gas-and-steam plumes were frequently seen and two episodes of increased seismicity were detected. The volcano was frequently obscured by clouds.

Tremors and shallow earthquakes were registered during 9-15 August. Typical small fumarolic plumes were seen on 9-10, 13-14, 16, 21-26, and 28 August, and 2, 4-5, 7-8, and 12 September. On 30-31 August a gas-and-steam plume rose 500-1,500 m above the crater. On 15 September a gas-and-steam plume rose 600 m, and on 16 September the plume rose 200 m extending 5 km E. Mainly shallow earthquakes were registered from 19 September through 24 October. Gas-and-steam plumes rose up to 500 m during 19-26 and 28 September, and 3, 5, 7, 11, 20-21, and 24 October, extending as far as 5 km E or SE. During the afternoon of 15 October there was a 6.5-hour-long series of shallow earthquakes. On 22-23 October a fumarolic plume rose 700-1,000 m and extended 5-20 km to the E and SE.

Seismicity, consisting of shallow earthquakes and tremor, was above background levels during much of the period from 25 October until 17 December. Only small fumarolic plumes 50-300 m high were seen on 25 and 27 October, but on 26 October a plume rose 1,000 m above the volcano and extended 40 km NE. Small fumarolic plumes to 300 m extending 5 km SE were seen on 29-31 October and 4 November, with smaller typical plumes on 5, 7-8, and 10-11 November. Shallow earthquakes and volcanic tremor were recorded especially on 15, 21, and 25 November, when a gas-and-steam plume rose 1,000 m and extended more than 7 km NE. Typical smaller fumarolic plumes were seen on 12, 16, 18-19, 22-24, 26, and 28 November, and on 1, 3, and 10 December. On 29 November and 1 December gas-and-steam plumes rose 1,500 m above the volcano and extended more than 20 km SE. A fumarolic plume on 8 December rose 2,500 m.

During December 17-29 seismicity at the volcano returned to background levels. Small plumes were recorded on 17, 19-21, 25, and 28 December. Another plume on the 23rd rose 700 m.

Information Contacts: Olga Chubarova, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.
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04/2000 (BGVN 25:04) Frequent fumarolic plumes, one to 10 km altitude on 30 January

This report covers the period January-April 2000. As of 28 April 2000, KVERT (Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team) temporarily suspended operations because of a lack of funding. During most of this four-month period, seismicity at the volcano was at background levels, with shallow earthquakes and weak fumarolic activity accompanied frequently by fumarolic plumes. The plumes rose from 50 to 1,500 m above the volcano and extended in various directions as far as 10 km from the vent. The volcano frequently was obscured by clouds.

Twice during the reporting period, however, the activity level increased sufficiently so that the hazard level was raised from Green to Yellow. The first of these events occurred during 29 January-3 February when seismicity was above background levels with shallow earthquakes and tremor registered. On 29 January, a fumarolic plume rose 1,500 m above the crater extending 30 km to the SE. On 30 January and 1 February, a plume rose 50-500 m above the crater and extended up to 15 km S. According to reports from pilots of Northwest and Reeve Aleutian Airlines, and an observer from Alaska Volcano Observatory on the Reeve flight, a gas-and-steam plume was observed at 1440 on 30 January rising as high as 8-10 km altitude. On the morning of 3 February the volcano was quiet. According to visual reports from from Kliuchi (~30 km NE of the volcano) and pilot reports, a short-lived eruption at 1708 on 3 February sent an ash-poor plume to altitudes of 8-9 km; instruments measured an accompanying increase in seismicity. According to analysis of a satellite image at 1825 on 3 February the plume extended 40 km SSE and contained a large amount of water or ice.

During the subsequent week (4-10 February), seismicity continued above background levels and shallow earthquakes and tremor were registered. At 1815 on 8 February, seismic data indicated that a short-lived explosion probably occurred, because a series of shallow events were recorded. On 4-5 February, a fumarolic plume rose 200-500 m above the crater and extended 3-40 km W and SW.

During the period 11 February to 2 March, seismicity at the volcano returned to near background level accompanied by typical events noted earlier. But during 3-9 March, seismicity at the volcano increased again and the hazard level was raised again to Yellow. During this period, shallow earthquakes were registered. On 3-4 March a steam-and-gas plume rose 1,500 m above the volcano. On 5-7 March, a fumarolic plume rose 100-300 m above the crater. On 8 March, a steam-and-gas plume rose 1,000 m above the volcano extending 5 km to the NW.

Seismicity returned to background levels on 13 March and the hazard level was reduced to Green. This situation prevailed throughout the remainder of March and April. Shallow earthquakes, fumarolic activity, and plumes continued as in the earlier portion of the reporting period.

Information Contacts: Olga Chubarova, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.
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09/2000 (BGVN 25:09) Seismic swarms, fumarolic activity, and gas-and-ash explosions

This report covers the period June-mid-October 2000. KVERT (Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team) resumed operations at the beginning of June, after being shut down due to lack of funding. Reports indicated that fumarolic activity occurred through 23 June, sending plumes up to 700 m above the summit crater. The week of 23-29 June was entirely quiet, with no seismicity above normal or activity from fumaroles.

Weak fumarolic activity began anew on 2 July and continued to the middle of the month. A fumarolic plume rose 100-200 m above the volcano on 15-18 July, and extended 2-5 km to NW, W, and S. On 21 July, a M2 earthquake occurred, and at 0330 on 24 July, continuous volcanic tremor began. Strong tremor occurred from 1550 to 1730, but afterward returned to background levels although shallow earthquakes continued to be registered. No thermal anomaly was detected in satellite imagery during that time. On 28 July at 0815, residents in Kliuchi, a town 30 km NE of the summit, observed a short-lived explosive eruption that sent a gas-and-ash plume to 3 km above the volcano. The plume extended to the S, and increased seismicity occurred. The eruption caused KVERT to increase the Level of Concern Code for Kliuchevskoi to Yellow. At 0703 on 31 July, seismic data indicated that an even more vigorous short-lived gas-and-ash explosion occurred, because a series of shallow earthquakes was registered with a greater signal amplitude than those on 28 July.

Seismicity during the first week of August was above background levels with both shallow and deep earthquakes. Seismic data indicated a possible short-lived gas-and-ash explosion at 1047 on 8 August. Estimates of the plume height using seismic data suggest that it was no higher than the 28 July eruption. Shallow seismic activity was recorded during the middle of August, but no visual data were available because the volcano was largely obscured by clouds. KVERT decreased the Level of Concern Color Code from Yellow to Green on 18 August. At the end of August, weak fumarolic activity was observed above Kliuchevskoi's summit crater. On 29 August, a gas-and-steam explosion sent a plume 100 m above the crater and was blown SE.

The beginning of September was marked by heightened seismicity. A continuous fumarolic plume rose to a height of 50-100 m during 1-5 September. Fumarolic and seismic activity decreased on 6 September. On 11 September, another fumarolic plume from the summit crater rose 200-300 m. Activity diminished to weak fumarolic emanations a day later. KVERT recorded several shallow and weak seismic events on the night of 12 September, indicating a small gas-and-ash explosion. Kliuchi residents observed a darkened crater rim and a new zone of ashfall the next morning.

A fumarolic plume rose to 100-200 m above the volcano on the night of 16 September and into the next morning. Seismic activity increased significantly at 1230 on 17 September with a swarm of intense shallow earthquakes until 1300; these were registered at a station more than 130 km away. Although no volcanic activity was observed visually, the KVERT Level of Concern Color Code for Kliuchevskoi was increased from Green to Yellow. Seismic activity decreased in intensity for the rest of the week. Weak fumarolic activity occurred on 20-21 September, but otherwise the volcano was quiet.

On 22 September, the residents of Kliuchi observed a 500-m-high ash plume at 1715, which drifted toward the S. Fumarolic emissions during 22-27 September sent plumes up to 100 m above the summit. Seismicity was at background levels and the eruptions ceased for the remainder of the month, causing KVERT to decrease the hazard status back to Green on 29 September. Near-background level seismicity continued into October. Minor fumarolic discharges occurred into mid-October with no further significant volcanic activity.

Information Contacts: Olga Chubarova, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.
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04/2001 (BGVN 26:04) Consistent gas-and-steam emissions; high seismicity

The following report covers the interval of 30 December 2000-10 May 2001, during which Kliuchevskoi had a maximum Level of Concern Color Code of Yellow. Since the previous report (BGVN 25:09), gas-and-steam plumes rose from the volcano throughout the entire report period. During 30 December 2000-1 February 2001, seismicity remained at background levels and fumarolic plumes rose up to 1,000 m. Strong shallow earthquakes were subsequently recorded on 4 and 18 February. Gas-and-steam plumes continued to rise and reached a maximum height of 1,200 m above the summit through 22 February.

Beginning during 22-24 and 27-28 February, episodes of weak spasmodic tremor were registered. Weak interrupted tremor continued during 2-29 March. On 4 March the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT) reported a gas-and-steam plume with a maximum height of 1,000 m extending 10 km NE of the volcano. Satellite imagery detected the large plume and prompted the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) to issue an ash advisory the same day despite no reported detection of ash by KVERT. From 1925 to 1940 on 15 March seismographs recorded an intense series of shallow earthquakes. Gas-and-steam plumes reached heights of 2,000 m during mid-March. At about this time KVERT raised the hazard level of Kliuchevskoi from Green to Yellow.

The level of volcanic tremor began to gradually increase again at 1000 on 7 April; a significantly high level of tremor occurred at 1300 on the same day. At 0717 on 8 April seismicity increased sharply with a swarm of shallow earthquakes (M ~ 2) accompanied by volcanic tremor. No eruptive activity was observed, and after 0900 activity decreased substantially. Similar low-level seismicity continued through 12 April, and KVERT decreased the volcano's hazard level from Yellow to Green following this date.

Elevated seismicity continued at 1259 on 13 April with a strong earthquake (M ~ 5) that occurred between Kliuchevskoi and Ushkovsky volcanoes at a depth of ~12 km. Aftershocks of this event (M <= ~ 4.2) continued to occur through 19 April. Small shallow earthquakes were also registered. During 20 April-10 May low-level fumarolic activity was prevalent with plumes that rose up to 1,500 m and background-level seismicity. KVERT maintained a hazard status of GREEN as of 10 May 2001.

Information Contacts: Olga Chubarova, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA; Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/OTH/ JP/messages.html).
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06/2002 (BGVN 27:06) Increased seismicity prompts KVERT to raise hazard status to Yellow

During mid-September 2001 through at least mid-June 2002 activity at Kliuchevskoi was characterized by brief periods of increased seismicity and minor surface activity. Earthquakes up to M 3 occurred (table 3) along with weak spasmodic tremor with a maximum amplitude up to 1.5 x 10-6 m/s (table 4). Gas-and-steam plumes often accompanied the increased seismicity and were visible reaching up to 2.0 km above the crater (table 5).

Table 3. Seismicity at Kliuchevskoi during mid-September 2001 through mid-June 2002. Courtesy KVERT.

    Date                  Event                               Magnitude

    13 Sep 2001           Two earthquakes                    M ~2 and ~1.7
    01 Oct-02 Oct 2001    Eleven earthquakes              five M ~2, six ~1.7
    18 Oct 2001           Series of large earthquakes             -- 
                            within the edifice
    26 Oct-09 Nov 2001    Series of earthquakes within            --
                            the edifice and ~30 km depth
    13 Nov 2001           Swarm of shallow earthquakes           ~M 3
    13 Nov-15 Nov 2001    150+ earthquakes                      M 1.7
    07 Apr 2002           Series of shallow earthquakes         M 2.3
                            began
    24 May-31 May 2002    Weak earthquakes at a depth             --
                            of ~30 km
    31 May-07 Jun 2002    ~20 earthquakes/day at a depth        M 2.3
                            of ~30 km
    11 Jun 2002           ~30 min series of shallow             M 2.8
                            earthquakes
    07 Jun-14 Jun 2002    22-48 earthquakes/day at a depth        --
                            of ~30 km

Table 4. Tremor recorded at Kliuchevskoi during mid-September through mid-June 2002. Courtesy KVERT.

    Date                  Event                          Magnitude/amplitude
                                                                (µm/s)

    20 Sep 2001           Volcanic tremor                        0.15
    21 Sep-22 Sep 2001    Volcanic tremor                     0.23-0.21
    23 Sep 2001           Volcanic tremor                        0.28
    24 Sep 2001           Volcanic tremor                        0.4
    25 Sep-26 Sep 2001    Volcanic tremor                     0.23-0.27
    27 Sep-29 Sep 2001    Weak, continuous volcanic tremor    0.22-0.32
    01 Oct 2001           Intermittent weak spasmodic            0.19
                            volcanic tremor
    02 Oct-04 Oct 2001    Intermittent weak spasmodic            0.30
                            volcanic tremor
    05 Oct 2001           Continuous, spasmodic tremor           0.30
    06 Oct 2001           Continuous, spasmodic tremor           0.18
    09 Oct 2001           Continuous, spasmodic tremor           0.26
    10 Oct 2001           Continuous, spasmodic tremor           0.51
    11 Oct 2001           Continuous, spasmodic tremor           0.47
    12 Oct 2001           Continuous, spasmodic tremor           0.51
    13 Oct 2001           Continuous, spasmodic tremor           0.54
    14 Oct 2001           Volcanic tremor                        0.13
    15 Oct-17 Oct 2001    Volcanic tremor                     0.15-0.17
    Nov 2001              Episodes of weak volcanic tremor        --
    Apr-May 2002          Weak volcanic tremor                    --
    30 May 2002           Volcanic tremor                        1.5

Table 5. Plumes visible at Kliuchevskoi during 13 September 2001 to 20 June 2002. Plumes were visible from Klyuchi town unless noted otherwise. Heights are above the crater. Courtesy KVERT.

