Activity for the week of 31 January-6 February 2018
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
New Activity / Unrest
| 14.473°N, 90.88°W
| Elevation 3763 m
INSIVUMEH reported that the first Strombolian eruption at Fuego in 2018 began on 31 January, after a thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images the day before. Explosions produced ash plumes that rose 1.5 km above the crater and drifted 20 km SW. Lava fountains rose 300-500 m, and fed lava flows that traveled 800 m W in the Seca (Santa Teresa) drainage and 600 m in Las Lajas (SE) and Honda (E) drainages. On 1 February the eruption style changed to Vulcanian. Pyroclastic flows mainly descended the Seca, Trinidad (S), Las Lajas, and Honda drainages. Ash plumes from explosions rose 3.2 km and drifted more than 60 km NE, SW, and W. Ashfall was recorded in areas downwind including Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Ciudad Vieja (13.5 km NE), Antigua Guatemala (18 km NE), and W and SW Ciudad de Guatemala. CONRED reported that 2,880 people were evacuated. At 1630 INSIVUMEH noted that the Strombolian-Vulcanian eruption phase had finished, 20 hours after it had begun. Explosions continued, generating ash plumes that rose just under 1 km and drifted 15 km SW.
On 2 February there were 3-5 weak explosion recorded per hour, with ash plumes rising 750 m and drifting 5-8 km W, SW, and S. Shock waves and rumbling were noted, and the lava flows remained visible. During 4-5 February ash plumes from explosions (about 5 per hour) produced ash plumes that rose 700 m and drifted W and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 200 m above the crater, causing weak avalanches of material around the crater area and in some vegetated areas.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
| Papua New Guinea
| 3.608°S, 144.588°E
| Elevation 365 m
RVO reported that the eruption at Kadovar continued during 31 January-1 February at a low level. Sulfur dioxide emissions and seismicity had both decreased. Dense white vapor plumes rose 100 m from Main Crater and drifted SE. Continuous but dull glow emanated from the crater. The lava dome at the SE Coastal Vent continued to grow. A new lobe 20-30 m long grew out from the seaward side of the dome boundary, channeled by levees which had developed on the sides of the dome. White steam plumes rose 100 m above the island and drifted SE. At 1830 on 1 February a collapse of the N part of the dome produced a gray plume, vigorous steaming at the collapse site, and nighttime incandescence. The main part of the dome had bulged up, and a valley developed in between the dome and the island’s flank.
Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)
| Siau Island (Indonesia)
| 2.781°N, 125.407°E
| Elevation 1797 m
In a VONA issued on 2 February, PVMBG reported an eruption at Karangetang, characterized by crater incandescence and an ash plume that rose 600 m. The Aviation Color Code was raised from Unassigned to Yellow.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
| Luzon (Philippines)
| 13.257°N, 123.685°E
| Elevation 2462 m
PHIVOLCS reported that during 31 January-6 February daily activity at Mayon continued to be characterized by lava effusion from the summit crater, rockfalls, pyroclastic flows (31 January-1 February), ash and steam emissions, advancing lava flows on the flanks, and weak and sporadic lava fountains. Numerous rockfall events were generated by the growing and collapsing summit lava dome and from the front and margins of advancing lava flows. On 31 January pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 2 km in the Mi-isi (S), Basud (E), and Bonga (SE) drainages. White-to-light-gray ash plumes generally rose to low heights, though five events generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km above the crater rim. An event on 2 February also produced an ash plume that rose 1 km. The first of two lava fountaining events on 4 February lasted sporadically for 114 minutes, generated an ash plume that rose 500 m, and produced booming sounds heard within a 10-km radius. During 5-6 February high volumes of effused lava extended the lava flows in the Mi-isi, Bonga-Buyuan, and Basud drainages to 3.2, 4.5, and 3 km, respectively. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a 0-5 scale) and the public was warned to remain outside of the Danger Zone defined as an area within an 8-km radius.
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
| El Salvador
| 13.434°N, 88.269°W
| Elevation 2130 m
On 2 February SNET reported that seismicity at San Miguel was decreasing, along with a decrease in emissions. RSAM values fluctuating between 63 and 114 units; normal values are between 50 and 150. Small pulses of gas near the crater rim were visible.
Source: Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (SNET)
| Kyushu (Japan)
| 31.593°N, 130.657°E
| Elevation 1117 m
JMA reported that very small events occurred at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) on 1 and 3 February. Crater incandescence from the summit crater was visible during 2-3 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
| Chuginadak Island (USA)
| 52.825°N, 169.944°W
| Elevation 1730 m
AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland continued during 31 January-6 February, though nothing significant was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Moderately elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 30-31 January; cloudy weather prevented observations the rest of the week. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
| Halmahera (Indonesia)
| 1.693°N, 127.894°E
| Elevation 1229 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 31 January-6 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and ESE.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
| Paramushir Island (Russia)
| 50.686°N, 156.014°E
| Elevation 1103 m
Based on observations by volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, explosions during 26-27 and 29-31 January generated ash plumes that rose as high as 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. Ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk on 29 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
| 54.049°N, 159.443°E
| Elevation 1513 m
KVERT reported that an ash plume from Karymsky was identified in satellite images drifting 80 km NE on 27 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
During 31 January-6 February HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Nevados de Chillan
| 36.868°S, 71.378°W
| Elevation 3180 m
Servicio Nacional de Geología and Minería (SERNAGEOMIN) Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) reported that growth of the lava dome in Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater was 2,540 m3/day, determined by photos taken during overflights on 23 and 31 January. The total volume of the lava dome was an estimated 106,700 m3. A small area of deposits from collapses of the dome walls was observed. Temperatures on the surface of the dome were 305 and 480 degrees Celsius, mainly from a crack which generated the explosions. A larger explosion from a possible partial dome collapse was recorded at 1202 on 2 February, generating a gas-and-ash plume that rose about 2.5 km above the crater rim. Shock waves from the explosion were reported in the community of Las Trancas (10 km) and at the Gran Hotel Termas de Chillan (5 km). Explosive activity continued through 6 February. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the middle level on a three-color scale, and the public was reminded not to approach the craters within a 4-km radius.
Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)
| 15.787°S, 71.857°W
| Elevation 5960 m
Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosive activity at Sabancaya decreased compared to the previous week; there was an average of 22 explosions recorded per day during 29 January-4 February. Seismicity was dominated by long-period events, with signals indicating emissions. Gas-and-ash plumes rose 3.5 km above the crater rim and drifted 50 km NW, SW, and S. The MIROVA system detected two thermal anomalies. The sulfur dioxide flux was high, at 3,388 tons per day on 31 January. The report noted that the public should not to approach the crater within a 12-km radius.
Sources: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET), Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.653°N, 161.36°E
| Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images on 1 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| Costa Rica
| 10.025°N, 83.767°W
| Elevation 3340 m
OVSICORI-UNA reported that an event at Turrialba at 0830 on 5 February generated a plume that rose 200 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. An event at 0730 on 6 February generated an ash plume that rose 1 km and drifted SW. Ashfall was reported in Goicoechea and Heredia.
Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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