Activity for the week of 28 January-3 February 2004
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
New Activity / Unrest
| Flores Island (Indonesia)
| 8.676°S, 122.455°E
| Elevation 1661 m
Volcanic activity began at Egon on 29 January around 0400 when a landslide traveled down the volcano's E crater wall. Around 1700 an explosion produced a black ash cloud to a height of ~750 m above the summit. During 30-31 January, loud noises from the volcano were followed by emissions of gray ash clouds. In addition, there was a strong scent of sulfur every 50-60 minutes. Visual observations on the 31st revealed that a new solfatara tunnel (sulfur-rich fumarole) was created on the S side of the volcano. Small volcanic earthquakes, deep-volcanic earthquakes, and harmonic tremor were recorded. DVGHM put Egon at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4) beginning on 2 February. The volcano did not previously have an Alert Level. The Darwin VAAC reported that ash was not visible on satellite imagery.
The volcanism at Egon led to the evacuation of residents near the volcano on 29 January. According to a report by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), local authorities ordered the evacuation of the villages of Hale, Hebing, Egon Gahar, and Natakoli, which were in high-risk areas on the S side of the volcano. By 31 Jan, ~3,900 people had reached Maumere city, ~35 km away. As many as 6,000 people were evacuated by 1 February. At least one death was reported, although it was not clear if it resulted from the volcanic activity, evacuation process, or other causes. According to news reports, many of the evacuees suffered from respiratory problems, dengue fever, malaria, and diarrhea. There were also reports of looting in the evacuated villages.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), Khaleej Times, The Jakarta Post
| 19.514°N, 103.62°W
| Elevation 3850 m
During January, an average of three explosions per day occurred at Colima. The resultant ash plumes rose 2-3 km above the crater and mostly drifted NE and ENE.
Source: Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima
| 14.473°N, 90.88°W
| Elevation 3763 m
During 28 January to 2 February, small-to-moderate explosions occurred at Fuego. The highest rising ash plume was produced from an explosion on 29 January. The plume reached ~1.1 km above the crater and was accompanied by avalanches of volcanic material down Barranca Seca. A small amount of ash fell in Panimaché village and possibly in Santa Sofía. On 31 January two small collapses in the S edge of the central crater produced small avalanches of lava blocks.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
| Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
| 54.049°N, 159.443°E
| Elevation 1513 m
During 23-30 January, seismicity was above background levels at Karymsky, with 50-150 shallow earthquakes occurring daily. Gas-and-steam explosions produced plumes that rose to ~1 km above the volcano. Karymsky remained at Concern Color Code Orange.
Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Pravda News
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
During 29 January to 1 February mild volcanic activity occurred at Kilauea, with incandescence visible at vents in Pu`u `O`o's crater and small surface flows on the central or southern part of the rootless shield complex, an area ~0.5 km SW of Pu`u `O`o. Starting on 18 January, when the MLK vent formed, the distance across the summit caldera decreased significantly, ending a period of increasing extension rate since the Mother's Day event in May 2002. During the report period, weak tremor occurred at Kilauea's summit along with a few long-period earthquakes. Tremor at Pu`u `O`o remained moderate. Small deflation and inflation events occurred at the summit and at Pu`u `O`o.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.056°N, 160.642°E
| Elevation 4754 m
During 23-30 January, seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi, with ~130 shallow M 1.9-2.3 earthquakes and a large number of weaker events occurring. Probable Strombolian activity was seen at the volcano on the evenings of 24 and 26 January. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to ~3 km above the volcano. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| 14.757°N, 91.552°W
| Elevation 3745 m
During 28 January to 2 February, small-to-moderate explosions occurred at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex. During 31 January to 2 February, collapses occurred at the SW edge of the lava dome within Caliente cone. Ash plumes were produced that rose to ~1 km above the lava dome, as well as small avalanches of volcanic blocks and ash. According to the Washington VAAC, on 2 February ash plumes were visible on satellite imagery rising to ~1 km above the volcano. INSIVUMEH recommended that tourists not visit the S part of the volcano.
Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.653°N, 161.36°E
| Elevation 3283 m
During 23-30 January, seismicity was above background levels at Shiveluch, with a large number of weak shallow earthquakes occurring at depths of 0-5 km beneath the lava dome. In addition, 5-7 shallow M 1.75-2.3 earthquakes occurred each day except for 22 January. Intermittent tremor was recorded all week. Based on seismic data, 8 and 9 ash-and-gas explosions occurred on 22 and 23 January, respectively, sending ash to 3.5-4.5 km above the volcano. Video footage on 22 January confirmed that four ash plumes rose to ~3.5 km. Shiveluch remained at Concern Color Code Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| 16.72°N, 62.18°W
| Elevation 915 m
Volcanism at Soufrière Hills remained at very low levels during 23-30 January. The seismic network recorded 8 rockfalls, 10 hybrid earthquakes, 1 volcano-tectonic earthquake, and 1 long-period earthquake. Sulfur-dioxide emissions were between 500 and 700 tons per day (no measurements were possible on 24 and 25 January).
Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)
| 1.467°S, 78.442°W
| Elevation 5023 m
During 28 January to 2 February, Tungurahua continued to emit gas, steam, and ash. Emissions rose to ~2 km above the crater, with variable amounts of ash in the resultant plumes.
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.