    Date (2001-2002)    Time    Plume details

    13, 17, 19-20 Sep    --     Gas-and-steam plumes rose 50-100 m.
    19 Sep               --     Gas-and-steam plume rose 1.0 km and extended
                                  20 km to the S.
    23 Sep               --     Gas-and-steam plume rose 100 m.
    24 Sep              1828    Possible gas-and-steam plume observed in
                                  satellite image.
    01 Oct              0810    Gas-and-steam plume up to 1.0 km extending
                                  30 km to the NW.
    01 Oct              1150    Gas-and-steam plume up to 2.0 km extending
                                  15 km to the NW.
    01 Oct              1400    Gas-and-steam plume up to 1.5-2.0 km extending
                                  10 km to the W.
    01 Oct              1730    Gas-and-steam plume up to 800 m extending 5 km
                                  to the S visible from Kozyurevsk.
    02 Oct             ~0830    Gas-and-steam plume up to 300 m extending 3 km
                                  to the S visible from Kozyurevsk and
                                  Klyuchi.
    05 Oct              0850    Gas-and-steam plume rose 300 m and extended
                                  3 km to the S visible from Kozyurevsk.
    05 Oct              1200    Gas-and-steam plume rose 100 m.
    10 Oct              0815    Gas-and-steam plume rose 500 m and extended
                                  5 km to the S.
    12, 14, 16,          --     Gas-and-steam plumes rose 50-100 m.
     27-29 Oct
    30 Oct               --     Gas-and-steam plume rose 700 m and extended
                                  5 km to the SE.
    31 Oct               --     Gas-and-steam plume rose 50-100 m and extended
                                  5 km to the SE.
    01 Nov               --     Gas-and-steam plume rose 50-100 m.
    02 Nov               --     Gas-and-steam plume rose 50-200 m and extended
                                  3 km to the SE.
    06 Nov               --     Gas-and-steam plume rose 50-200 m and extended
                                  20 km to the NE.
    08 Nov               --     Gas-and-steam plume rose 50-200 m.
    09 Nov               --     Gas-and-steam plume rose 600 m.
    11-13, 18 Nov        --     Gas-and-steam plume rose 50-100 m.
    19 Nov               --     Gas-and-steam plume rose 700 m and extended
                                  10 km to the SE.
    21 Nov               --     Gas-and-steam plume rose 500 m and extended to
                                  the SW.
    09 Apr 2002         2038    Explosion sent a gas-and-steam plume with
                                  possible ash to 1.0 km.
    06, 09-10 Apr;       --     Gas-and-steam plume rose 100 m.
     24, 27 May
    31 May; 1-3, 6, 9,   --     Gas-and-steam plume rose 100-300 m.
     15-16, 20 Jun

On 13 November a swarm of shallow M 3 earthquakes caused the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) to increase the Alert Level from Green to Yellow. According to a pilot's report, at 1315 on 19 November powerful fumarolic activity was observed. Seismicity decreased during the following days and on 23 November KVERT decreased the Color Code to Green. Seismicity remained at or near background levels with only slight increases in activity until 31 May when a series of earthquakes (up to M 2.3) was recorded in the volcano's edifice. As a result, the Color Code was increased to Yellow.

During 31 May-7 June ~20 earthquakes occurred daily at a depth of ~30 km (table 3). Overflight observations on 9 June indicated fresh ash on the volcano's slopes. The deposits were not accompanied by visually or seismically detected explosions. At the end of the report period, seismicity was slightly above background with a small gas-and-steam plume visible from nearby villages.

Information Contacts: Olga Chubarova, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.
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11/2002 (BGVN 27:11) Above-background seismicity June-November 2002

During late June through early December 2002 seismicity fluctuated at Kliuchevskoi, but remained above background levels. Plumes were occasionally visible reaching up to 2.0 km above the crater (table 6).

Table 6. Plumes visible at Kliuchevskoi during mid-August through early December 2002. Courtesy KVERT.

    Date (2002)         Time       Plume details
                                   (heights are above the crater)

    16-18 August         --        A gas-and-steam plume rose 500-1500 m,
                                     extended 10 km to the W and NW on 16
                                     and 18 August.
    19 and 21 August     --        A gas-and-steam plume rose 50-150 m,
                                     extended 10 km to the SW on 19 August.
    22 August           0700 and   According to visual observations from
                        0820         Klyuchi town, a gas-and-steam plume
                                     with ash rose 100 m.
    22 August           0830       Observers from Kozyrevsk village
                                     reported a gas-steam plume that rose
                                     100 m and extended 15 km to the S.
    22 August           0718       An AVHRR image (band 2) showed a
                                     steam-gas (?) plume extending S.
    01 November          --        A gas-and-steam plume rose ~800 m and
                                     extended 10 km to the SE.
    8, 9, 13 November    --        A gas-and-steam plume rose ~100-900 m
                                     and extended 10 km to the E and SE.
    17-18 November       --        Gas-and-steam plumes rose ~1,000-2,000 m
                                     and extended 10-20 km to the W.
    19-21 November       --        Gas-and-steam plumes rose ~100-200 m.
    3 December           --        According to visual observations from
                                     Klyuchi, gas-and-steam plumes rose
                                     ~1,300 m and extended  N and NE.
    30 November and      --        Gas-and-steam plumes rose 100-400 m and
    1, 2, 4 December                 extended 10 km to the SE, E, W, and N.
    3 December           --        According to satellite data, a ~15 km
                                     gas-and-steam plume extended NNE.

Increased seismicity during November 2001 and May 2002 (BGVN 27:06) prompted KVERT to increase the Concern Color Code to Yellow. The Code was reduced to Green on 21 June. On 30 August KVERT reported that during the previous week ~10 earthquakes occurred at depths of ~30 km beneath the volcano. Small shallow earthquakes and weak spasmodic tremor were also registered during the week. No further reports were issued until early November 2002.

On 8 November 2002, KVERT reported that seismicity had reached above-background levels several times per month during 2002. Specifically, they reported high seismicity as follows: 8 days each month during June, September and October; 4 days in July; 7 days in August, and an unspecified number of times during early November.

The Concern Color Code was increased to Yellow on 14 November. Seismicity was above background levels during 8 November through at least 5 December (table 7).

Table 7. Earthquakes and intermittent spasmodic volcanic tremor measured at Kliuchevskoi during late August through early December 2002. Courtesy KVERT.

    Date (2002)      Earthquakes per day   Intermittent tremor (in terms
                       (~30 km depth)         of geophone velocity)

    30 Aug                 ~10                         --
    01 Nov-07 Nov          5-13            Up to 1.1-1.4 x 10^-6 m/s.
    08 Nov-10 Nov          5-9                         --
    11 Nov-13 Nov         33-56            Slowly decreased from 1.6 x 10^-6
                                             m/s to 0.75 x 10^-6 m/s during
                                             8-12 November.
    14 Nov-17 Nov     Decreased from       0.6-0.7 x 10^-6 m/s during 14-16
                          26 to 9            November.
    17 Nov-20 Nov           9              1.1-1.3 x 10^-6 m/s.
    28 Nov-01 Dec         8-13                         --
    02 Dec-04 Dec        24-33                         --
    28 Nov-05 Dec          --              ~0.8 x 10^-6 m/s.

Information Contacts: Olga Girina, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.
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02/2003 (BGVN 28:02) Seismicity above background levels; explosion and thermal anomaly

Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 29 November 2002 through at least 4 March 2003. Tens of earthquakes per day were recorded, mostly at depths of ~30 km (table 8), and intermittent spasmodic volcanic tremor occurred. During December through February, gas-and-steam plumes generally rose up to 2 km above the crater. The Concern Color Code fluctuated between Yellow and Orange, but by the end of the report period remained at Yellow.

Table 8. Earthquakes recorded at Kliuchevskoi during 29 November 2002-28 February 2003. Courtesy KVERT.

    Date (2002-2003)      Earthquakes per day

    29 Nov-04 Dec 2002       Up to 33
    06 Dec-13 Dec 2002        12-24
    13 Dec-20 Dec 2002         6-12
    19 Dec-25 Dec 2002         6-9
    26 Dec-03 Jan 2003         3-11
    06 Jan-09 Jan 2003        10-23
    10 Jan-12 Jan 2003        12-28
    13 Jan-15 Jan 2003        33-35
    31 Jan-07 Feb 2003        16-39
    07 Feb-14 Feb 2003        17-30
    13 Feb-19 Feb 2003        14-81
    21 Feb-28 Feb 2003        10-14

Visual observations and video recordings from the town of Klyuchi revealed that a plume from an explosion on 24 December 2002 rose 4 km above the crater and drifted WSW. On 5 January 2003 a faint thermal anomaly, and probable mud flow down the SSE slope were visible on satellite imagery. According to KVERT, the thermal anomaly and mud flow indicated that a lava flow may have begun to travel down the SSE slope. A probable mudflow, seen on the SE slope on 7 January, may have emerged after a short explosion to the SE or E, or after powerful fumarolic activity in the crater. During the week of 26 February-4 March, gas-and-steam plumes rose to low levels and possible ash deposits on the volcano's SE summit were visible on satellite imagery.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.
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07/2003 (BGVN 28:07) Gas-and-steam plumes June-August with occassional ash plumes

Eruptions continued at Kliuchevskoi during late 2002 through mid-2003, with typical plume heights estimated at several hundred meters and occasionally reaching ~2 km above the volcano (eg., early July and August 2003). Above-background seismicity prevailed during most or all the reporting interval.

The volcano (also spelled Klyuchevskoy) was last reported on in BGVN 28:02, and vol. 27, no. 11, issues discussing events through 4 March 2003. This report relies heavily on tabled data to convey observations from as far back as 3 December 2002, providing some further details during the 3 December-4 March 2003 interval of overlap with the earlier reports. The source reports came from the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) and were communicated via the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO). Table 9 summarizes recent plume observations, while table 10 summarizes recent earthquake and intermittent spasmodic volcanic tremor, basically above-background seismicity affiliated with ongoing eruptive unrest.

Table 9. Plumes visible at Kliuchevskoi during December 2002 through mid-April 2003. Courtesy KVERT.

    Date                   Plume Details

    30 Nov-2 Dec, 4 Dec    Gas-and-steam plumes rose 100-400 m above
                             crater and extended 10 km SE, E, W, and N.
    3 Dec                  Gas-and-steam plumes rose ~ 1,300 m above
                             crater and extended N and NE (NNE ~ 15 km
                             from Russian satellite data).
    5, 9, 12 Dec           Gas-and-steam plumes rose ~ 100 m above
                             crater and extended 3-10 km E and SE.
    10-11 Dec              Gas-and-steam plumes rose ~ 1,500 m above
                             crater and extended N and NE. 
    13-16, 18 Dec          Gas-and-steam plumes rose ~ 100-800 m above
                             crater and extended 5-10 km E and SE.
    17, 19 Dec             Gas-and-steam plumes rose ~ 1,000-1,500 m
                             above crater and extended 10 km E.
    19, 21, 23 Dec         Gas-and-steam plumes rose ~ 1,000-2,000 m
                             above crater and extended to E, S, and N.
    24 Dec (0100 UTC)      Gas-and-ash explosion rose ~ 4,000 m above
                             crater and plume extended WSW
    4 Jan 2003 (2125 UTC)  Gas-and-steam plume rose ~ 1,000 m above
                             crater and extended 20 km NE.
    5, 7, 9 Jan            Gas-and-steam plumes rose 10 m above crater.
    8 Jan                  Gas-and-steam plumes rose 1,000 m above
                             crater.
    11-13, 15 Jan          Gas-and-steam plumes rose 50-300 m above
                             crater (very narrow plume extended 30-50 km
                             NNE from US satellite data).
    24, 27 Jan             Gas-and-steam plumes rose 1,000 m above
                             crater and extended 10 km NE (24 Jan) and
                             SE (27 Jan).
    25-26, 28-29 Jan       Gas-and-steam plumes rose 100-300 m above
                             crater.
    1-3 Feb                Gas-and-steam plumes rose 100-300 m above
                             crater (extended 30 km NNE from Russian
                             satellite data).
    4 Feb                  Gas-and-steam plumes rose 1,300 m above
                             crater and extended 10 km NE.
    9 Feb                  Gas-and-steam plumes rose 1,500 m above
                             crater and extended 10 km N.
    10 Feb                 Narrow gas-and-steam plume extending 25 km N.
    11, 13, 18-19 Feb      Gas-and-steam plumes rose 50 m above crater.
    15-17 Feb              Gas-and-steam plumes rose 1,000 m above
                             crater.
    22-26 Feb              Gas-and-steam plumes rose 200 m above crater.
    23 Feb                 Gray sector (perhaps ash deposits) showed up
                             on MODIS satellite data from Russia on the
                             SE part of summit.
    5 Mar                  Gas-and-steam plumes rose 300 m above crater.
    10-13 Mar              Gas-and-steam plumes rose 50 m above crater.
    16 Mar                 Gas-and-steam plumes extended 25-40 km W
                             (from US and Russian satellite data).
    18-19 Mar              Gas-and-steam plumes rose 700-1,500 m above
                             crater (extended < 30  km W on 19 Mar, from
                             US and Russian satellite data).
    21-22 and 24-25 Mar    Gas-and-steam plumes rose up to 300-1,000 m
                             above crater and and extended 5-30 km in
                             all directions (extended 30 km NNW on 21
                             Mar and 100 km NNE on 24 Mar, from US and
                             Russian satellite data).
    22 Mar                 Gas-and-steam explosions with ash-poor plumes
                             that rose up to 200 m above the crater.
    28-30 Mar, 2 Apr       Gas-and-steam plumes rose up to 50-300 m
                             above crater and extended in all directions
                             5-20 km (10 km NW on 28 Mar, from US and
                             Russian satellite data).
    5 Apr                  Gas-and-steam plumes rose up to 300 m above
                             crater and extended 10 km E.
    7 Apr                  Weak fumarolic activity observed.
    15-16 Apr              Series of ash plumes rose up to 300 m above
                             crater and extended 10 km E

Table 10. Earthquakes and intermittent spasmodic volcanic tremor registered at Kliuchevskoi during December 2002 through mid-April 2003. Courtesy of KVERT.

