Activity for the week of 7 January-13 January 2004
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
New Activity / Unrest
Piton de la Fournaise
| Reunion Island (France)
| 21.244°S, 55.708°E
| Elevation 2632 m
On 7 January at 0930 a seismic event started beneath Piton de la Fournaise and significant surface deformation was recorded. This event was different from past seismic events because it lasted for ~40 hours, while the hypocenters migrated to the NE. On 9 January eruption tremor started near Nez Coupé de Sainte Rose. A 300-m-long fissure, cutting the 1931 crater, produced a small ~2-km-long lava flow. The eruption stopped on 10 January around 1200.
Sources: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF), Agence France-Presse (AFP)
| Kyushu (Japan)
| 31.593°N, 130.657°E
| Elevation 1117 m
According to the Tokyo VAAC, an eruption occurred at Sakura-jima on 12 January around 1430 that produced an ash cloud that rose above 2 km a.s.l.
Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| 0.677°S, 78.436°W
| Elevation 5911 m
During 29 December to 4 January, the number of earthquakes at Cotopaxi slightly increased in comparison to the previous week. On 2 January a strong smell of sulfur was reported in the Yanasacha area.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
| Halmahera (Indonesia)
| 1.693°N, 127.894°E
| Elevation 1229 m
During 7-13 January, low-intensity eruptions at Dukono continued to produce plumes to low levels that extended to ~120 km SSW.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
| 14.473°N, 90.88°W
| Elevation 3763 m
An ash emission from Fuego on 8 January around 1500 rose to ~3 km above the volcano. According to news reports, 25-30 explosions occurred per minute and were accompanied by loud rumbling noises. No evacuations were ordered. Plumes and a relatively strong hotspot were visible on satellite imagery.
Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Prensa Libre, Associated Press
| Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
| 54.049°N, 159.443°E
| Elevation 1513 m
Seismicity was above background levels at Karymsky during 1-5 January, with 40-150 shallow earthquakes occurring per day. The seismic station was not working during 5-9 January. During 2-4 January, ash deposits were visible on the volcano's snow-covered flanks extending ESE, NNW, and NNE. The Tokyo VAAC reported that ash was visible on satellite imagery on 8 January at a height of ~7 km a.s.l. drifting SSW. Karymsky remained at Concern Color Code Orange.
Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
Volcanic activity continued at Kilauea's Pu`u `O`o crater during 8-12 January. Observers confirmed that most of the cones in the crater grew during the previous week and most cones were incandescent. Some days much lava was emitted from the West Gap vent, and the West Gap lava shield (a pile of lava flows built over a lava tube rather than over a conduit feeding magma) continued to expand. At Kilauea's summit few earthquakes and little, if any, volcanic tremor occurred. Volcanic tremor at Pu`u `O`o was continuous and at moderate levels. During the report period, small episodes of inflation and deflation occurred.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.056°N, 160.642°E
| Elevation 4754 m
During 2-9 January, seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi, with ~115 shallow M1.9-2.3 earthquakes and a large number of weaker events recorded. On 2 January an ash explosion rose slightly above the volcano. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| 34.094°N, 139.526°E
| Elevation 775 m
As of 8 January, gas emissions continued at Miyake-jima. The sulfur-dioxide flux was relatively high (about 4,000-9,000 tons per day) and had remained nearly constant since October 2002. Residents of Miyake-jima have been evacuated from the island since September 2000.
Source: Geological Survey of Japan
| 14.757°N, 91.552°W
| Elevation 3745 m
During 7-12 January, several weak-to-moderate explosions and avalanches occurred at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex. A partial lava-dome collapse on 7 January produced avalanches down the SW flank. Many of the avalanches were moderate to strong, lasting 1-2 minutes as they traveled SW and S down Caliente cone. Explosions on 12 January produced plumes to ~500 m above the volcano. Ash plumes were also visible on satellite imagery several days during the report period.
Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| 16.72°N, 62.18°W
| Elevation 915 m
Volcanic activity at Soufrière Hills remained low during 2-9 January, with low counts of all seismic signals. The seismic network recorded 2 rockfalls and 2 hybrid earthquakes. Sulfur-dioxide fluxes were also low and stable at around 300 tons per day.
Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)
| 1.467°S, 78.442°W
| Elevation 5023 m
Volcanic activity at Tungurahua during 7-13 January continued with emissions of gas, steam, and ash and low-to-moderate seismicity. Emissions reached ~1 km above the volcano and traveled W and SW on 8 January. Emissions on 12 January deposited ash in the sectors of Bilbao, Cusúa, Pillate, Ulba, Pondoa, Banos, Juive, Ambato, and Patate.
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.