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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 10 December-16 December 2008.


















 Activity for the week of 10 December-16 December 2008

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Chaiten Chile New
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) New
Nevado del Huila Colombia New
Piton de la Fournaise Reunion Island (France) New
Sangay Ecuador New
Soufriere Hills Montserrat New
Tungurahua Ecuador New

Bagana Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Colima Mexico Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Galeras Colombia Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Manam Papua New Guinea Ongoing
Pacaya Guatemala Ongoing
Rabaul New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Chaiten  | Chile  | 42.833°S, 72.646°W  | Elevation 1122 m

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 25 November-15 December gas-and-steam plumes with variable amounts of ash rose from Chaitén to altitudes of 2.6-3.1 km (8,500-10,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Intense gas emissions came from the S flank of the first new lava dome (Dome 1), and from the NE part of the second new dome (Dome 2). On 4 December ash ejections originated from the WNW area of the dome complex. Ash plumes rose from Dome 2 to an altitude of 3.6 km (11,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

An overflight on 6 December revealed that the old lava dome was almost completely covered by Dome 1 (reddish to brown in color). Most of the eruptive activity was concentrated at the site of Dome 2, NE of Dome 1. Dome 2 was grayish in color and exhibited pinnacles and a very uneven top. Constant rockfalls originated from the slopes. Gravitational collapses of the spines produced block-and-ash flows that traveled N, NW, and S, and towards the contact area of the two domes. Domes 1 and 2 both exceeded the height of the caldera rim; Dome 1 was about 250 m above the N rim of the caldera, and Dome 2 was about 350 m above the rim. During 9-15 December, Dome 2 continued to grow rapidly and generate block-and-ash flows. The Alert Level remained at Red.

Based on observations of satellite imagery and web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 10-11 and 13-14 December ash and steam plumes continuously rose to altitudes 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, NE, N, and NW. Thermal anomalies were detected on satellite imagery on 10 and 14 December.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels during 5-12 December. Strombolian activity ejected bombs 500 m above the crater and lava effusion on the NW flank continued. Phreatic bursts occurred where the lava flow front contacted the Erman Glacier. On 6 and 9 December, ashfall was reported in Klyuchi, about 30 km to the NE. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a large daily thermal anomaly in the crater. Gas-and-steam plumes containing small amounts of ash rose to altitudes of 5-6 km (16,400-19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted more than 300 km E. During 8-10 December, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 7.5-8 km (24,600-26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 700 km E. The Level of Concern Color Code remained Orange.

Based on information from KVERT and analysis of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 13-15 December eruptions ash produced plumes to altitudes of 5.2-8.2 km (17,000-27,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted E and NE.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Nevado del Huila  | Colombia  | 2.93°N, 76.03°W  | Elevation 5364 m

INGEOMINAS reported that during 12-16 December steam-and-gas plumes drifting SE and SW from Nevado del Huila were seen on a video camera rising to an altitude of 6.9 km (22,600 ft) a.s.l. A video camera was set up SSW of the volcano on 12 December.

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



Volcano index photo  Piton de la Fournaise  | Reunion Island (France)  | 21.244°S, 55.708°E  | Elevation 2632 m

OVPDLF reported that a seismic crisis at Piton de la Fournaise on 14 December was characterized by hundreds of earthquakes, many greater than M 2.5. On 15 December, an eruption began from two fissures inside Dolomieu crater and produced low-velocity lava flows that ponded at the bottom, covering about 20 percent of the 21 September lava flow.

Source: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF)



Volcano index photo  Sangay  | Ecuador  | 2.005°S, 78.341°W  | Elevation 5286 m

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that a small gas-and-steam plume with some ash rose from Sangay on 16 December.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

MVO reported that seismicity from Soufrière Hills lava dome remained elevated during 6-10 December. On 10 December, seven pyroclastic flows traveled W down Gages Valley, at least two reached Plymouth (about 5 km W). A few small pyroclastic flows were detected during 11-12 December. Monitoring data indicated that the volcano continued to inflate.

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from MVO, the Washington VAAC reported that on 14 December an ash plume drifted W at an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. A diffuse gas-and-steam plume possibly containing ash drifted W the next day. On 13 December, a pilot reported that an ash plume rose to altitudes of 4.6-5.2 km (15,000-17,000 ft) a.s.l. On 15 December, ash plumes at altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. drifted SW. The next day an ash plume drifted S and a thermal anomaly was detected on satellite imagery.