    Date           Earthquakes per day        Intermittent tremor
                     (~30 km depth)      (in terms of geophone velocity)

    28 Nov-1 Dec         8-13                ~0.8 x 10^-6 m/s.
    2-4 Dec             24-33                ~0.8 x 10^-6 m/s.
    5-12 Dec            12-24                ~0.5-0.7 x 10^-6 m/s.
    13-19 Dec            6-12                0.5-0.7 x 10^-6 m/s.
    19-25 Dec            6-9                 ~0.6-0.7 x 10^-6 m/s.
    24 Dec                --                 Gas-and-ash explosion at
                                             0010 UTC.
    3, 4 Jan 2003       9, 10                ~0.5-0.7 x 10^-6 m/s.
    5-9 Jan             10-13                Increased from 0.55 x 10^-6 
                  1, M 1.75 earthquake       m/s on 5-7 Jan to 0.7 x 10^-6 m/s on 8 Jan.
    10-12 Jan           12-18                0.4-0.75 x 10^-6 m/s.
    13-15 Jan           33-35                0.4-0.75 x 10^-6 m/s.
    16-23 Jan             --                 0.4-0.6 x 10^-6 m/s.
    16-19 Jan     Increased from             --
                    44 to 90.
    20-22 Jan     Gradually decreased        --
                    35 to 21.
    24-31 Jan           10-22                0.3-0.5 x 10^-6 m/s.
                  18, M 1.25 earthquakes
    1-6 Feb             16-39                0.4-0.6 x 10^-6 m/s.
                  15, M 2.0-2.2 earthquakes
    1 Feb                 --                 1.26 x 10^-6 m/s
                                             from 0311 to 2400 UTC.
    6-12 Feb            17-30                0.5-0.7 x 10^-6 m/s.
                  17, M 2.0-2.1 earthquakes
    13-20 Feb           14-81                0.4-0.7 x 10^-6 m/s
                  6, M 2.0-2.2 earthquakes   (on 14 Feb, continuous
                                             tremor increased to 0.9 x 10^-6 m/s).
    20-27 Feb           10-14                0.4-0.6 x 10^-6 m/s
                  16, M 2.0-2.2 earthquakes  (from 1140 UTC 26 Feb,
                                             continuous tremor increased
                                             to 0.95 x 10^-6 m/s).
    28 Feb-6 Mar         5-11                0.5-0.8 x 10^-6 m/s.
                  3, M 2.0-2.2 earthquakes
    6-13 Mar             6-11                0.5-0.8 x 10^-6 m/s
                  12, M 2.0-2.2 earthquakes   (6-9 Mar)
    10-13 Mar             --                 1.1-1.3 x 10^-6 m/s.
    13-20 Mar            7-9                 0.5-1.5 x 10^-6 m/s.
                  7, M 2.0-2.1 earthquakes
    14 Mar                --                 1.5 x 10^-6 m/s.
    20-24 Mar            6-9                 --
    20-26 Mar     16, M 2.0-2.2 earthquakes  1.0-2.8 x 10^-6 m/s.
                  (26 on 25 Mar;
                   41 on 26 Mar)
    28 Mar-3 Apr        24-63                0.7-1.4 x 10^-6 m/s.
    4-10 Apr            10-15                1.5-3.7 x 10^-6 m/s.
                  14, M 2.0-2.2 earthquakes
    15 Apr               ~70                 Up to 4.0 x 10^-6 m/s.

Unrest continued during June 2003. Seismicity was above background and continuous spasmodic volcanic tremor tended to increase slowly and consistently. Earthquakes, both at 30 km and shallow depths, continued to register. The character of seismicity also indicated that weak gas-ash explosions possibly occurred. Table 11 summarizes thermal observations.

Table 11. Kliuchevskoi thermal anomalies and plumes observed via Russian and United States satellites, 2 June-11 August 2003. Courtesy of KVERT.

    Date(s) (2003)   Thermal Anomaly   Comments
                       (pixels)

    2 June                 --          Gas-and-steam plume rose 400 m
                                         above volcano.
    3 June                  3          --
    6-7 June               --          Ash-poor plume extending S 30-80
                                         km; explosions sent ash-gas
                                         plumes to 50-500 m above
                                         volcano.
    9 June                 --          Ash on NNE flank.
    7-8 June              weak         --
    13, 16, and 19 June    1-4         Four-pixel anomaly with max temp
                                         of 46C in a background of -1C;
                                         ash-poor plumes 50-500 m above
                                         volcano.
    23 June                 3          Possible ash deposits on SE
                                         flank; gas-and-steam plumes to
                                         50-700 m above volcano.
    28 June, 2 July         3          Ash-poor plumes to 100 m above
                                         volcano); separate and
                                         continuous ash plumes to 1,000
                                         m above volcano; plumes
                                         extended to E.
    4-6 July               1-2         Gas-and-steam with ash-poor plume
                                         extending 100 km to ESE;
                                         separate ash explosions to
                                         2,000 m above volcano.
    15-16 July             1-2         Separate or series ash explosions
                                         to 1,000 m above volcano;
                                         strong ash explosions to 2,000
                                         m above volcano.
    20-24 July             1-4         Gas-and-steam plumes rose from
                                         100-1,000 m above volcano and
                                         extended 15 km to SW.
    27-29 July,1 August    1-4         Temperature from 12 to 50C in a
                                         background of -5 to 20C; gas
                                         and steam plumes rose 500-700 m
                                         and extended 5 km SW.
    1, 4-7 August          2-6         Gas-and-steam plumes rose
                                         800-2,000 m above volcano and
                                         extended to NW and, later, S.
    9, 11 August           2-3         --

Information Contacts: Olga Girina, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), a cooperative program of the Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia, the Kamchatka Experimental and Methodical Seismological Department (KEMSD), GS RAS (Russia), and the Alaska Volcano Observatory (USA); Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.
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11/2003 (BGVN 28:11) Ash explosions and Strombolian activity through early December

Significant activity from Kliuchevskoi continued throughout 1 August to 5 December 2003, so the hazard status remained at Color Code Orange. Activity included ash explosions that generated long plumes, Strombolian activity in the central crater, thermal anomalies seen in satellite imagery, relatively strong shallow seismicity, and continuous spasmodic tremor. Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT) reports obtained via the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) provided detailed reports of significant daily activity that is summarized below.

Gas-and-steam plumes, sometimes with ash, were frequently seen rising above the crater to heights of less than 1,500 m. However, on some days plumes were seen rising as high as 2,500-3,000 m. Most of the plumes dissipated after reaching distances described as greater than 10 or 20 km downwind. Satellite imagery showed that on 8-9 September ash-and-gas plumes extended 172 km to SW and 153 km to W. Long ash plumes to distances of 18-63 km SE were seen on 4 October. During mid-October (12, 16, 17, and 18) gas-and-steam plumes reached distances of 25-70 km in many directions. On 24 October an airline pilot reported an ash plume at ~6,800 m altitude extending to the NNE. A gas-and-steam plume approximately 50-55 km long extending to the ESE was noted on 10 November, and another with minor ash extended ~40 km E on the 16th.

Strombolian activity at the central crater was detected on 26 August, when volcanic bombs rose up to 200 m above the crater and explosions occurred at intervals of about 5 minutes. More Strombolian activity was seen by observers in Klyuchi and Kozyrevsk on 25 and 30 September, 2-4, 6-8, and 10-11 October, and 9-10, 14-15, 21, 27, and 29 November. Thermal anomalies were detected every week by USA and Russian satellites, sometimes as large as 8-9 pixels.

Recorded earthquakes at 30-km depth usually ranged up to 9/day through early November, with up to 18/day the week of 1-7 August, and 30 on 3 October; magnitudes were 1.6-2.6. Continuous spasmodic tremor had geophone velocities below 8 x 10-6 m/s until 4 October, when velocities increased into the 8-20 x 10-6 m/s range. Geophone velocities dropped again to 5-11 x 10-6 m/s during 22 November-2 December, then rose to 18 x 10-6 m/s through 5 December. Large shallow seismic events (M 1.7-2.6) were first reported during the week of 11-17 October. Nine such events that week were followed by totals of 4, 22, 48, and 43 per week over the next month. Counts increased to 75 for the week of 15-21 November, 80 during 22-28 November, and 130 for the week ending on 5 December. Large numbers of weak shallow earthquakes (counts not reported) were also recorded every week.

Information Contacts: Olga Girina, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), a cooperative program of the Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia, the Kamchatka Experimental and Methodical Seismological Department (KEMSD), GS RAS (Russia), and the Alaska Volcano Observatory (USA); Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.
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12/2003 (BGVN 28:12) 2003 ends with ~3-km-tall steam plumes, M 2 earthquakes, tremor

Ash explosions and Strombolian activity was reported at Kliuchevskoi through early December 2003 (BGVN 28:11). KVERT reported that unrest continued at Kliuchevskoi over the month of December, with occasional and repeated explosions containing ash, gas and steam rising to 7-8 km altitude, and possible lava flows from the central crater. Seismicity was above background levels over the month. The alert level remained Orange.

Strombolian activity was seen from the town of Klyuchi on 7 December. At 1300 on 6 December an ash explosion up to 1 km above the crater was registered and, on the same day, a 3 km high gas-steam plume was evident. Gas plumes, possibly containing small amounts of ash, rose 100-500 m on 7-16 December, generally extending in various directions and visible to distances of 3-10 km. During this time satellites detected 1- to 9-pixel thermal anomalies. Strombolian activity was again noted from Klyuchi on 12 December.

During the week ending 12 December there were approximately 150 large shallow earthquakes of ML 1.2-2.25 and a large number of weak shallow earthquakes. For example, on 8 December, an earthquake of ML greater than 1.75 was registered at a depth of 5 km under the central crater. On 11 December, 3 earthquakes of ML 1.75-2.0 were registered at a depth of 3-6 km under the central crater. The number of earthquakes was similar during the week ending 19 December.

Tremor occurred often. An index of the tremor's size, reported in terms of relative velocity between the Earth and the seismograph's suspended mass (the ground motion), was 19-23 µm/s on 4-5 December, decreasing to ~ 6.7 µm/s on 9-10 December. On 12 December continuous spasmodic tremor had velocities of 2.5-9.2 µm/s. During the week ending 2 January, tremor had velocities of 2-4 µm/s.

During the week ending 26 December there were 135 large shallow earthquakes of ML 1.9-2.3 and a large number of weak shallow earthquakes were reported. On 19 December, one earthquake at a depth of 11 km and two earthquakes at a depth of 30 km below the central crater (ML less than 2.0) were registered. Continuous spasmodic tremor had velocities of 2.7-5.3 µm/s. Gas-steam plumes were seen rising up to 100 m above the crater on 22-23 December. The volcano was obscured by cloud at other times. A 1-pixel thermal anomaly over the volcano was registered by satellite on 23 December.

During the week ending 2 January 2004, the number of large (ML1.9-2.2) shallow earthquakes dropped to ~ 33, with a large number of weak shallow earthquakes. A 1-pixel thermal anomaly was registered on 26-27 December. On 27-29 December, gas plumes were observed rising up to 50-500 m above the volcano, but the volcano was obscured at other times.

Information Contacts: Olga Girina, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), a cooperative program of the Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia, the Kamchatka Experimental and Methodical Seismological Department (KEMSD), GS RAS (Russia), and the Alaska Volcano Observatory (USA); Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.
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04/2004 (BGVN 29:04) Background seismicity March-April 2004; ash plumes on 8 April

Unrest at Kliuchevskoi continued, with occasional and repeated explosions containing ash, gas, and steam that rose as high as 7.8 km altitude during January-April 2004. The alert level remained at orange.

Strombolian activity was reported in the central crater on 11-12 January and may have occurred again during 22-26 January. Gas-steam plumes extended up to 15 km in various directions during the report period; although one containing small amounts of ash, extended 75 km to the SW on 25 January.

Table 12 presents seismicity reported by KVERT including the number of large shallow earthquakes, their local magnitudes (Ml), and the range of tremor velocity. Many weak, shallow earthquakes also occurred each week. In overview, seismicity stood above background until about March, when it dropped to background, remaining there through 29 April. After February, instrumental measure of tremor (tremor velocity, table 2) declined. The details on the number and magnitude of large shallow earthquakes (which on the week ending 6 February had risen to ~ 430 Ml 1.2-2.0) ceased being a reported topic after February, although these earthquakes continued to be mentioned as occurring. Beginning in late February, earthquakes at depths up to 30 km were reported in moderate number ("deeper earthquakes"; table 2).

Table 12. Weekly seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi recorded 9 January to 29 April 2004. Some changes in reporting practices shifted around the week ending 27 February. The depth cutoffs for the two earthquake categories (shallow vs. deeper) were not disclosed; n.r. means not reported; Ml refers to local magnitude, and Ml? signifies an unstated magnitude. Courtesy of KVERT.

