Activity for the week of 15 June-21 June 2011
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
New Activity / Unrest
| Sicily (Italy)
| 37.748°N, 14.999°E
| Elevation 3295 m
Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that on 13 June mountain guides heard loud hissing sounds coming from the interior of Etna's Bocca Nuova crater. After nearly six months of quiescence, ash emissions rose from Bocca Nuova the next morning. The emissions were composed of small ash clouds that seemingly originated from the central part of the crater and rose about 200-250 m above the crater rim, then drifted E. Thermal monitoring cameras showed no signs of incandescence in the emissions, which were observed for a few hours before meteorological clouds moved in and prevented further observations. During limited periods of good visibility from 15 to 17 June, sporadic small reddish-to-grayish-brown ash plumes were observed to occur every 5-15 minutes. Usual rhythmic emissions of gas and vapor from the Northeast Crater continued.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
| 13.37°N, 41.7°E
| Elevation 2218 m
An eruption from Nabro that started on 12 June continued to produce a plume. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Toulouse VAAC reported that during 15-20 June plumes comprised mostly of water and sulfur dioxide rose to altitudes of 6.1-7.9 km (20,000-26,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was occasionally detected near the volcano. Satellite imagery posted on MODIS Web showed a dark brown ash plume fanning out to the SW on 19 June. A thermal satellite image acquired at night on 19 June revealed a 15-km-long lava flow that had traveled NW. A high-altitude plume, likely rich in water vapor, rose from the erupting vents and a diffuse ash-rich plume drifted SW.
News articles stated that ash had covered a well-known mine that produces edible salt, and had contaminated food and water sources. During 15-16 June several airlines cancelled some domestic and international flights, including in and out of Addis Abeba (Ethiopia), neighboring Djibouti, and Khartoum (Sudan).
Sources: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), NASA Earth Observatory, Addis Fortune, Bloomberg, NASA MODIS Rapid Response System
| 40.59°S, 72.117°W
| Elevation 2236 m
OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that the eruption from the Cordón Caulle rift zone, part of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex, that began on 4 June continued during 15-18 June. The seismic network detected small explosions on 15 June. The eruption plume rose 4-5 km above the crater and drifted SE. The base of the plume was dark gray and ash continued to fall in areas near the volcano. The next day the plume rose 3 km above the crater and was whiter. Satellite imagery showed the plume drifting 1,400 km ESE. On 17 June the plume rose 2 km above the crater and drifted SE. About 5 mm of ash had accumulated in Pajaritos during the night. Ashfall was also reported in eastern areas of Lago Rupanco, about 30 km SSW. According to news articles, plumes from the eruption had circumnavigated the globe, arrived in the W part of Chile (in Coyhaique, 550 km S of the volcano), and again caused domestic flights to be canceled.
On 19 June SERNAGEOMIN noted that meteorological weather prevented clear observations, although a thermal camera used during an overflight showed a thermal anomaly near the emission center. The plume rose 2 km above the crater and drifted SE. A news article stated that authorities lifted the evacuation ban for area residents, allowing them to return home. Articles also stated that flights in South Africa were disrupted during 18-19 June.
SERNAGEOMIN personnel along with regional authorities flew over Puyehue-Cordón Caulle on 20 June. They observed a viscous lava flow with concentric morphology, confirming speculation of magma ascent reflected in seismic data from the previous few days. A 50-m-wide lava flow from the emissions center had traveled 200 m NW and 100 m NE, filling up a depression. A white plume that was gray at the base rose 3-4 km above the crater. Devastated vegetation from pyroclastic flows was observed near the basin of the Nilahue and Abutment rivers. Pulses of tremor were detected by the seismic network. Cameras installed around the volcano showed the plume, which was periodically very dark, rising 5-6 km above the crater. On 21 June the plume rose 3-4 km above the crater and was dark at the base. Although there were no new aerial observations, the seismic signals indicated that the lava flow remained active. News reports noted that flights were again disrupted in parts of Australia on 21 June. SERNAGEOMIN reiterated that the Alert Level remained at 6, Red.
Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), The Telegraph, Agence France-Presse (AFP), Associated Press, Stuff
| Costa Rica
| 10.025°N, 83.767°W
| Elevation 3340 m
OVSICORI-UNA reported that on 9 June scientists conducting fieldwork at Turrialba observed a new crater lake in the W crater, which opened in January 2010 and was the center of the most recent activity. Since February, rock landslides along with abundant mud and clay had accumulated in the bottom of the crater, blocking the vent. Meteoric water from rains starting in May had formed a light-green-colored lake that was 70 by 70 m and about 1 m deep. Minor bubbling in the SW and NE shores was noted, and steam and sulfur dioxide gas emissions rose from many fumarolic vents around the crater.
Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)
| Komba Island (Indonesia)
| 7.791°S, 123.585°E
| Elevation 633 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16-20 June ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-75 km W, NW, and N.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
| Flores Island (Indonesia)
| 8.676°S, 122.455°E
| Elevation 1661 m
CVGHM reported that on 17 June the Alert Level for Egon was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) because seismicity had decreased and emission heights had been lower since January.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
| Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
| 54.049°N, 159.443°E
| Elevation 1513 m
KVERT reported moderate seismic activity at Karymsky during 10-16 June and that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery showed a weak thermal anomaly on the volcano during 10-14 June and an ash plume that drifted 90 km NE on 14 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 15-21 June. The level of the summit lava lake fluctuated but remained mostly stable deep in the vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. A gas plume from the vent drifted SW, depositing variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby. On 17 June a heated brown plume rose from a spattering source on the SE edge of the lake; the ejecta were primarily fresh spatter bits suggesting that the plume derived from a partial collapse of the spattering source or a small rockfall.
At Pu'u 'O'o, lava from vents near the W and NE edges of the perched lava lake in the center of the crater floor continued to fill the lake. The lake level fluctuated and overflowed the edges or flowed through rim breaches, sending lava onto the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. A small shield had built up against the SW crater wall on the W side of the lake. There was also minor lava activity from at least one source at the base of the SW crater wall.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| 8.32°S, 121.708°E
| Elevation 875 m
CVGHM reported that volcanic tremor from Paluweh had not been detected since 1 March 2010 and during January 2011-June solfatara emissions from the summit were not observed. On 17 June, the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4)
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.653°N, 161.36°E
| Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported moderate seismic activity at Shiveluch during 10-16 June and that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. on 15 June. Satellite imagery showed a gas-and-steam plume drifting 26 km NW on 10 June and a thermal anomaly on the lava dome during 10 and 12-13 June. Meteorological clouds prevented observations on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Based on information from KVERT and analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruptions on 20 June produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 6.7-10.1 km (22,000-33,000 ft) a.s.l.
Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.