Sources: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

The IG reported that activity from Tungurahua on 15 December was characterized by increased seismicity, ash emissions, and the ejection of incandescent blocks. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Ashfall was reported 6 km NNE in Runtún. Observers at the Tungurahua Observatory (OVT) in Guadalupe, 11 km N, saw incandescent blocks ejected from the summit fall onto the W flank. Later that night, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and incandescence was seen at the summit. Emissions with variable ash content were seen on 16 December.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Bagana  | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)  | 6.137°S, 155.196°E  | Elevation 1855 m

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 16 December an ash plume from Bagana rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

During 9-16 December, gray and white plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 3.9-4.5 km (12,800-14,800 ft) a.s.l. Plumes occasionally drifted SE and N. On 11 December, a gray plume rose to an altitude of 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Gobierno del Estado de Colima



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 December an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 160 km SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

Based on NOTAM's ("Notices to Airmen"), the Washington VAAC reported that on 9 December a possible gas-and-ash plume from Fuego rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l., drifted N, and dissipated rapidly. INSIVUMEH reported that on 12 December explosions produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4.1-5 km (13,500-16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSW. The explosions produced rumbling and degassing sounds, and shock waves were detected 10 km away.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Galeras  | Colombia  | 1.22°N, 77.37°W  | Elevation 4276 m

INGEOMINAS reported that thermal images of the lava dome in Galeras's crater were taken during an overflight on 11 December. The images revealed temperatures as hot as 530 degrees Celsius on the N side of the dome and temperatures near 80 degrees Celsius on the W side. Temperatures had declined compared to thermal images taken in October 2008. On 16 December, INGEOMINAS reported that during the previous few days, gas plumes rose to altitudes of 5.9-6.7 km (19,400-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that during 5 and 9-10 December seismic activity at Karymsky was at background levels; possible explosions may have generated ash-and-gas plumes to an altitude of 2.8 km (9,200 ft) a.s.l. Volcanologists occasionally saw ash plumes rise to altitudes of 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. and drift E. Ash deposits on the E flank were more than 5 km long. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a thermal anomaly in the crater on 8 December and an ash plume that drifted ESE. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

HVO reported that during 10-16 December lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Incandescence was occasionally seen at the TEB vent, and surface flows were noted on and at the base of the pali, and on the coastal plain. A branch of lava previously seen traveling S towards the Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park boundary went about 55 m into the park. On 16 December, a Pu'u 'O'o Crater web camera was hit with a small amount of debris, suggesting a collapse in the crater.

Earthquakes were variously located beneath the caldera, along the SW rift zone, and along the S-flank fault. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater the number of earthquakes on 10 December ranged from 150 to 200, but were too small to be located more precisely (less than M 1.7 and recorded on fewer than four seismometers). The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW and deposited small amounts of tephra. Weak winds caused poor air quality at the summit. Sounds resembling rockfalls were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Manam  | Papua New Guinea  | 4.08°S, 145.037°E  | Elevation 1807 m

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 December an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Pacaya  | Guatemala  | 14.382°N, 90.601°W  | Elevation 2569 m

On 12 December INSIVUMEH reported that fumarolic plumes from Pacaya's MacKenney cone drifted NE at a low altitude. Three lava flows, 150, 250, and 800 m long, were observed from the S. Seismic data indicated small explosions at the crater.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Rabaul  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 4.271°S, 152.203°E  | Elevation 688 m

RVO reported that during 6-12 December gray ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to an altitude of 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Rabaul town (3-5 km NW). Rumbling and roaring noises were reported on some days. Explosions or forceful emissions sometimes ejected incandescent lava fragments.

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 14-16 December ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, ESE, and NE.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

INSIVUMEH reported that on 12 December explosions from Caliente dome in Santa María's Santiaguito complex produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.2 km (10,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. On 16 December, two ash puffs drifted W and WNW at altitudes of 4.3-4.6 km (14,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Shiveluch was above background levels during 5-12 December. Based on interpretations of seismic data, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. Visual observations of weak gas-and-steam emissions were noted during 5, 7, and 9-10 December. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly on the lava dome. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Based on information from KEMSD and analysis of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 11 December eruptions produced plumes to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

Based on information from JMA, analysis of satellite imagery, and pilot reports, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions or eruptions from Suwanose-jima during 10-12 and 14-16 December. Plumes rose to altitudes of 0.9-1.8 km (3,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Details of a possible ash plume on 14 and 16 December were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

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Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)