    Period     Seismicity    Shallow earthquakes        Deeper earthquakes      Tremor velocity
    ending       level     (Number/local magnitude)  (Daily number/magnitude        (mm/s)
                                                           /depth in km)

    09 Jan 04  above bkgd      ~115 / 1.9-2.3                   --                    4-8
    16 Jan 04  above bkgd      ~175 / 1.9-2.5                   --              7-8 (11-13 Jan);
                                                                                15-20 (12-15 Jan)
    23 Jan 04  above bkgd      ~130 / 1.9-2.3                   --                    6-13
    30 Jan 04  above bkgd      ~130 / 1.9-2.3                   --                    3-16
    06 Feb 04  above bkgd      ~430 / 1.2-2.0         1-5/Ml=1.2-2.0/3-6              1-2
    13 Feb 04  above bkgd      ~225 / 1.25-2.0        1-5/Ml<2.25/3-6               0.5-1
    20 Feb 04  above bkgd      ~135 / 1.25-1.7        1-6/Ml=1.25-1.85/3-6          0.4-0.9
    27 Feb 04  above bkgd      ~160 / 1.25-1.75       ~2/Ml=1.25-2.25/3-7           0.4-0.6
                                                     22-25 Feb: ~7/Ml?/30
    06 Mar 04   slightly            n.r.             26-7 Feb: 6/Ml=1.25-2.2/3-7    0.2-0.5
               above bkgd                            26 Feb-1 Mar: ~2/Ml?/30
    12 Mar 04   at bkgd             n.r.              38/Ml=1.25-1.6/30                 0.2
    19 Mar 04   at bkgd             n.r.              ~7/Ml=1.2-1.7/30
                                                     11-14 Mar: 1/Ml=1.5-2.0/3-7    0.2-0.3
    26 Mar 04   at bkgd             n.r.              ~2/Ml=1.25-1.6/30             0.2-0.4
                                                     25, 26, 30 Mar:
                                                      1/Ml=1.2-2.1/3-12
    02 Apr 04   at bkgd             n.r.             26, 28, 30 Mar:                0.2-0.4
                                                      1/Ml=1.2-2.1/3-12
                                                     25, 26, 30 Mar:
                                                      ~2/Ml=1.25-1.6/30
    09 Apr 04   at bkgd             n.r.              ~3/Ml=1.25-1.85/30            0.2-0.4
    16 Apr 04   at bkgd             n.r.              ~10/Ml=1.25-1.8/30            0.2-0.4
    22 Apr 04   at bkgd             n.r.              ~8/Ml=1.25-1.7/30             0.2-0.4
    29 Apr 04   at bkgd             n.r.              ~5/Ml=1.25-1.75/30           0.21-0.25

Gas plumes frequently rose as high as 5.8 km altitude each week, with gas plumes rising 5.8-7.8 km altitude during 24-25 January. Seismic activity continued to be above background level throughout January and February (as it was in December 2003, BGVN 28:12), but in mid-March, seismic activity returned to background levels and remained there through April. Ash explosions and plumes rising to 4.9-5.8 km altitude occurred during January but none were reported subsequently, although satellite data indicated an ash plume extending N-NE on 8 April. US and Russian satellites reported weak thermal anomalies (1-7 pixels) during January and February, but no anomalies were reported subsequent to 20 February. Weak fumarolic activity was reported weekly after mid-March.

Information Contacts: Olga A. Girina, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), a cooperative program of the Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia, the Kamchatka Experimental and Methodical Seismological Department (KEMSD), GS RAS (Russia), and the Alaska Volcano Observatory (USA); Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.
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03/2005 (BGVN 30:03) Strombolian eruptions and lava flows during January-March 2005

From April to November 2004, the hazard status (Concern Color Code) remained at Yellow, with seismicity at background levels throughout this time, and occasional fumarole activity. Around 26 November 2004, the status was reduced from Yellow to Green, the lowest level. During November 2004, seismicity remained at background levels. Gas-and-steam plumes were seen up to 5 km altitude on 24 November 2004 and weak fumarolic activity was observed on several days. Kliuchevskoi was last reported on in April 2004 (BGVN 29:04) and this report covers the interval through 31 March 2005.

On 14 January 2005 the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) raised the status at Kliuchevskoi from Green to Yellow as seismic activity at the volcano increased. On 12 January, around 21 shallow earthquakes of M 1.0-1.7 and weak volcanic tremor were recorded. According to visual observations, weak gas-and-steam plumes were noted during 6-8 and 12 January. The plumes extended E from the volcano on 7 January and SW for 5 km on 12 January.

On 16 January 2005 KVERT raised the status again, from Yellow to Orange, as seismic activity increased significantly. During 13-14 January, 15 shallow earthquakes of over M 1.25 were recorded, along with an increase in the amplitude of volcanic tremor. Visual observations on 14 January noted a weak gas-and-steam plume that extended N from the volcano. Satellite data showed a bright thermal anomaly over the summit on 15 January.

During the third week of January, the total number of shallow earthquakes continued to increase. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to ~ 800 m above the lava dome. Incandescence was visible in the volcano's crater on several nights.

Strombolian eruptions occurred during 20-23 and 27 January. Explosions sent volcanic bombs 50-300 m above the crater on several nights. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to a maximum height of 1.5 km above the crater. On 21 January a gas-and-steam plume with small amounts of ash extended as far as 23 km NE of the volcano. Throughout January seismicity was above background, with a large number of shallow earthquakes recorded daily. Gas-and-steam plumes that rose to ~ 1 km above the volcano's crater drifted SW on 29 January and NW on 31 January. A small amount of ash fell in the town of Klyuchi, about [30 km to the NNE], on 31 January.

On 1 February around 1000, a mudflow carrying large blocks and trees traveled ~ 6 km down Kliuchevskoi's NW flank into the Kruten'kaya River. The mudflow reached a height of a few meters and trees were covered with mud to ~ 1.5 m. On 6, 8, and 9 February, ash plumes rose ~ 2.5 km above the volcano's crater. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to ~ 3 km during 6-9 February. A cinder cone was noted in the volcano's crater on 6 February. Fresh ash deposits were seen on the SW flank of Ushkovsky volcano (NW of Kliuchevskoi) on 7 February, and in Klyuchi on 9 February.

Throughout the first week of February there were Strombolian eruptions in the terminal crater of Kliuchevskoi, and a lava flow traveled into Krestovsky channel on the volcano's NW flank. Phreatic bursts occurred in this channel when the lava contacted glaciers during 6-9 February and 12-13 February. Ash plumes rose ~ 3 km above the volcano's crater during 12-14 February. During 12-16 February, volcanic bombs were hurled 300-500 m above the crater, Strombolian eruptions occurred in the crater, and lava again traveled into the Krestovsky channel. On 16 February, a mudflow extended 27 km. According to a news report, a lava flow from Kliuchevskoi melted a large section of Ehrman glacier on 21 February 2005.

Moderate seismic and volcanic activity continued at Kliuchevskoi during 24 February to 4 March. On 24 February lava continued to travel down the Krestovsky channel. Strombolian activity during this time sent plumes to ~ 1 km above the volcano. Ash fell in the village of Icha, about 275 km to the SW on 26 February, and in Kozyrevsk, about 25 km to the W, on 1 March. Ash plumes were visible on satellite imagery on several days. During the first two weeks of March 2005, eruptions continued. Strombolian explosions occurred intermittently from a cinder cone in the summit crater. Lava flows extend from this cone down the NW flank. Occasional vigorous explosions from the summit crater and along the path of the lava flow produced ash plumes as high as 7-8 km and traveled many tens or hundreds of kilometers downwind. Ash-and-gas plumes rose up to 3.2 km above the crater on 10-16 March and extended up to 150 km in various directions. Ash fell at Kozyrevsk on 11 March. Strombolian bursts rose about 500-1,000 m above the summit crater. Two lava flows were observed on the volcano's NW slope on 15 March. Clouds obscured the volcano at other times. According to satellite data, a large thermal anomaly was registered at the volcano during the second week of March.

During 11-18 March, Strombolian explosions occurred intermittently from a cinder cone in the summit crater. Lava flows extended from this cinder cone down the NW flank. Occasional vigorous explosions from the summit crater and along the path of the lava flow produced ash plumes that reached as high as 7-8 km altitude and drifted many tens or hundreds of kilometers downwind. Seismicity was above background at this time. On 11-12 March ash-and-gas plumes rose to 3.2 km above the crater. Ash fell in the town of Kozyrevsk, 30 km to the W, on 11 March. Strombolian bursts rose 500-1,000 m above the summit crater. On 15 March two lava flows were observed on the NW slope. The amplitude of volcanic tremor was about 12-13 x 10-6 m/s on 18-21 March and increased to about 46.0 x 10-6 m/s on 22 March. From 1730 till 1900 on 23 March it was up to 62 x 10-6 m/s.

On 24 March KVERT raised the hazard status to Red (the highest level) due to increased seismic and volcanic activity. A gas-and-steam plume containing ash rose to ~ 7.5 km altitude on 22 March and ~ 8.5 km altitude on 23 March, extending NW. Ash fell in the town of Klyuchi during 23-24 March. According to data from AMC (Airport Meteorological Center) at Yelizovo, 340 km S, an ash plume that rose to ~ 7 km altitude and extended 70-80 km to the NW was observed by pilots on 23 March. The amplitude of volcanic tremor decreased from 62 x 10-6 m/s on 23 March to 26-22 x 10-6 m/s on 25-26 March. Satellite data indicated a 2- to 6-pixel (through the clouds) thermal anomaly over the volcano throughout the last week of March. Ash-and-gas plumes extended from the volcano 35 km N and 80 km W on 25 March. Seismometers detected a great number of shallow earthquakes and 27 earthquakes of Ml = 1.5-2.1.

During about 27-28 March seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi decreased, leading KVERT to reduce the status to Orange. According to visual and video data during 27-28 March, a gas-and-steam plume containing some ash rose ~ 200 m above the crater and extended W. Ash-and-gas plumes rose to 2,500-3,000 m above the crater and extended SE on 28 March, and NE on 29 March. Incandescence above the summit crater was observed on 28 March. According to the data from the AMC at Yelizovo, an ash-and-gas plume rising about 2,000 m above the crater at 1420 on 31 March was observed by pilots. Ash-and-gas plumes extended 250 km SE on 28 March, 270 km NE on 29 March, and 100 km NW on 31 March.

Information Contacts: Olga Girina, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), a cooperative program of the Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia, the Kamchatka Experimental and Methodical Seismological Department (KEMSD), GS RAS (Russia), and the Alaska Volcano Observatory (USA); Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.
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06/2007 (BGVN 32:06) Significant eruptive activity resumes in mid-February 2007

Increased seismicity and volcanic activity began in January 2005 and continued through at least March 2005 (BGVN 30:03), with Strombolian eruptions, lava flows, ashfall, lahars, and tall steam plumes. Activity was intermittent during April 2005 through January 2007, primarily consisting of variable seismicity. Significant volcanic activity began again in mid-February 2007, after which large ash plumes became frequent and lava flows were observed. From that time through early August 2007 there have been Strombolian eruptions, lava flows, mudflows, and some large (though not particularly high) eruptive plumes extending up to ~ 2,000 km from the volcano, though cloudy weather often blocked views of the summit.

The seismic network maintained by the Kamchatka Experimental and Methodical Seismological Department (KEMSD) lacks a calibration linking ash-plume height with associated seismic signal. Instead, visual and video data were typically used by ground-based observers. Some height estimates cited here were based on satellite observations and comparisons with ancillary observations such as atmospheric wind profiles.

Activity during April 2005-January 2007. According to the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), ash-and-gas plumes rose to 1 km above the crater the first week of April. Eruptive and seismic activity decreased significantly on 7 April 2005, but remained above background levels until 8-9 May. During 8-15 July, seismicity again increased. This heightened activity continued through 15-22 July, with spasmodic volcanic tremor, shallow earthquakes, and gas-and-steam plumes rising to ~ 5.5 km above the crater. Ashfall was noted in Kozyrevsk on 22 June. On 22 July a weak ash-and-gas plume rose to ~ 100 m above the crater. This activity decreased in late July and returned to background levels by 3-9 August 2005. Weak fumarolic activity continued.

During 9-16 September, seismicity again increased. During this week, the amplitude of volcanic tremor increased, and weak gas-and-steam emissions and a thermal anomaly were visible on satellite imagery. By the middle of October 2005, activity had again returned to background levels where it apparently remained until December 2006. During the middle of December 2006, KVERT noticed a slight increase in seismicity, with moderate fumarolic activity. A thermal anomaly in the crater was detected on satellite imagery on 14, 15, and 18 December.

Activity during February-July 2007. Eruptive activity began again on 15 February 2007. Strombolian activity was observed during 15-18 February that ejected bombs 300 m above the crater. Video data and observations between 16 and 22 February indicated gas-and-steam plumes with small amounts of ash rising to altitudes of 5.3 km and drifting SW and then E. A thermal anomaly at the summit was detected during 16-19 and 21 February. Based on information from KEMSD and satellite imagery, the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) reported that eruption plumes during 22-23 February may have reached altitudes of 6.1 km and drifted E. A news article in RIA Novosti cited local scientists who mentioned that on 26 February ash particles up to 2 mm in diameter fell on the village of Klyuchi, about 30 km NNE.

Clouds inhibited visual observations during most of February and March, but satellite data disclosed a daily thermal anomaly of 1-11 pixels in the crater area. Strombolian activity was seen again during 21-22 March, with lava bombs being ejected typically about 50-100 m above the crater; bomb heights of 100-200 m were noted on 31 March. On 29 March lava flowed down the NW flank.

A 23 March news report from RIA Novosti paraphrased Alexei Ozerov of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the department of Volcanology and Seismology, saying that activity had increased sharply since 15 February 2007. The article went on to quote Ozerov, stating that "The size of the lava globs reaches several meters in diameter." Geophysicists also reported through RIA Novosti that lava flows interacting with snow and ice were producing powerful explosions and vapor plumes.

