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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 20 September-26 September 2006.


















 Activity for the week of 20 September-26 September 2006

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Dempo Indonesia New
Fourpeaked United States New
Home Reef Tonga Islands New
Poas Costa Rica New
Simbo Solomon Islands New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Barren Island Andaman Islands (India) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Mayon Luzon (Philippines) Ongoing
Semeru Eastern Java (Indonesia) Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing
St. Helens United States Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing
Tungurahua Ecuador Ongoing
Ubinas Peru Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Dempo  | Indonesia  | 4.016°S, 103.121°E  | Elevation 3142 m

Increased seismicity at Dempo resulted in an elevation of the hazard status to Alert Level 2.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Fourpeaked  | United States  | 58.77°N, 153.672°W  | Elevation 2105 m

On the evening of 17 September the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) received several reports of two discrete plumes rising from the Cape Douglas area, about 320 km SW of Anchorage. Retrospective analysis of data from the NEXRAD Doppler radar in King Salmon showed an unusual cloud starting at 1200 that day. The maximum cloud height determined by radar during the first hour of the event was 6 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. The radar return from the cloud continued until at least 2145. A cloud of sulfur dioxide gas was observed by colleagues at the University of Maryland Baltimore County over the Cape Douglas/Fourpeaked region at 1500 using data collected by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA's Aura satellite. On this basis all of the clouds were inferred to be volcanic in origin. Although satellite data did not detect ash during this event, AVO received reports of a trace of ashfall at Nonvianuk Lake outlet (110 km WNW) and near Homer (150 km NE).

Both fixed-wing and helicopter overflights in the Cape Douglas area 20 September confirmed the source of volcanic activity to be Fourpeaked volcano. AVO raised the Level of Concern Color Code from "Not Assigned" to YELLOW on 20 September. Fourpeaked and Douglas volcanoes are not monitored seismically. A 23 September observation flight conducted in relatively good weather permitted the first look at the summit since the event of 17 September. Observers saw a linear series of vents running N from the summit for about 1 km. Most of these vents were vigorously emitting steam and other volcanic gases. Gas measurements indicated abundant quantities of sulfur dioxide, hydrogren sulfide, and carbon dioxide.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Home Reef  | Tonga Islands  | 18.992°S, 174.775°W  | Elevation -10 m

Reports have been received of large pumice rafts in the Fiji Islands. On 16 September observers aboard the M/V National Geographic Endeavour noted almost continuous rows of pumice that day as they traveled about 90 km east-southeast to Vatoa Island, where the pumice was present on the beaches. Large rafts of pumice were also passing through the northern Lau Group around Naitauba Island on 19 September. The source of the pumice is unknown at this time. [Later determined to be from Home Reef.]

Sources: David Cothran, M/V National Geographic Endeavour, David Forsythe, Naitauba Island, Fiji



Volcano index photo  Poas  | Costa Rica  | 10.2°N, 84.233°W  | Elevation 2708 m

On 26 September at least two phreatic eruptions occurred at Poás. One during the night of 25 September reached a height of at least 350 m above the warm acid lake, depositing rock fragments, mud, and water in the southern part of the inner crater and outside the western part of the crater. Material ejected that night reached Trojas de Sarchí, almost 10 km SW. A smaller eruption on the morning of 26 September was limited to the area of the lake, and formed green-yellow semicircular zones of mud and sulfur up to 75 m in diameter.

Source: Red Sismologica Nacional (RSN: UCR-ICE), Universidad de Costa Rica and Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad



Volcano index photo  Simbo  | Solomon Islands  | 8.292°S, 156.52°E  | Elevation 335 m

Residents on Simbo Island reported feeling seven "earth tremors" on 21 September, and others in recent days. None of the events caused damage. The Solomon Islands Seismology Division does not have monitoring equipment on the island.

Source: Solomon Star



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported eruptions at Sakura-jima on 20 and 21 September. A plume from the second eruption rose to 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Barren Island  | Andaman Islands (India)  | 12.278°N, 93.858°E  | Elevation 354 m

Indian Coast Guard officials noted in a news report on 23 September that the continuing eruption at Barren Island was decreasing in intensity. A surveillance report stated that there was less lava but more "smoke" coming from the volcano.

Source: The Hindu



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

Seismic data and satellite observations reported by KVERT indicate that moderate ash eruptions were continuing from Karymsky during 16-22 September. There have been 40-200 weak shallow earthquakes recorded each day. A thermal anomaly over the crater was noted on 18-19 September. Based on visual observations, volcanologists in the area on 19 September estimated ash explosions to have reached altitudes of 2.3 km (7,500 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes extending 16-40 km SW and SE were noted at satellite images on 18-19 September.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

Throughout 20-26 September Kilauea continued to erupt from the Pu`u `O`o vent on the East Rift Zone. Summit inflation centered in the south part of the caldera also continued. Lava was flowing through the PKK lava tube from its source on the SW flank of Pu`u `O`o to the ocean. About 1 km S of Pu`u `O`o, the Campout flow branches off from the PKK tube. The PKK and Campout systems feed two widely separated ocean entries named East Lae`apuki and East Ka`ili`ili, respectively. Activity during this period included numerous small breakouts from the Campout flow, new skylights along the PKK tube, and variable activity at the ocean entries. At Pu`u `O`o, intermittent lava incandescence reflected on gas plumes was visible from the usual four vents (East Pond, January, South Wall Complex, and Drainhole).

