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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail.

This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives on various volcanoes are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 12 September-18 September 2018
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Ioto Japan New
Piton de la Fournaise Reunion Island (France) 2021 Apr 9 New
Sarychev Peak Matua Island (Russia) 2020 Feb 29 ± 1 days New
Semisopochnoi Aleutian Islands (USA) 2021 Feb 2 ± 2 days New
Veniaminof United States New
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) 2016 Oct 20 Continuing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) 2021 Apr 3 Continuing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) 2020 Dec 20 Continuing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Continuing
Krakatau Indonesia Continuing
Merapi Central Java (Indonesia) 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Nevados de Chillan Chile 2016 Jan 8 Continuing
Popocatepetl Mexico 2005 Jan 9 Continuing
Sabancaya Peru 2016 Nov 6 Continuing
Sangay Ecuador 2019 Mar 26 Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Turrialba Costa Rica Continuing
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 16,755 individual reports over 1,067 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 312 different volcanoes.

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Use the dropdowns to choose the year and week for archived Weekly Reports.

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Agung Copahue Ijen Little Sitkin Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Ahyi Cotopaxi Iliamna Llaima Peuet Sague Spurr
Aira Cuicocha Iliwerung Loihi Pinatubo St. Helens
Akan Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
Alaid Dabbahu Ioto Lopevi Poas Sulu Range
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Irazu Machin Popocatepetl Sumbing
Ambae Descabezado Grande Iya Makian Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Sundoro
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Izu-Torishima Makushin Rabaul Suretamatai
Ambrym Dukono Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raikoke Suwanosejima
Anatahan Ebeko Kaba Manam Ranakah Taal
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kadovar Manda Hararo Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Antuco Egon Kambalny Marapi Rasshua Takawangha
Apoyeque Ekarma Kanaga Maroa Raung Talang
Arenal Epi Kanlaon Martin Redoubt Tambora
Asamayama Erebus Karangetang Masaya Reventador Tanaga
Askja Erta Ale Karkar Maule, Laguna del Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Asosan Etna Karthala Mauna Loa Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Karymsky Mayon Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Kasatochi McDonald Islands Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Awu Fernandina Katla Melimoyu Rotorua Telica
Axial Seamount Fogo Katmai Merapi Ruang Tenerife
Azul, Cerro Fonualei Kavachi Midagahara Ruapehu Tengger Caldera
Azumayama Fournaise, Piton de la Kelimutu Misti, El Ruiz, Nevado del Three Sisters
Bagana Fourpeaked Kelut Miyakejima Sabancaya Tinakula
Balbi Fuego Kerinci Momotombo Sakar Tofua
Bamus Fujisan Ketoi Monowai Salak Tokachidake
Banda Api Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kharimkotan Montagu Island San Cristobal Tolbachik
Bardarbunga Galeras Kick 'em Jenny Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Miguel Toliman
Barren Island Galunggung Kikai Mutnovsky San Vicente Tongariro
Batur Gamalama Kilauea Myojinsho Sangay Tungurahua
Bezymianny Gamkonora Kirishimayama Nabro Sangeang Api Turrialba
Bogoslof Gareloi Kizimen Negra, Sierra Santa Ana Ubinas
Brava Gaua Klyuchevskoy Negro, Cerro Santa Maria Ugashik-Peulik
Bristol Island Gorely Kolokol Group Nightingale Island Sarigan Ukinrek Maars
Bulusan Great Sitkin Korovin Nishinoshima Sarychev Peak Ulawun
Calbuco Grimsvotn Koryaksky Nisyros Saunders Unnamed
Callaqui Guagua Pichincha Krakatau Novarupta Semeru Unnamed
Cameroon Guallatiri Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Cayambe Hachijojima Kuchinoerabujima Nyiragongo Sheveluch West Mata
Cereme Hakoneyama Kurikomayama Okataina Shishaldin Westdahl
Chachadake [Tiatia] Heard Kusatsu-Shiranesan Okmok Simbo Whakaari/White Island
Chaiten Hekla Kverkfjoll Ontakesan Sinabung Witori
Chiginagak Helgrindur Lamington Oraefajokull Sinarka Wolf
Chikurachki Hierro Lamongan Osorno Siple Yasur
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Pacaya Sirung Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chillan, Nevados de Home Reef Lanin Pagan Slamet Zavodovski
Chirinkotan Hood Lascar Palena Volcanic Group Snaefellsjokull Zhupanovsky
Chirpoi Huaynaputina Lateiki Paluweh Soputan Zubair Group
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lengai, Ol Doinyo Panarea Sorikmarapi
Colima Huila, Nevado del Leroboleng Papandayan Sotara
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Lewotobi Parker Soufriere Hills
Concepcion Ibu Lewotolok Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


Download Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network RSS Feed

The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



Download Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network CAP Feed

The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.