KVERT reported that seismicity continued at heightened levels during April and May 2007. Volcanism over this period included Strombolian activity, lava flows down the NW flank, fumarolic activity, mudflows, and frequent gas-and-steam plumes with a small amount of ash that rose to altitudes of 5.3-6.3 km. Intensified fumarolic activity during 15-18 April resulted in higher gas-and-steam plumes, to altitudes of 6.3-7.2 km, possibly containing ash.

An ash plume drifting E on 22 April reached 8.8 km altitude. KVERT reported continuing mudflows and phreatic activity at lava flow fronts on the NW flank where lava interacted with ice (figure 4). Mudflows and lava flows advanced on the NW flank the following week, and plumes containing ash rose to altitudes of 5.2-7.2 km. Thermal anomalies were seen at the summit throughout April. Similar activity continued during the first half of May. Residents in Kliuchi heard explosions during 3-6 May, and reported ashfall on 4 May. Ash plumes that rose to 9.7 km on 11 and 16 May drifted E and NE, respectively, and again caused ashfall in Kliuchi. On 18 May KVERT reported that deposits from a mudflow filled the Krivaya river.

Figure 4. Lava flows and mudflows on the NW flank of Kliuchevskoi, 22 April 2007. Courtesy of KVERT; photo by Yu. Demyanchuk.

Ash plumes during 18-22 May rose to 8.5 km altitude, and Vulcanian summit activity and phreatic bursts on the NW flank were observed from 22 to 24 May. Strombolian activity at the summit built a new scoria cone that was visible on the night of 22 May, along with incandescent lava flows down the NW flank (figure 5). Strong eruptions occurred on 26 and 27 May, sending plumes to 10.1 km altitude on the latter day (figure 6). Ash plumes continued to be generated over the next few days, but only rose to 5-7 km altitude. A new lava flow moved down the E flank on 31 May, causing strong phreatic bursts (figure 7).

Figure 5. Strombolian activity and a new scoria cone in the crater of Kliuchevskoi, 22 May 2007. Lava flows continued to move down the flanks. Courtesy of KVERT; photo by Yu. Demyanchuk.
Figure 6. Photograph of an eruption from Kliuchevskoi, 27 May 2007. The view is from Klyuchi, 30 km NNE. Three eruptions occurred on 27 May, with plumes rising to 6.7, 8.8, and 10.1 km altitude. Courtesy of KVERT; photo by Yu. Demyanchuk.
Figure 7. Photograph of Kliuchevskoi on 31 May 2007 showing an ash plume from the summit and a large steam plume rising from the E flank where lava flows were interacting with ice. Note snow line in the foreground. Courtesy of KVERT; photo by Yu. Demyanchuk.

Heightened seismic and volcanic activity continued throughout most of June, with Strombolian and Vulcanian summit eruptions. Frequent ash plumes were often visible on satellite imagery, with estimated altitudes of 4.5-10 km. Plumes extended ~ 300 km S and E the entire week ending 8 June, and ~ 400 km N, W, and S the week ending 22 June. Increased seismicity on 19 June was followed by plumes and ashfall in Kozyrevsk village. A large ash cloud, ~ 300 km in diameter, was observed on 20-21 June near Yelizovo airport, 340 km S. On 29 June, ash plumes drifted E more than 2,000 km, while on 30 June, they drifted at least 900 km SW, based on satellite imagery. A thermal anomaly continued to be detected in the crater. Seismic activity decreased during 29 June-6 July, but remained above background levels through 13 July. Ash plumes visible on satellite imagery during 2-11 July rose to estimated altitudes of 5-7 km and drifted in various directions.

During 13-20 July, KVERT reported that seismic activity had returned to background levels, although a thermal anomaly in the crater and some ash plumes and gas-and-steam plumes were still noted. The hazard status had been either Orange or Red since mid-February, but toward the end of July the Level of Concern Color Code was lowered from Orange to Yellow due to a decrease in seismicity and an absence of ash plumes during 17-20 July. In a 9 August update, KVERT indicated that seismic activity had remained a background levels during the previous week, although some volcanic tremor and a few shallow earthquakes were registered. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly was noted on 4 August (the volcano was obscured by clouds on other days).

Information Contacts: Olga Girina, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), a cooperative program of the Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (Email: girina@kcs.iks.ru, URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/eng/), the Kamchatka Experimental and Methodical Seismological Department (KEMSD), GS RAS (Russia), and the Alaska Volcano Observatory (USA); Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA; Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center, Tokyo, Japan (URL http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); RIA Novosti, Russian News and Information Agency, 4 Zubovsky Bulvar, 119021, Moscow, Russia (URL: http://en.rian.ru/).
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03/2009 (BGVN 34:03) Eruption in 2007 changed summit crater; ongoing 2008-2009 lava flows

Significant eruptions resumed in mid-February 2007. Our last report on Kliuchevskoi (BGVN 32:06) chronicled activity during April 2005-July 2007. This report covers the period from August 2007 to April 2009.

An eruptive period from February to July 2007 reached peak intensity on 29 June 2007 (BGVN 32:06). The ash column was sustained and reached an estimated 8 km high during an 8 hour interval. Plumes reached 2,000 km long. This energetic eruption produced substantial changes to the summit morphology, including removal of the cinder cone on the floor of the summit crater, leaving a deeper crater there. This followed a pattern of earlier substantial morphological change in the summit region during the interval 1968-2007.

Figure 8 shows the pattern of changes during 1968 to mid-2007, but does not show events beyond the time of the 29 June 2007 eruption. Alexey Ozerov (Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, IVS) flew over the volcano during August 2007 and was the first to observe that, following the large eruption, the cinder cone was gone and the crater floor had dropped to an extent that the crater had developed an open capacity of 0.5 km3. The earlier events shown on figure 8 documents over 600 m of vertical change in the position of the crater floor or the tops of cinder cones on the floor.

Figure 8. A plot showing the height of the crater floor and intra-crater cones at Kliuchevskoi during 1968-2007. The date of the 29 June 2007 eruption was added by editors, but the extent of post-eruptive topographic changes is not shown. Symbols at the top describe eruption types; crater floor elevation was measured at the dots. After Zharinov and Demyanchuk, 2008.

Activity during 2008. Preceding the next eruption, increasing seismic activity and thermal alerts were seen during June to October 2008. On 7 August the color code was raised from Green to Yellow due to increased earthquakes and intermittent tremor. A thermal anomaly was registered over the volcano.

Beginning on 8 October observers noted an explosive-effusive summit eruption that included mainly Strombolian activity. On that day the color code was raised to Orange.

During October-November 2008 analysis of satellite imagery revealed a thermal anomaly in the crater. Lava began filling the crater. Nighttime observers saw the crater rim glowing and lava fountains at least 300 m tall. Extensive lava flows developed by late October (figure 9). From 28 October to 4 November bursting sounds from the volcano were heard in Klyuchi, about 30 km to the NE.

Figure 9. Strombolian eruption and associated lava flow down the NW flank seen at Kliuchevskoi on 31 October 2008. Photo by Yuri Demyanchuk.

On 21 November 2008, lava flows advanced on the NW slope. They descended to 3 km elevation. Gas-and-steam plumes drifted 80 km NW on 24 November and 20-40 km SE during 25-26 November.

The mostly active period continued from late November 2008 to early January 2009. During 28 November-10 December, Strombolian activity ejected bombs 500 m above the crater and lava effusion on the NW flank continued. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed large daily thermal anomalies in the crater. On 8 December the front of the lava flow made contact with the thick portion of the Erman Glacier, causing phreatic bursts and mudflows (figure 10). A very similar process occurred during the 2007 eruption (BGVN 32:06), and the December line of descent was also the same as in 2007. During 8-10 December, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 7.5-8 km, and drifted about 700 km E.

Figure 10. Lava descending Kliuchevskoi's NW slope. Lava from the crater descended over glaciers and where ice was thick in mid-flank areas, phreatic eruptions occurred. Undated photo by Yuri Demyanchuk.

During the final phase of the eruption (16 January-16 April 2009) the magnitude of volcanic tremor rapidly decreased. The volcano generated ash plumes extending 80-90 km to the NE. Fumarolic activity was seen during last days of April (figure 11).

Figure 11. Crossing alpine snow fields at the foot of Kliuchevskoi, a dogsled team pauses as the mountain emits gas and steam plumes on 9 April 2009. Photo by Yuri Demyanchuk.

As noted by Zharinov and Demyanchuk (2008), Shirokov (1985) studied the timing of Kliuchevskoi's volcanic eruptions with respect to lunar cycles. He found that eruptions were associated with a Moon-Earth rotational cycle of 18.6 years duration. According the Zharinov and Demyanchuk (2008), Shirokov (1985) forecast an eruptive interval during May 2006-May 2009.

References. Shirokov, V.A., 1985, Some questions method forecast flank eruption at Kliuchevskoi (Kamchatka): Volcanology and Seismology, no. 6, p. 48-58 (in Russian).

Zharinov, N.A., and Demyanchuk, Yu.V., 2008, The summit eruption of Kliuchevskoi volcano in 2007 (Kamchatka): Conference proceedings, dedicated to the day of volcanologists, on 27-29 March, 2008, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky: Insitute of Volcanology and Seismology, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, p. 81-89 (in Russian).

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (IVS), Kamchatka Branch of the Geophysical Service of the Russian Academy of Sciences (KB GS RAS), Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/; http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/current/klch/index.html ); Olga Girina and Yuri Demyanchuk, KVERT, Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (IVS); Alexei Ozerov, Active Volcanism Laboratory, Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (IVS).
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06/2010 (BGVN 35:06) Ongoing 2009-2010 eruptions; 243-km-long plume during February 2010

After about four months of quiet, eruptions from Kliuchevskoi in January and February 2010 included days with vigorous plumes as high as 6-10 km; a cinder cone grew also inside the active crater. The previous eruption, which began on 8 October 2008 and continued until 16 April 2009, was characterized by Strombolian activity, large thermal anomalies detected in satellite images, lava flows on the NW flank, and phreatic bursts from lava contacting the Erman glacier (BGVN 34:03).

During mid-April to August 2009, the volcano was quiet and exhibiting weak fumarolic activity. Two eruptions followed, one in August and another in September 2009. Precursors to the 17 August eruption included elevated seismicity and ash visible in fumarolic emissions. The 17 August ash plume was small and rose to only ~ 5 km altitude.

During 11-18 September 2009 seismicity remained at background levels, although weak tremor was detected. Satellite imagery revealed a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano from 13 to 17 September. Strombolian activity that ejected tephra 70 m above the crater was seen at night on 16 and 17 September. On 18 September observers in Kliuchi (~ 35 km NNE) saw glow from the crater. Similar activity, including lava flows that began in mid-November 2009, continued in late September through February 2010 (table 13). A daytime photo on 12 November showed an E-slope lava flow with dense white clouds of condensed gases above it; a night photo on 13 November of the same area showed glow from the flow reflected in the gas plume.

Table 13. Summary of eruptive behavior at Kliuchevskoi during September 2009-February 2010. Courtesy of KVERT.

    Date                  Tephra heights    Other observations
                           above crater

    16-17 Sep 2009               70 m       Preceded by IR anomaly during 13-17 September
    28 Sep-10 Nov 2009       70-500 m       Strombolian emissions
    12-15 Nov 2009              200 m       New lava flow traveled 500 m down the ESE side
    20 Nov-31 Dec 2009      200-500 m       Lava continued to flow down the ESE side
    02 Jan-03 Jan 2010          500 m       New lava flow on the NW flank (Krestovsky chute)
    05 Jan 2010                 500 m       Two lava flows, on the ESE and NW flanks
    08 Jan-14 Jan 2010          --          NW lava flow had reached 1.2 km in length; phreatic
                                              explosions at the lava-flow front; periodic
                                              ejections
    15 Jan-21 Jan 2010          300 m       Lava continued to flow NW; phreatic explosions from
                                              the front of the lava flow ejected material to
                                              altitudes of 4.5-8 km
    22 Jan 2010                 300 m       Ashfall in Kliuchi
    23 Jan-11 Feb 2010      300-200 m       Lava flow seen on the NW flank
    12 Feb-19 Feb 2010          200 m       Strong gas-steam plumes extended about 243 km to E
    20 Feb-28 Feb 2010          300 m       Phreatic explosions from the NW-slope lava front

Seismicity, initially slightly above background levels in late September 2009 increased during the next month to include many earthquakes and weak to stronger tremor. Seismicity then remained above background levels for the rest of the reporting period.

Many Strombolian eruptions sent material well over the crater rim, and inside the crater they built a cinder cone. The tephra from these eruptions was ejected as high as 100 m above the crater initially in late September and early October, but then was ejected 200-300 m on average through much of the reporting period (table 13). Tephra rose 500 m above the crater at points during 16-22 October 2009 and during 24 December 2009-5 January 2010, but much higher plumes were reported by the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) during early 2010. The longest plume reported occurred during 12-19 February 2010; it extended 243 km E. Lava flows remained active on the NW slope in January and February 2010 (figure 12).

Figure 12. Lava flows down the NW slope of Kliuchevskoi on 16 January (left, to 1.2 km) and 12 February 2010 (two flows, no distance given). Photos by Yuri Demyanchuk.

Lava flows first appeared on 14 November 2009 and traveled 500 m down the ESE flank. The flows continued to be active until early 2010. During 2-3 January 2010 a new lava flow descended the NW flank. Both the NW and the ESE flanks had active lava flows for a few days, until about 8 January at the latest, when the NW-flank lava flow became dominant. Notably, from 8 January through most if not all of February, phreatic explosions occurred at the front of the lava flow where it encountered ice and meltwater. The front was ~ 1.2 km down slope of its source by mid-January 2010.

