Activity for the week of 7 November-13 November 2012
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
New Activity / Unrest
| Chuginadak Island (USA)
| 52.825°N, 169.944°W
| Elevation 1730 m
AVO reported that on 6 November thermal infrared satellite images of Cleveland showed elevated surface temperatures. Clouds obscure views of the lava dome during 7-9 November. A small ash cloud drifting ENE was detected in satellite imagery at 1147 on 10 November. The Volcano Alert Level was raised to Watch and the Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange. At 1843 the ash cloud was observed almost 100 km S of Dutch Harbor (260 km ENE). No new activity was observed in mostly cloudy images during11-13 November. Post-event analysis of infrasound data suggested that a small explosion likely occurred at 1125 on 10 November.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
| Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
| 55.131°N, 160.32°E
| Elevation 2334 m
KVERT reported that during 2-9 November moderate seismic activity at Kizimen was detected. Video and satellite images showed lava flows effusing from the summit and the E flank, summit incandescence, strong gas-and-steam activity, and hot avalanches on the S flank. During 1-2 and 6-7 November a thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| 8.32°S, 121.708°E
| Elevation 875 m
Based on analysis of satellite imagery and other data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-13 November ash plumes from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 90-150 km NW and W.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
| 0.077°S, 77.656°W
| Elevation 3562 m
On 9 November, IG reported that since February Reventador began a new phase of activity characterized by lava flows from the crater, steam plumes, and thermal anomalies detected in satellite images. The lava flows traveled as far as 2 km down the N and S flanks, and steam plumes rose 200-500 m above the crater. Field visits by volcanologists in recent months confirmed that the lava dome in the crater had continued to grow above the rim, becoming the highest point of the volcano. Blocks from the lava dome and lava-flow fronts rolled down the flanks. IG noted that during 3-4 November emissions increased; a steam-and-ash plume rose 3 km above the crater. The seismic network detected an increase in the magnitude of volcanic tremor. Steam-and-gas plumes contained ash within the previous few days.
According to the Washington VAAC, the IG reported that on 9 November an ash emission from Reventador rose to an unknown height. On 13 November a gas-and-ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Ash was not detected in satellite imagery on either day.
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| 39.42°S, 71.93°W
| Elevation 2847 m
According to Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI), incandescence from Villarrica's crater subsided mid-April and was undetected by satellite and ground observations at least through 10 November. Images captured by a camera in Pucon (16 km N) on 10 November showed an increase in the plume intensity. Small water vapor plumes, 50 m wide, rose from the depths of the crater.
Source: Proyecto Observación Villarrica Internet (POVI)
| Kyushu (Japan)
| 31.593°N, 130.657°E
| Elevation 1117 m
JMA reported that during 5-9 November explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1.3 km from the crater. Very small eruptions at Minami-dake Crater occurred during 8-9 November. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 7-12 November produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-3 km (4,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, and E. During 8-9 November pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.4-4 km (8,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E.
Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
| 14.473°N, 90.88°W
| Elevation 3763 m
INSIVUMEH reported that during 8-9 and 11-12 November explosions from Fuego ejected incandescent material 100-200 m above the lava dome, and produced ash plumes that rose 200-430 m and drifted W and SW. Avalanches were generated near the crater. During 8-9 and 11-13 November lava flows traveled 200-500 m SSW down the Ceniza drainage, producing incandescent block avalanches that reached vegetated areas.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
| Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
| 54.049°N, 159.443°E
| Elevation 1513 m
KVERT reported that moderate seismic activity continued at Karymsky during 2-9 November. Satellite imagery detected a thermal anomaly on the volcano during 7-8 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 10 November a possible eruption produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.
Sources: Kathimerini News, Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
During 7-13 November HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. Lava flows were active in the Royal Gardens subdivision and flowed across the coastal plain, but were about 500 m from the coast.
Activity at Pu'u 'O'o Crater remained elevated. Lava circulated within the perched lava lake at the NE pit at Pu'u 'O'o Crater, and glow emanated from vents at the S edge of the crater floor and from a spatter cone at the N edge. Small lava flows issued a few times from the westernmost vent at the S edge of the crater floor.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| Sulawesi (Indonesia)
| 1.358°N, 124.792°E
| Elevation 1580 m
Based on a SIGMET, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 November an ash plume from Lokon-Empung rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
| North Island (New Zealand)
| 39.28°S, 175.57°E
| Elevation 2797 m
On 5 November, GeoNet reported that Ruapehu's summit Crater Lake was hot during field visits in December 2011 and January 2012, exhibiting temperatures over 35 degrees Celsius. The lake cooled afterwards, reaching 16 degrees in May and fluctuating between 18-24 degrees during June-October. Scientists visited the lake in late October and reported that the water temperature was 19.5 degrees. During that visit they observed weak convection near the center of the blue-green lake.
GeoNet noted that Ruapehu is often seismically active; during the last month weak volcanic tremor was recorded and more recently several small earthquakes under the volcano had been detected. The largest earthquake was an M 2.
An overflight on 26 October to measure gas flux revealed that sulfur dioxide was 63 tonnes per day and carbon dioxide was 908 tonnes per day. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Green and the Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 (signs of volcano unrest).
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.653°N, 161.36°E
| Elevation 3283 m
Based on visual observations and analyses of satellite data, KVERT reported that during 2-9 November a viscous lava flow continued to effuse on the NW flank of Shiveluch's lava dome, accompanied by hot avalanches and fumarolic activity. Satellite imagery showed a daily thermal anomaly on the lava dome. During 10-12 November weak seismicity was registered and satellite imagery showed a thermal anomaly. Video images recorded gas-and-steam activity, which contained ash on 12 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and notices from Yelizovo Airport (UHPP), the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 12 November ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3-4.3 km (10,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S.
Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| North Island (New Zealand)
| 39.157°S, 175.632°E
| Elevation 1978 m
On 5 November, GeoNet reported that several teams of scientists had been visiting Tongariro's Te Mari Craters to service portable seismometers (complementing four permanent installations), sample gas vents, and collect samples of ejecta. The report noted that not many earthquakes had been recorded recently, and that the hottest gas vent was 235 degrees Celsius while the others ranged from 95-104 degrees. On 30 October the sulfur dioxide flux was 154 tonnes per day and the carbon dioxide flux was 477 tonnes per day. The volcano continued to actively degas. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Yellow and the Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 (signs of volcano unrest).
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.