Activity for the week of 6 March-12 March 2002
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
New Activity / Unrest
| Mindanao (Philippines)
| 6.113°N, 124.892°E
| Elevation 1824 m
PHIVOLCS staff dispelled concerns that Parker might erupt after a M 7.5 earthquake (according to the US Geological Survey NEIC) occurred near the volcano on 6 March at 0516. According to news articles, tremor caused a portion of the volcano's crater wall to breach and fall into Lake Maughan atop the volcano. Articles also stated that tons of water that were released from the lake washed away houses and about 33 families were evacuated from river banks below Lake Maughan due to fears that more of the lake would overflow. Government agencies plan to conduct an aerial inspection to assess the lake's water level.
Sources: Philstar News, Reuters, Agence France-Presse (AFP), US Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program
| 12.702°N, 87.004°W
| Elevation 1745 m
Seismic tremor increased at San Cristóbal beginning on the afternoon of 6 March. Strong seismicity occurred in 2- to 3-hour periods that were generally separated by less than 1 hour of less intense activity. Scientists visiting the volcano found that the amount of degassing had increased and that temperatures at the volcano were much higher than they had been for several months. Reportedly, incandescent material in the crater was reflected on the clouds above it. According to INETER, the activity at San Cristóbal was not strong enough to warrant raising the Alert Level.
Sources: El Nuevo Diario, La Prensa (Nicaragua)
| Eastern Java (Indonesia)
| 8.108°S, 112.922°E
| Elevation 3657 m
An increase in volcanic and seismic activity at Semeru during 3-10 March led VSI to raise the Alert Level from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). On 8 March observers saw an emission rise ~400 m above the volcano, and two pyroclastic flows travel S as far as 2.5 km down the Kembar River. During the report period there was an increase in tectonic and volcanic earthquakes in comparison to the previous week.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
| 19.514°N, 103.62°W
| Elevation 3850 m
As of 6 March activity at Colima was similar to the previous weeks. Avalanches of incandescent material continued to travel 2-3 km down the volcano's S, SW, and W flanks. Block lava continued to flow down the SW flank of the volcano, extending as far as 240 m from the summit. Lava was also visible travelling as far as 2 km down the volcano's W flank, and down the E flank. Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that ash and steam emitted from Colima were seen on 8 March at 4.3-5.2 km a.s.l. The emission was too small to be visible on satellite imagery.
Sources: Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Sicily (Italy)
| 37.748°N, 14.999°E
| Elevation 3295 m
As of 7 March there had been no new eruptive activity at Etna for several months. Numerous small earthquakes were recorded beneath the volcano's S flank, where the largest of the July-August 2001 lava flows vented. Some of the earthquakes were felt by the population near the volcano.
Source: Italy's Volcanoes
| Siau Island (Indonesia)
| 2.781°N, 125.407°E
| Elevation 1797 m
An eruption that began at Karangetang on 5 March at 1344 produced an ash cloud to a height of ~1.5 km above the volcano's summit. Ash fell to the NE of the volcano. The eruption was accompanied by lava avalanches down the volcano's slopes. After the eruption, a plume of steam and possible ash was seen reaching ~400 m above the crater rim and a "red reflection" extended up to 25 m above the crater. An increase in volcanic and tectonic earthquakes occurred in comparison to the previous week. Karangetang remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
| Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
| 54.049°N, 159.443°E
| Elevation 1513 m
On 5 March, after 11 days of instrument down time, the seismic station near Karymsky began to operate again. The amount and intensity of seismicity was similar to that recorded in February; about 10 earthquakes occurred per hour. Weak thermal anomalies were observed on AVHRR satellite imagery and no ash was detected. The volcano was at Concern Color Code Yellow ("volcano is restless").
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
During 6-12 March, lava was visible near the base of the lava fan and on the nearby coastal flat at Kilauea. At times several rootless shields (a pile of lava flows built over a lava tube rather than over a conduit feeding magma) were active. Generally, volcanic tremor was at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o and long-period earthquakes and weak tremor continued at Kilauea's caldera. Tiltmeters across the volcano showed no evidence of significant deformation.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| 19.023°N, 98.622°W
| Elevation 5393 m
During 6-11 March, Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and generally minor amounts of ash. In addition, episodes of harmonic tremor were recorded. On 9 March a steam-and-gas emission rose to ~2 km above the crater.
Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.653°N, 161.36°E
| Elevation 3283 m
During 1-8 March, volcanic activity remained relatively high at Shiveluch. Four short-lived explosive eruptions visible from the town of Klyuchi, 46 km from the volcano, produced ash-and-gas plumes to heights of 1-3 km above the volcano's lava dome. On 3 March at 1500 a mixture of red ash and snow fell in Klyuchi. The ash may have been produced from an eruption at 1447. Seismicity included earthquakes with magnitudes less than 2.4 at depths of 0-5 km, many local shallow seismic signals (from possible avalanches or weak gas-ash explosions), and episodes of weak intermittent volcanic tremor. Thermal anomalies were visible on satellite imagery. The volcano remained at Color Concern Code Orange ("volcano is in eruption or eruption may occur at any time").
Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Vladivostok News
| 16.72°N, 62.18°W
| Elevation 915 m
During 1-8 March, volcanism decreased at Soufrière Hills in comparison to the previous week. Lava-dome growth continued to be concentrated towards the E, sending rockfalls and small pyroclastic flows to the upper portions of the Tar River Valley. Incandescence was visible on the upper parts of the dome during the night. Minor episodes of ash venting occurred from the summit of the dome. SO2 emission rates decreased dramatically during the first half of the report period.
Sources: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| 1.467°S, 78.442°W
| Elevation 5023 m
During 6-11 March, several small emissions of gas, steam, and ash occurred at Tungurahua. On 11 March an eruption produced a gas-and-ash cloud that rose ~2 km above the volcano and drifted to the SW. During the evening, incandescent volcanic blocks were visible near the volcano's crater.
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.