Taller plumes. During 2009 and 2010 KVERT and the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) noted some plumes up to ~ 5 km over the 4.8 km summit (i.e. plumes up to 10 km altitude). A brief mention of some representative plumes (both largely steam- and ash-bearing) follow. A gas-and-steam plume containing a small amount of ash seen during 5-9 December 2009. It rose to an altitude of 6.3 km and drifted E. During 12-14 January 2010 gas-and-steam plumes rose to an altitude of 6.8 km and drifted E. During 15-22 January, phreatic explosions from the lava-flow front ejected material that rose to altitudes of 4.5-8 km. Based on information from the Yelizovo Airport (UHPP) and satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 18 and 22-23 January ash plumes rose to altitudes of 7-10 km and drifted N and NE. Ash fell in Kliuchi on 22 January. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to a maximum altitude of 6 km during 30-31 January and 8-10 February. Satellite imagery for the days 23 and 24 February 2010 revealed respective gas-and-steam plumes drifting 90 km NNW and 25 km ESE.

Seismicity. According to Gorelchik and Garbuzova (2001), seismologists identified earthquakes clustered in four regions at depth ranges of 4-5 km, 5-12 km, 12-20 km, and 20-40 km beneath the volcano. In the upper three regions seismologists noted primarily volcanic-tectonic earthquakes. These were presumably a result of a solid medium in those regions under the influence of continuously changing stress fields. Such fields are thought to be generated around subsurface pathways and features containing magma.

The deepest region, 20-40 km depths, generally corresponds to the lower horizons of the crust and transition into the mantle. At Kliuchevsoi, seismologists found this region to be an anomalous zone that generated many long-period earthquakes, events interpreted to result from magma migration. The diameter of the zone in the widest part was ~ 20 km and its center was shifted slightly NE of the crater. In some cases, earthquake foci migrated towards the surface starting from depths of ~ 25 km.

Reference. Gorelchik, V., and Garbuzova, V., 2001, Seismicity at Klyuchevskaya volcano as a reflection of it's modern igneous activity: Geodynamics and volcanism of the Kuril-Kamchatka island system (in Russian), IVGiG FEB RAS, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (IV&S) Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences (FED RAS), Kamchatka Branch of the Geophysical Service of the Russian Academy of Sciences (KB GS RAS), Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (Email: kvert@kscnet.ru, URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs; http://emsd.iks.ru/~ssl/monitoring/main.htm); Yuri Demyanchuk, IV&S FED RAS.
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07/2013 (BGVN 38:07) Eruptions continue, 19 February 2010-15 November 2013

Kliuchevskoi (also called Klyuchevskaya and Klyuchevskoy) has been quite active for many decades. During January 2009-February 2010, the volcano experienced Strombolian activity, lava flows, vigorous plume emissions, and a growing cinder cone (BGVN 35:06). This report discusses activity from 19 February 2010 through 15 November 2013, based on reports from the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT). A map of the Kamchatka Peninsula is provided in figure 13. A summary of plumes between 12 Feb 2010 and 14 November 2013 is provided in Table 14 which, because of its length, is near the end of this report.

Figure 13. Map of Kamchatka Peninsula showing location of Kliuchevskoi. Courtesy of Lost World, Ltd. (Travel Kamchatka).

Active period: 19 February to 4 November 2010. Seismic activity during this period was consistently above background levels, and the explosive-effusive eruption of the volcano continued. Almost every week, KVERT reported periodic Strombolian activity that ejected material 100-300 m above the crater. Ash plumes and gas-and-steam emissions were common events, with some plumes rising to altitudes as high as 10 km (table 14). Nearby communities such as Klyuchi (30 km NNE) experienced ashfall. Satellite images consistently revealed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano.

Lava flows descended the NW, S, and NE flanks until about 1 May 2010 when such flows apparently ceased for more than two months. However, ground observations were sometimes prevented due to meteorological cloud cover. A satellite image from 9 March 2010 showed that the S-flank flow was about 1.3 km long.

A news article (Itar-Tass) reported a new lava flow from a fissure on 8-9 July. According to KVERT, during 16-23 July 2010, an effusive lava flow began to descend the SW flank. In subsequent weeks, lava flowed down the SSE flank (23 July-5 August), SW flank (6 August-29 October), NW flank (3-10 September), and W flank (8-29 October). These flows continued until about 29 October 2010. Phreatic explosions sometimes occurred from the fronts of the lava flows. KVERT specifically reported such explosions weekly during 19 February-12 March 2010, and on 29-30 August 2010 and 5 September 2010.

According to KVERT, ash plumes were common (table 14) and ashfall in nearby communities were sometimes reported.

Between 19 February 2010 until about the last week of October 2010, heightened seismic activity was relatively consistent. On 23 October KVERT reported increased seismicity, characterized by an abrupt increase in volcanic tremor and explosive activity. The Aviation Color Code, which had been at Orange throughout the reporting period, was raised to Red on 23 October 2010 (table 15 defines KVERT's Aviation Color Codes). On 30 October explosive activity decreased along with the magnitude of volcanic tremor. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange. (Table 15 indicates KVERT's Aviation Color Code levels.)

During 30 October through 3 November 2010, seismic activity was still above background levels. Strombolian activity was observed, and KVERT even reported Vulcanian activity that produced ash plumes rising to an altitude of 7 km. A news article (Associated Press) from 29 October stated that ash from Kliuchevskoi and Shiveluch caused area flight diversions. On 4 November, seismicity sharply decreased and only gas-and-steam activity was observed. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. According to KVERT, the eruption that had begun in August 2009 had finally terminated by 4 November 2010, and that seismicity had continued to decrease.

Less active period: 5 November 2010 to 31 October 2013. KVERT reported that during 8 November to 17 December 2010, seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was at background levels or slightly above. A weak thermal anomaly over the crater was observed in satellite images.

During 9-10 and 16-18 November 2010, KVERT observed strong fumarolic activity, and ash plumes and gas-and-steam plumes occurred periodically. Cloud cover frequently prevented observations. About 24 November 2010, the Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange, presumably due to daily strong fumarolic activity and an ash plume that rose 5 km on 24 November. Ash fell in Kozyrevsk (about 50 km W) on 27 November and in Klyuchi (30 km NNE) on 28 November 2010. Strombolian activity was observed during 1-2 December 2010.

According to KVERT, activity declined during 10-17 December 2010, and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. Gas-and steam emissions were observed during 10-13 December. Clouds frequently obscured the volcano during December.

During 4-11 February 2011, KVERT reported that seismic activity, although moderate, had essentially decreased, and lowered the Aviation Color Code to Green around 10 February. Satellite images showed a weak thermal anomaly over the crater on 6 and 7 February.

During 2011, KVERT observed only periodic ash plumes (table 14). An ash plume on 29 May 2011 that rose to an altitude of 5 km prompted KVERT to raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange. However, the lack of further activity the next day prompted KVERT to return it to Yellow, and then Green. Moderate gas-and-steam emissions were observed on 30 May and 1 June; cloud cover prevented observations on the other days of the week.

Based on information from the Yelizovo Airport (UHPP), the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption on 3 July produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 7 km.

The KVERT website has no reports on Kliuchevskoi between 10 February 2011 and the end of September 2012, other than the Aviation Color Code was Green. In October 2012, KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi had been gradually increasing since June 2012. Episodes of volcanic tremor first detected on 21 June continued through 14 October. A weak thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images during 1 September-14 October, 23-26 November, and 7-8, 10, 12-13, 16 and 18 December (and possibly additional dates). Strombolian activity was observed at night during 13-15 October, 23-30 November, and 30 November-21 December. Clouds frequently hampered detection on other dates. During periods of Strombolian activity, crater incandescence and gas-and-steam emissions were also detected. KVERT raised the Aviation Color Code to Yellow in mid-October. According to KVERT, activity at Kliuchevskoi decreased in late 2012 (around the same time the Tolbachik eruption began).

KVERT weekly reports noted that during January to the middle of March 2013, weak-to-moderate seismic activity, Strombolian explosions, and weak-to-moderate gas-and-steam emissions continued. (Gas-and-steam activity was moderate-to-strong in late February.) During January, incandescence at the summit was occasionally observed and satellite data sometimes showed a weak thermal anomaly at the summit. Clouds obscured the volcano frequently. On 18 March the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green.

KVERT issued no reports on Kliuchevshoi between 21 March 2013 and the middle of August 2013. Presumably, the aforementioned activity, with some Strombolian explosions, continued at a low level.

On 15 August, a new explosive eruption began, with renewed Strombolian activity. Video data showed incandescence at the summit at night, and gas-and-steam plumes containing a small amount of ash rose up to 5.5 km. Satellite data showed a large, bright thermal anomaly over the volcano during 15-17 August.

The moderate seismic activity and Strombolian eruption continued through early October 2013. Incandescence at the summit was observed at night, and gas-and-steam plumes containing a small amount of ash rose up to an altitude of 5.5 km. Satellite data showed a thermal anomaly over the lava dome during this time, except where clouds obscured the volcano. On 26 August, a new lava flow on the WSW flank was observed. By 26 September, four lava flows were observed on the NW, W, SW flanks (figure 14). On 1 October, satellite data showed an ash plume extending about 100 km to the ESE.

Figure 14. Photo of Kliuchevskoi on 27 September 2013 showing Strombolian activity and several lava flows on the NW flank. Courtesy of Yu. Demyanchuk, KVERT. [CAPTION STATES: ANY USE OF THE IMAGE MAY BE CARRIED OUT ONLY WITH THE PERMISSION OF THE AUTHOR (AUTHORS)]

In early October 2013, seismic activity gradually increased, and on 6 October a sharp increase of tremor occurred. According to video data, a flank eruption around this time began at the pass between Kliuchevskoi and Kamen volcanoes (Kamen's summit is only 5 km SW of Kliuchevskoi's). Local incandescence and gas-and-steam plumes were observed from the pass, and video data showed incandescence at Kliuchevskoi's summit and the W flank at night, and gas-and-steam plumes containing ash. Strombolian activity continued and several lava flows traveled down the NW, W, SW flanks. Occasionally, phreatic-generated plumes were observed at the fronts of lava flows. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 6 km during 9-10 October and minor ashfall was noted at Klyuchi Village. A large thermal anomaly was recorded.

By the middle of October, the increasing activity prompted KVERT to upgrade the Aviation Color Code to Red, the highest level. During 15-16 October, video data showed strong Vulcanian explosive activity, and an ash plume rose to an altitude of 10 km. Strong incandescence was observed at the summit and W flank at night. Strombolian activity, several lava flows, and phreatic plumes continued, with ash rising to 5 km and causing minor ashfall in nearby communities. Numerous lava flows on the SW flank and a probable flank eruption at the pass between Kliuchevskoi and Kamen volcanoes led to vigorous melting of Bogdanovich glacier; the resulting water increased the Studenaya River's flow, which then destroyed part of the road near Kozyrevsk village (about 50 km W).

During 18-20 October, the eruption peaked and was characterized by high seismic activity, strong Vulcanian explosions, lava flows, intense incandescence, and ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 12 km and extended in various directions. Strombolian activity continued with lava fragments ejected 500-800 m above the summit cinder cone. A photo of the volcano on 20 October 2013 is shown in figure 15.

Figure 15. NASA Earth Observatory photo of Kliuchevskoi taken on 20 October 2013 by the Operational Land Imager on Landsat 8. According to the caption (written by Adam Voiland and Robert Simmon), multiple lava flows streamed down Kliuchevskoi's N and W flanks. The top, false-color image shows heat from the flows in a combination of shortwave-infrared, near-infrared, and the green band. Ash, weather clouds, and steam appear gray, while snow and ice are bright blue-green. Bare rock and fresh volcanic deposits are nearly black. In the wider natural-color (red, green, blue) image, snow and clouds are white, the ash plume is light gray, and forests (with trees tall enough to stand above the snow cover) are dark brown. Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory (images by Robert Simmon).

The eruption intensity decreased on 20 October, and on 30 October, KVERT lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow. However, moderate seismic activity and strong Strombolian activity persisted into at least late November 2013, along with several lava flows on the SW, SE flanks. In addition, KVERT video data showed strong fumarolic emissions and occasional ash plumes. Large thermal anomalies continued to be recorded.

On 18 November 2013, KVERT raised the Aviation Color Code to Orange, probably due to weak Vulcanian activity.

An airline crew flying NW of the volcano at an altitude of 13 km saw the resulting ash cloud and sent the following information to the Anchorage Air Route Traffic Control Center: "Ash cloud 30 miles [48 km] NW of PSN [position], ash cloud F430 [13 km a.s.l.] then it steps down F400 [12 km] then lower F340 [10 km] right toward Mt. Klyuchevskoy[.] Aircraft deviated 50 miles [80 km] east to get around ash cloud. Ash cloud appears to be decreasing." The crew also reported "ash fallout."

For reporting, the crew used the Volcanic Activity Reporting form (in Appendix 2 of the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration's Aeronautical Information Manual, 9 February 2012). The above-mentioned completed form was sent to the Bulletin's staff on 18 November. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has proposed the use of a similar form. We encourage flight crews to complete one of these two forms when detecting an ash cloud and send it to the appropriate government agency; we also encourage U.S. and international government agencies to send these completed forms to us for use in preparing Bulletin reports.

Table 14. Plume characteristics during 12 February 2010-14 November 2013. Key: G&S is gas-and-steam, G&A is gas-and-ash, G&S (A) is gas-and-steam with a small amount of ash, NR is not reported. Frequently, cloud cover prevented observations. Data do not include low-rising emissions. Courtesy of KVERT, Tokyo VAAC, KEMSD, and Yelizovo Airport (UHPP).