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Mayon  | Luzon (Philippines)  | 13.257°N, 123.685°E  | Elevation 2462 m

Surface activity at Mayon consisted of incandescent lava fragments rolling down the slopes and glow coming from the summit crater. Moderate white steam emissions continued from the summit. The number of daily volcanic earthquakes was low during 20-24 September, with 1-3 events per day. On the 25th there were 14 earthquakes recorded. There were also 114 tremor episodes that day, also a high for the week ending on 26 September. Sulfur dioxide flux remained above normal, between 1,200 and 2,200 metric tons/day.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)



Volcano index photo  Semeru  | Eastern Java (Indonesia)  | 8.108°S, 112.922°E  | Elevation 3657 m

Based on satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC issued multiple aviation ash advisories for Semeru during 20-21 September. Plumes were initially reported to be near 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SW. The later reports noted a plume at 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. extending about 90 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

MVO reported that during 15-22 September the lava dome at Soufrière Hills continued to grow at a moderate rate, slower than earlier in the month. Growth appears to have occurred predominantly in the summit area and on the S and E sides of the dome. The vent situated in the Gages Wall is still active, with minor explosive activity seen during an observation flight on 19 September. An intense 30-minute episode of volcanic tremor on 19 September was accompanied by rockfall activity that caused minor pyroclastic flows down the N and NE flanks of the lava dome. On 22 September the volume of the dome was about 80 million cubic meters. Seismicity was dominated by rockfalls with a significant drop in earthquake activity relative to the previous reporting period. The alert level was reduced to 3 (on a scale of 0-5) on 21 September. Aviation ash advisories during this period noted continuous ash emissions.

Sources: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  St. Helens  | United States  | 46.2°N, 122.18°W  | Elevation 2549 m

Lava continued to extrude onto the crater floor during 20-26 September with low seismicity, generating occasional rockfalls as talus sloughed off the flanks of the growing dome.

Source: US Geological Survey Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO)



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

On 20 September the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite caught Suwanose-jima in the process of emitting volcanic ash and steam. The volcano's emissions blew N, gradually fanning out over the ocean, with a grayish tinge that distinguished it from nearby white clouds. Aviation ash advisories for this eruption issued by the Tokyo VAAC based on satellite imagery, pilot reports, and JMA, noted that the plume rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and extended about 80 km N.

Sources: NASA Earth Observatory, Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

During 20-26 September seismicity remained low, as Tungurahua continued to generate ash eruptions. Ash rose 2 km above summit (23,000 ft a.s.l.) on the afternoon of 21 September. Moderate ash emissions occurred again on 22 September. Three more ash emissions on 23 September caused ashfall in Penipe; one plume rose 3 km above the summit (26,000 ft a.s.l.), and another 4 km (29,500 ft a.s.l.). Ash plumes were seen again on 25 September.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Ubinas  | Peru  | 16.355°S, 70.903°W  | Elevation 5672 m

Based on pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC issued aviation ash advisories for Ubinas on 24 and 25 September. The continuous ash emissions were rising as high as 9 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SSE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Bamus Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Monowai Soufriere Hills
Banda Api Ibu Montagu Island Soufriere St. Vincent
Bardarbunga Ijen Moyorodake [Medvezhia] South Sarigan Seamount
Barren Island Iliamna Mutnovsky Spurr
Batur Iliwerung Myojinsho St. Helens
Bezymianny Inielika Nabro Stromboli
Bogoslof Ioto Negra, Sierra Sulu Range
Brava Iya Negro, Cerro Sumbing
Bristol Island Izu-Torishima Nightingale Island Sundoro
Bulusan Jackson Segment Nishinoshima Suretamatai
Calbuco Kaba Nisyros Suwanosejima
Callaqui Kadovar Novarupta Taal
Cameroon Kambalny NW Rota-1 Tair, Jebel at
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kanaga Nyamuragira Takawangha
Cayambe Kanlaon Nyiragongo Talang
Cereme Karangetang Okataina Tambora
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karkar Okmok Tanaga
Chaiten Karthala Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karymsky Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Kasatochi Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Katla Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Kavachi Pagan Telica
Chirinkotan Kelimutu Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Chirpoi Kelut Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kerinci Panarea Three Sisters
Colima Ketoi Papandayan Tinakula
Colo Kharimkotan Parker Tofua
Concepcion Kick 'em Jenny Pavlof Tokachidake
Copahue Kikai Peuet Sague Tolbachik
Cotopaxi Kilauea Pinatubo Toliman
Cuicocha Kirishimayama Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Cumbal Kizimen Poas Tungurahua
Dabbahu Klyuchevskoy Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Kolokol Group Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Korovin Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Koryaksky Raikoke Unknown Source
Dukono Krakatau Ranakah Unnamed
Ebeko Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Raoul Island Veniaminof
Ebulobo Kuchinoerabujima Rasshua Villarrica
Egon Kurikomayama Raung West Mata
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Erebus Lamington Rincon de la Vieja Wolf
Erta Ale Lamongan Rinjani Yasur
Etna Langila Ritter Island Zaozan
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Lanin Rotorua Zavodovski
Eyjafjallajokull Lascar Ruang Zhupanovsky
Fernandina Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruapehu Zubair Group
Fogo Leroboleng Ruiz, Nevado del
Fonualei Lewotobi Sabancaya
Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotolo Sakar
Fourpeaked Little Sitkin Salak
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)