  Time period   Plume type   Max plume altitude (km)   Drift direction and length
12-19 Feb 2010 G&S NR 240 km NE
19-26 Feb 2010 G&S NR 25-90 km various
26 Feb-5 Mar 2010 G&S 6.8 50 km NE (3 Mar)
5-12 Mar 2010 G&S 5-6.8 80 km E
12-19 Mar 2010 G&S Ash 5 4.9 NE (21 Mar)
19-29 Mar 2010 G&S Ash NR 80 km E 75 km NE
26 Mar-2 Apr 2010 G&S (A) 5.3 70 km E (30 Mar)
2-9 Apr 2010 G&S G&S (A) Ash 6.3 30-180 km NNE 55-60 km NE
9-15 Apr 2010 G&S NR 85 km NE (9 Apr)
16-23 Apr 2010 G&S Ash G&S Ash 5.7 7.9 45 km S (18 Apr) 90-100 km E (20-21 Apr) W (27 Apr)
22-30 Apr 2010 G&S (A) Ash G&S 7.3 W, SW 65 km W (24 Apr) 55 km W, SW (24-27 Apr)
30 Apr-7 May 2010 Ash Ash G&S Ash? 5.5 6.1 125 km N (2 May) 70 km W (3 May) 55 km W, W (2-3 May)
7-14 May 2010 G&S (A) G&A Ash 6.1 21 km N
14-21 May 2010 Ash G&A G&S (A) 5.8 NE, 20-145 km E
21-28 May 2010 G&S (A) Ash Ash 5.5 185 km various (24, 26 May)
28 May-4 Jun 2010 G&S (A) Ash 7.3 40 km NW
4-11 Jun 2010 G&S (A) Ash 7.3 60-190 km NE
11-18 Jun 2010 Ash 5.5 40 km SE
18-25 Jun 2010 Ash 5.5 120 km various
25 Jun-2 Jul 2010 Ash 5.3 32 km S
2-9 Jul 2010 G&S Ash 5.3 76 km S
9-16 Jul 2010 G&A Ash 5.2-6.8 45 km NW various
16-23 Jul 2010 G&S Ash 6.3 55-160 km various
23-30 Jul 2010    G&A NR 145 km SW
30 Jul-6 Aug 2010 G&A NR 65 km NW
6-13 Aug 2010    G&A, Ash NR NR
13-20 Aug 2010 G&A, Ash NR 325 km SE
20-27 Aug 2010 G&A, Ash 7.6-10.4 200 km SE
27 Aug-3 Sep 2010 Ash 5.2-7 various
3-10 Sep 2010 Ash 5.5-6.5 km 150 km S, SW
10-17 Sep 2010 Ash 6-9.8 Various
17-24 Sep 2010 Ash 5.2-7 60 km W, 240 km E
24 Sep-1 Oct 2010 Ash   6.5-7 78 km W, 185 km E
1-8 Oct 2010 G&A, Ash 6.3          50 km SE
8-15 Oct 2010 G&S, Ash 5.8-10.1 90 km E
15-22 Oct 2010 Ash 6.5-7.5 420 km E, SE
22-29 Oct 2010 Ash G&S(A) 8-9 6.5 N, SE SE
30 Oct-3 Nov 2010 Ash G&S 5-7          E, SE
3-8 Nov 2010 G&S NR NR
8-19 Nov 2010 Ash G&S NR 40 km NE (13 Nov) 28 km NE
19-26 Nov 2010 Ash G&S 5-7.9 E 111 km NE
27 Nov-1 Dec 2010 Ash G&A 5.8-6.7 6.3 NE 430 km N, NE
1-9 Dec 2010 G&S NR NR
10-18 Dec 2010 G&S NR NR
20 Dec 2010 Ash 6.7 N
23-24 December 2010 G&S NR NR
25 Dec 2010-23 Jan 2011 NR NR NR
24 Jan-3 February 2011 G&S NR NR
4-7 Feb 2011 G&S NR NR
30 Mar 2011 Ash 5.2 E
29 May 2011 Ash 5 SW
30 May-1 June 2011 G&S NR  
6 June 2011 Ash 6.1 NE (Tokyo VAAC stated plume could have come from Bezymianny volcano)
3 Jul 2011 Ash 7 E
2-8 Nov 2011 Ash 6.7 (Tokyo VAAC stated plume could have come from Bezymianny volcano)
9 Nov 2011-9 Oct 2012 NR NR (KVERT did not issue reports on Kliuchevskoi during this time)
23-30 Nov 2012 G&S NR NR
30 Nov-7 Dec 2012 G&S NR NR
7-14 Dec 2012 G&S NR NR
14-21 Dec 2012 G&S NR NR
18-25 Jan 2013 G&S NR NR
15-20 Aug 2013 G&S(A) 5.5-6 NE
23-30 Aug 2013 G&S(A) NR NR
30 Aug-6 Sep 2013 G&S(A) NR NR
6-13 Sep 2013 G&S(A) NR NR
13-24 Sep 2013 G&S(A) NR NR
1 Oct 2013 Ash NR ESE
15-22 October 2013 Ash 2-10 Various
30 Oct-5 Nov 2013 G&S(A) NR NR
6 Nov 2013 G&S NR 280 km SE
14 Nov 2013 G&S NR 120 km NE

Table 15. KVERT Aviation Color Code levels. Courtesy of KVERT.

  Aviation Color Code   Definition
Red Eruption is forecast to be imminent with significant emission of ash into the atmosphere likely OR Eruption is underway with significant emission of ash into the atmosphere.
Orange Volcano is exhibiting heightened unrest with increased likelihood of eruption OR Volcanic eruption is underway with no or minor ash emission.
Yellow Volcano is experiencing signs of elevated unrest above known background levels OR, after a change from higher level, Volcanic activity has decreased significantly but continues to be closely monitored for possible renewed increase.
Green Volcano is in normal, non-eruptive state OR, after a change from a higher level, Volcanic activity considered to have ceased, and volcano reverted to its normal, non-eruptive state.

A video of the Kliuchevskoi eruption during October 2013 taken by photographer Martin Rietze and uploaded by Gregg Morgan can be observed at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/russia/10415179/Eruption-of-Russias-Kliuchevskoi-volcano-filmed-in-timelapse.html.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/ ); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Yelizovo Airport (UHPP),(URL: http://www.airport-pkc.ru/); Associated Press (URL: http://www.ap.org/); Itar-Tass (http://www.itar-tass.com/); Kamchatka Travel (URL: http://www.travelkamchatka.com /); and NASA Earth Observatory, EOS Project Science Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/).
Download or Cite this Report

Klyuchevskoy (also spelled Kliuchevskoi) is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. It rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of the 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2013 Aug 15 2013 Dec 20 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2012 Sep 1 (?) 2013 Jan 28 ± 3 days Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
[ 2011 Nov 2 ] [ 2011 Nov 2 ] Uncertain 1  
2011 Mar 30 2011 Jul 3 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2009 Aug 1 (?) 2010 Dec 20 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2008 Oct 8 2009 Apr 16 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2007 Feb 15 2007 Jul 15 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2005 Jan 20 (in or before) 2005 Apr 7 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2004 Sep 15 2004 Sep 15 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2002 Nov 24 2004 Apr 8 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2002 Apr 9 2002 Jun 9 (in or before) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2000 Jul 28 2000 Sep 22 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2000 Feb 3 2000 Feb 8 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1999 Feb 5 1999 Jul 12 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1998 Jul 23 1998 Sep 2 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1997 Sep 7 1997 Sep 26 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1996 Nov 14 1997 Mar 20 ± 12 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1994 Sep 8 1995 Jan 14 (in or after) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1992 Sep 12 1993 Sep 12 ± 1 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1992 Jan 25 1992 May 25 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1991 Apr 8 1991 Jun 24 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1986 Nov 27 1990 Sep Confirmed 4 Historical Observations Summit, SE, SW, NE and east flanks
1986 Jun 8 1986 Jul 11 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1985 Aug 16 1986 Jan 21 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and NW flank (3100 m)
1984 Mar 10 1985 Jan 28 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1982 Oct 7 1983 Jun 27 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit and east flank (2875 m)
1982 Mar 24 1982 May 2 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
[ 1981 Dec 21 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1981 Jan 25 1981 Aug 4 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1977 Aug 2 1980 Mar 12 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit, NE flank (1700 m)
1974 Apr 8 1974 Dec (?) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and SW flank (3400-3600 m)
1971 Nov 1973 Dec Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1971 Jun 1971 Jul Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1970 May 26 1970 Dec 27 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1969 Sep 1969 Dec Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1968 Jul 3 1968 Jul 3 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1967 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1965 Aug 1966 Dec 26 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit, NE flank (Piip Crater)
1963 Nov 13 1964 Dec (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1960 Dec 1963 Mar 22 (in or after) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1959 Jan 3 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1958 May 18 1958 Aug 18 (in or after) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations East part of summit crater
1957 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1956 Jan 1956 Aug 2 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit and SE flank (1500 m)
1954 May 28 1954 Sep Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1953 Jun 7 1953 Jun 25 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit, NE flank (Belyankin Crater)
1951 Nov 19 1951 Nov 30 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit, NE flank (Bylinkina, 950 m)
1949 May Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1948 Aug Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1946 Oct 23 1946 Nov 22 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations SE flank (Apakhonchich, ca. 1600 m)
1945 Jun 19 1945 Jul 7 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations SE flank (Yubileinoye, 1000-1450 m)
1944 Dec 9 1945 Jan 20 (in or after) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1937 Apr 3 1939 Mar Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit, east flank (Bilyukai)
1935 Apr 21 1936 Nov 4 (in or after) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1932 Jan 25 1932 Dec 26 ± 5 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations NE flank (Kirgurich, Tuyla, Biokos)
1931 Aug 1931 Sep Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1931 Mar 25 1931 Mar 27 Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
1929 Jun 1929 Sep Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1926 Mar 23 1926 Apr 7 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1925 Apr 4 1925 Oct 10 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1923 Aug 1923 Sep Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1922 May Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1915 Jan Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1913 Jan Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1911 Nov Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1910 Aug Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1909 Jun Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1907 Aug Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit and east flank
1904 Jan 31 ± 30 days 1904 Jun 14 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1898 Feb 20 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1896 Dec 1897 Nov Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1890 Apr Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1883 Jul 1883 Aug Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1882 Sep Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1879 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1878 Sep Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1877 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1865 Sep Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1853 Oct 1854 Feb 17 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1852 Aug Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1852 Feb 1852 Mar Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1848 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1840 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1829 Sep 9 Unknown Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
1819 1822 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1813 Feb Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1812 Sep Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1807 Feb 1 ± 30 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1791 Aug Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1791 Apr Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1789 Dec 1 1790 Feb Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1788 Aug Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1788 Feb Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1787 Sep Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1785 Nov Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1772 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1770 May Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1767 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1762 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1740 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
1737 Sep 25 (?) 1737 Nov 4 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1727 1731 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1720 1721 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1697 1698 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
0550 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
1050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
3950 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Kliuchevskaia Sopka | Kamchatskaia Gora | Kljutschewskaja Ssopka | Kluchev | Kljutschew | Klyuchevskaya | Kamchatsky Vulkan | Kamtschatskaja | Kliuchevskoi

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Lavoyi Shish Lava cone
Zabytaya, Mount Lava cone

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Akademia Nauk Fissure vent
Apakhonchich Fissure vent 1500 m
Atlasov Fissure vent
Belyankin
    Beliankin
Fissure vent 1350 m
Bering Fissure vent
Bilyukai
    Biliukaya
Fissure vent 1000 m
Biokos' Fissure vent 500 m
Bokovoi Fissure vent
Bulochka Fissure vent
Bylinkina
    Bylinkinoy
Fissure vent 950 m
Ditmar-Taushits-Sosed Fissure vent
Faina Fissure vent
Gorshok Fissure vent
Holm Fissure vent
IVth National Volcanoligical Congress Fissure vent 3600 m
Karpinskiy Fissure vent
Kell Fissure vent
Kirgurich Fissure vent 500 m
Kozei Group Fissure vent
Krasheninnikov Fissure vent 1000 m
Krug Fissure vent
Kryzhanovskiy
    Kryshanovskogo
Fissure vent 1380 m
Lepshka Fissure vent
Lesnoi Fissure vent
Levashov Fissure vent
Loewinsson-Lessin Fissure vent
Malenkiy Fissure vent
Malysh Fissure vent
March Fissure vent
Nevidimka Fissure vent
Nezametnyi Fissure vent
Ochki Fissure vent
Ostanets Fissure vent
Otkrytyi Fissure vent
Peshchernyi Fissure vent
Piip Fissure vent 1900 m
Podkova Fissure vent
Pogrebennyi Fissure vent
Predskanzannyi Fissure vent 2875 m
Predvidennoye Fissure vent 3800 m
Pribrezhnyi Fissure vent
Propushchennyi Fissure vent
Sedlo Fissure vent
Shmalev Fissure vent
Sizmos Fissure vent
Skuridin Fissure vent
Slyunin Fissure vent
Srezannyi Fissure vent
Steller Fissure vent
Tiranus Fissure vent
Tretiy Fissure vent
Tuyla
    Tuila
Fissure vent 500 m
Vernadskiy
    Bernadskogo
Fissure vent 1360 m
Vosmyorka Fissure vent
Yubileinoye
    Jubilee
Fissure vent 1400 m
Zabytyi Fissure vent
Zatoplennyi Fissure vent
Zavaritsky Fissure vent 1000 m
Four volcanoes of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group are visible in this north-looking view. Steam clouds pour from the summit of Bezymianny volcano (foreground), which is dwarfed by sharp-peaked Kamen volcano behind it. Kliuchevskoi volcano, the highest and one of the most active volcanoes of Kamchatka, is at the upper right. The compound Ushkovsky volcano is on the left horizon, with Krestovsky forming the rounded summit and the glacier-covered Ushkovsky caldera visible at the extreme left.

Photo by Oleg Volynets (Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
Lava pours from a vent on the SE flank of Kliuchevskoi volcano in 1988 with the sharp spire of Kamen volcano in the background. During long-term activity at Kliuchevskoi from November 1986 to September 1990, both explosive eruptions and lava effusion took place from vents at the summit and on the NE, SE, SW, and eastern flanks. The greatly oversteepened east flank of Kamen volcano resulted from collapse of the summit about 1200-1300 years ago, which produced a massive debris avalanche.

Photo courtesy of Anatolii Khrenov, 1988 (Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
Following renewed explosive activity in the summit crater starting on April 8, 1974, an eruption began on August 23 from a vent at 3400-3600 m on the SW flank. This was the highest flank-vent location to date in Kliuchevskoi's recorded history. This photo shows lava fountaining and effusion of a lava flow from the SW-flank vent. The eruption continued until the end of the year.

Photo by N. Smelov, 1974 (Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
This photo from the NE shows almost all the volcanoes of Kliuchevskaya volcano group, which draws its name from Kliuchevskoi volcano (center). The steaming volcano in the left background is Bezymianny. Other volcanoes visible on the horizon are Zimina (extreme left), Tolbachik (behind Bezymianny), Kamen (left of Kliuchevskoi), and Ushkovsky (right). The NE flank of Kliuchevskoi is dotted with pyroclastic cones produced by more than 100 flank eruptions during the past 3000 years.

Photo by V.A. Podtabachny (courtesy of Anatolii Khrenov, Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
A lava flow travels down the NW flank of Kliuchevskoi volcano in this January 1986 view from the town of Kliuchi. Summit explosive activity started on August 16, 1985, and lava-flow emission began on November 5, accompanied by intensive summit explosive activity. On December 2, strong phreatic explosions from a NW-flank fissure at 3100 m elevation rose to 10 km, and on December 1-2, a mudflow traveled 35 km. The summit-crater eruption ended on January 21, 1986.

Photo by Alexander Belousov, 1986 (Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
An ash plume ejected from the summit crater of Kamchatka's Kliuchevskoi volcano on February 9, 1987 is blown to the west. Ashfall from earlier eruptions darkens the southern flank of the volcano. Explosive eruptions from the summit crater during 1986-1990 were accompanied by lava flows from both summit and flank vents.

Photo by Alexander Belousov, 1987 (Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
An ash plume rises above the summit of Kliuchevskoi volcano on February 16, 1987. This was part of a long-term eruption during 1986-1990 that included explosive and effusive activity from both summit and flank vents. This dramatic view from the south shows steaming Bezymianny volcano, itself in eruption at this time, at the lower left, sharp-peaked Kamen volcano at the left center, and the broad peak of Ushkovsky volcano on the left horizon.

Photo by Alexander Belousov, 1987 (Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
Ash clouds drift from the summit of Kliuchevskoi in 1974 above volcanologists at a field camp of the Institute of Volcanology in Petropavlovsk. Renewed summit-crater explosive activity began April 8 and lava fountaining started on May 18. Summit activity was followed on August 23 by an eruption on the SW flank. Frequent eruptions have occurred at Kliuchevskoi from both summit and flank vents.

Photo by Yuri Doubik, 1974 (Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
An ash plume from Kliuchevskoi in 1979 is backlit by the sun in this view looking SW from the Kliuchevskoi Volcano Observatory. This was part of a dominantly explosive eruption that took place from August 1977 until 1980. The eruption concluded with explosive activity and lava effusion from a flank vent during March 5-12, 1980. Ushkovsky volcano (also referred to as Plosky volcano) appears at the right, with the small Sredny stratovolcano in the center.

Photo by Yuri Doubik, 1979 (Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
Snow-capped Kliuchevskoi volcano rises above a volcanological field camp on the SE flank. Massive Kliuchevskoi, one of the most active volcanoes in Kamchatka, has been the site of detailed field investigations. The youthful volcano, born only 6000 years ago, has grown to become Kamchatka's highest peak. Numerous flank vents dot its slopes, including one that produced the Apakhonchich lava flow near this location in 1946.

Photo by Yuri Doubik, 1982 (Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
A volcanologist from the Institute of Volcanology in Petropavlovsk, shielded from the intense heat in a reflective suit, extracts a glowing sample of lava from a flank vent of Kliuchevskoi volcano in 1983. Geochemical analysis of lava samples is used to characterize the eruption and understand the magmatic history of the volcano. Eruptions of flank and summit lava flows are common at this basaltic stratovolcano.

Photo by A. Ozerov, 1983 (courtesy of Yuri Doubik, Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
Clouds of steam pour simultaneously from vents on the SW flank and the summit of Kliuchevskoi volcano in 1983. The SW-flank vent, along a 200-m-long fissure at 2875-m altitude, produced the dark lava flow that melted the glacier surface, providing a channel for the lava flow and producing lahars that traveled 15 km. The flank eruption began on March 8. It initially was restricted to a glacier gorge, but then bifurcated, forming a small lava field. Intermittent summit-crater explosive activity had been occurring since October 1982.

Photo by Yuri Doubik, 1983 (Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
An incandescent lava flow pours from an east-flank vent on Kliuchevskoi volcano in 1983 while an ash cloud rises from the summit crater. An eruption from an east-flank fissure at 2875 m began on March 8, 1983. A scoria cone produced during the initial stage was the source of all flank activity. Strombolian eruptions during the main phase were followed by lava emission at varying rates. Flank activity was preceded by summit-crater gas-and-ash emissions beginning October 7, 1982.

Photo by Yuri Doubik, 1983 (Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
Clouds drape the margins of the glacier-covered summit caldera of Ushkovsky (Plosky) volcano in the foreground. The two highest volcanoes in Kamchatka, Kliuchevskoi (left) and Kamen (right) rise above the layer of clouds to the SE. A small ash plume drifts above the summit of Kliuchevskoi, one of Kamchatka's most active volcanoes. No historical eruptions have occurred from the erosionally dissected Kamen volcano, while a single historical eruption, during 1890, has been documented from Ushkovsky volcano.

Photo by Yuri Doubik (Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
Kamchatka's two highest volcanoes rise above a sea of clouds. Their greatly differing morphologies reflect contrasting geologic histories. Construction of extensively eroded Kamen volcano (left) took place during the Pleistocene. It has been relatively inactive since. Its eastern (right) side was removed by a massive landslide about 1200-1300 years ago, leaving the steep escarpment. Symmetrical Kliuchevskoi, in contrast, is one of Kamchatka's youngest and most active volcanoes, growing to 4835 m in the past 6000 years.

Photo by Yuri Doubik (Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
Steam clouds pour from the margins of an active lava flow from a SW-flank vent of Kliuchevskoi volcano in 1974. Renewed summit crater explosive activity began April 8, with lava fountaining beginning May 18. Increasing seismicity preceded the August 23 outbreak from 3400-3600 m on the SW flank, the highest flank vent location to date in Kliuchevskoi's recorded history. Lava effusion continued until December.

Photo by I.T. Kirsanov, 1974 (courtesy of Oleg Volynets, Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
Kliuchevskoi is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring on the NE (seen here) and SE flanks of the conical volcano at altitudes of 500-3600 m.

Photo by E.Y. Zhdanova (courtesy of Oleg Volynets, Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
Kamen (left), Kliuchevskoi (right), and the broad snow-capped Ushkovsky volcano behind them to the west, anchor the northern end of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. Ushkovsky consists of the flat-topped Ushkovsky volcano (Daljny Plosky) on the left, which is capped by an ice-filled 4.5 x 5.5 km caldera, and the adjacent slightly higher peak of Krestovsky (Blizhny Plosky) volcano on the right. Kamen and Kliuchevskoi are the two highest peaks in Kamchatka and Kliuchevskoi is also one of its most active volcanoes.

Photo by Phil Kyle, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 1996 (courtesy of Vera Ponomareva, IUGG, Petropavlovsk).
Symmetrical Kliuchevskoi and the erosionally modified Ushkovsky (also known as Plosky) are two prominent stratovolcanoes visible SW of the town of Kliuchi. The small Sredny stratovolcano, constructed on the eastern flank of Ushkovsky, occupies the saddle between them. Kliuchevskoi is one of Kamchatka's most active volcanoes, while Ushkovsky has had only a single eruption in historical time.

Photo by Vera Ponomareva, 1975 (Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Petropavlovsk).
Kamen volcano towers above the Kharpinsky cinder cone (left) near the Aphonchich seismic station on the ESE flank of Kliuchevskoi volcano. Lahar deposits from Kliuchevskoi volcano cover the foreground. The eastern side of Kamen was removed by a massive volcanic landslide about 1200-1300 years ago.

Photo by Vera Ponomareva, 1975 (Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Petropavlovsk).
Symmetrical Kliuchevskoi volcano, seen here from near the site of the Tuila eruption on its north flank, has had more than 100 flank eruptions during the past 3000 years. The conical basaltic stratovolcano is one of the youngest and largest of Kamchatka's volcanoes, having produced 300 cu km of material since the early Holocene. Its extremely high magma-production rate has created Kamchatka's highest volcano in only 6000 years.

Photo by Vera Ponomareva, 1976 (Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Petropavlovsk).
Incandescent strombolian ejecta rises above a new scoria cone in the summit crater of Kliuchevskoi volcano on May 22, 2007. Lava flows travel down the NW flank. Strombolian eruptions had begun on February 15, 2007, and explosive activity and lava effusion continued until July 15.

Photo by Yu. Demyanchuk, 2007 (KVERT).
Kliuchevskoi is seen from the north on May 31, 2007, showing an ash plume from the summit crater and a larger steam plume rising from the east flank, where lava flows were interacting with snow and ice. Note snow line in the foreground.

Photo by Yu. Demyanchuk, 2007 (KVERT).
Strombolian eruptions produce incandescent plumes from the summit crater and lava flows descend the NW flanks of the volcano on May 27, 2007. Ash clouds rise from phreatic eruptions at contact of the terminus of the lava flows with snow cover. Strombolian eruptions had began on February 15, 2007 at the summit crater. Intermittent explosive activity continued, and on March 29 lava flows began traveling down the NW flank. Steam-and-ash plumes reached a maximum altitude of 10.1 km on May 27. The last ash plume was observed on July 15, after which steam plumes were seen.

Photo by Yu. Demyanchuk, 2007 (KVERT).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Adushkin V V Zykov Y N, Fedotov S A, 1995. Mechanism of volcanic slope failure. Assessment of potential collapse and debris avalanches at Klyuchevskoi volcano. Volc Seism, 16: 667-684 (English translation).

Basharina L A, 1965. Gases of Kamchatka volcanoes. Bull Volc, 28: 95-106.

Braitseva O A, Melekestsev I V, Ponomareva V V, Sulerzhitsky L D, 1995. Ages of calderas, large explosive craters and active volcanoes in the Kuril-Kamchatka region, Russia. Bull Volc, 57: 383-402.

Delemen I F, 1995. Gravitational instability mechanisms in volcanic cones (with reference to Klyuchevskoi volcano). Volc Seism, 16: 649-666 (English translation).

Fedotov S A, Andreev V N, Bogoyavlenskaya G E, Dvigalo V N, Khrenov A P, Zharinov N A, 1990. Main eruptions of Kamchatka volcanoes in 1985-1990. IAVCEI 1990 Internatl Volc Cong, Mainz, Abs, (unpaginated).

Fedotov S A, Masurenkov Y P (eds), 1991. Active Volcanoes of Kamchatka. Moscow: Nauka Pub, 2 volumes.

Gorshkov G S, Kirsanov I T, 1968. Eruption of Piip Crater (Kamchatka). Bull Volc, 32: 269-282.

Hantke G, 1953. Ubersicht uber die Vulkanische Tatigkeit 1948-1950. Bull Volc, 14: 151-180.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Ivanov B V, Gavrilenko G M, Dvigalo V N, Ovsyannikov A A, Ozerov A Y, Razina A A, Tokarev P I, Khrenov A P, Chirkov A M, 1984. Activity of volcanoes in Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands in 1983. Volc Seism, 1984(6): 114-121 (English translation 1988, 6: 959-972).

Khrenov A P, Ozerov A Y, Litasov N E, Slezin Y B, Murav'ev Y D, Zharinov N A, 1985. Parasitic eruption of Klyuchevskoi volcano (Preskazannyi eruption, 1983). Volc Seism, 1985(1): 3-20 (English translation 1988, 7: 1-24).

Kozhemyaka N N, 1995. Active volcanoes of Kamchatka: types and growth time of cones, total volumes of erupted material, productivity, and composition of rocks. Volc Seism, 16: 581-594 (English translation).

Lamb H H, 1970. Volcanic dust in the atmosphere; with a chronology and assessment of its meteorological significance. Phil Trans Roy Soc London, Ser A, 266: 425-533.

Leonov V L, 1995. Lineaments, tectonic fractures, and mechanical behavior of Klyuchevskoi volcano. Volc Seism, 16: 627-648 (English translation).

Melekestsev I V, Braitseva O A, Ponomareva V V, 1989. Prediction of volcanic hazards on the basis of the study of dynamics of volcanic activity, Kamchatka. In: Latter J H (ed), {Volcanic Hazards - Assessment and Monitoring}, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, p 10-35.

Rose S, Ramsey M, 2009. The 2005 eruption of Kliuchevskoi volcano: chronology and processes derived from ASTER spaceborne and field-based data. J Volc Geotherm Res, 184: 367-380.

Steinberg G S, 1981. Kliuchevskoy volcano eruption of 1980 and eruption cyclicity. Volcano News, 8: 2-3.

Vlodavetz V I, Piip B I, 1959. Kamchatka and Continental Areas of Asia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 8: 1-110.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Pyroclastic cone(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
0
0
292
12,406

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Klyuchevskoy Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.