Download Smithsonian/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network Link Download Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network Link

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Ioto
During an overflight of Ioto (Iwo-jima) on 12 September the Japan Maritime Self Defense Force observed seawater jetting 5-10 m above the sea surface on the S coast, suggestive of a submarine eruption.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Piton de la Fournaise
OVPF reported that after several hours of increased seismicity at Piton de la Fournaise a seismic crisis began at 0145 on 15 September, accompanied by rapid deformation. Tremor began at 0425, contemporaneous with the opening of fissures on the S flank near Rivals Crater. Around 1000 an estimate of the lava flow rate, based on satellite data, was 30 cubic meters per second. During an overflight about an hour later observers noted five fissures. The central fissure was the most active, producing lava fountains 30 m high; two lava flows that merged downstream had already flowed more than 2 km towards the wall of the Enclos Fouqué. By the afternoon of 16 September the estimated flow rate was between 2.5 and 7 cubic meters per second. Only three vents were active and a cone had started to form. Lava flows continued to advance during 16-18 September.
Source: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF)
Report for Sarychev Peak
SVERT and KVERT reported increased activity and ash emissions at Sarychev Peak in mid-September. A thermal anomaly had been periodically visible since 7 May 2018, though more recently anomalies were detected during 8 and 11-12 September. Explosions sometimes occurred during 11 and 13-15 September, and ash emissions rose 3-4 km (10,000-13,100 ft) a.s.l. On 14 September ash plumes drifted as far as 120 km. On 14 September KVERT stated that the Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange, though on 17 September SVERT noted that the Aviation Color Code was at Yellow. KVERT reported that explosions at 0910 on 17 September generated ash plumes that rose as high as 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 21 km NE.
Sources: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT), Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Semisopochnoi
On 16 September AVO raised the Aviation Color Code (ACC) for Semisopochnoi to Yellow and Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Advisory after increased seismicity was detected at 0831. Retrospective analysis of satellite data acquired on 10 September revealed small ash deposits on the N flank of Mount Cerberus, possibly associated with two bursts of tremor recorded on 8 September. This new information coupled with intensifying seismicity and a strong tremor signal recorded at 1249 on 17 September prompted AVO to raise the ACC to Orange and the VAL to Watch. Seismicity remained elevated on 18 September with nearly constant tremor being recorded by local sensors.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Veniaminof
AVO reported that the eruption at Veniaminof continued during 12-18 September. A lava flow had traveled 800 m down the S flank of the summit cone by 14 September, remaining confined to the ice-filled summit caldera. A webcam in Perryville (35 km S) recorded nighttime incandescence, and sporadic gas emissions in the day during clear conditions. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images, and seismicity remained elevated. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Aira
JMA reported that there were 13 events and also 13 explosions at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 10-18 September, with ash plumes rising as high as 1.8 km above the crater rim and material ejected as far as 1.1 km. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Dukono
Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 12-18 September ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Ebeko was identified in satellite images during 7, 9, and 12-13 September. Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E, observed explosions that sent ash plumes to 3.4 km (11,200 ft) a.s.l. and occasional incandescence during 10-13 September; ash plumes visible in satellite data drifted 113 km SE and NE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Karymsky
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images on 7 September. Dense and continuous ash emissions from the crater were visible on 10 September. Explosions during 10-11 September generated ash plumes identified in satellite images rising 5-6 km (16,400-19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifting about 860 km NE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Kilauea
HVO reported minor incandescence from a collapse pit in the central part of Kilauea’s Fissure 8 cone during 12-15 September, and that small amounts of fuming rose from a small spatter cone located towards the back of the Fissure 8 cone during 12-18 September. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit, and aftershocks from the M 6.9 earthquake in early May were located along faults on the south flank. The combined rate of sulfur dioxide emission from the summit and the LERZ (less than 1,000 tonnes/day) were lower than any time since late 2007. Small collapses at Pu'u 'O'o Crater during 12-14 September generated visible dust plumes. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Klyuchevskoy
On 12 September KVERT reported that activity at Klyuchevskoy had continued to decrease. A weak thermal anomaly was occasionally visible though the temperature of the anomaly had steadily decreased. Gas-and-steam emissions continued. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Krakatau
Based on satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-13 and 17-18 September ash plumes from Anak Krakatau rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, and SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 2 km of the crater.
Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
PVMBG reported that during 10-16 September the new lava dome in Merapi’s summit crater continued to slowly grow. By 16 September the volume of the lava dome was an estimated 112,000 cubic meters, and the growth rate was 1,600 cubic meters per day. White emissions of variable density rose 20 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and resident were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Nevados de Chillan
Servicio Nacional de Geología and Minería (SERNAGEOMIN) Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) and ONEMI reported the continuing, slow growth of the lava dome in Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater during 11-17 September. Gas emissions persisted, and sometimes contained ash. Periodic explosions sometimes ejected material that was deposited around the crater. Notably, at 0057 on 12 September, an explosion associated with a partial dome-collapse event ejected incandescent material 700 m above the crater rim and onto the flanks. An explosion at 2224 on 13 September generated ash plumes that rose 2.5 km above the crater rim. The event also ejected incandescent material to the SE, and generated a pyroclastic flow that traveled as most 400 m E. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-color scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián.
Sources: Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Volcanes de Chile
Report for Popocatepetl
CENAPRED reported that each day during 12-17 September there were 64-189 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. Nighttime crater incandescence was sometimes visible. Explosions were detected almost every day: eight on 12 September; one on 14 September; five on 15 September; three on 16 September. A series of emissions and explosions accompanied by tremor began at 0425 on 17 September and lasted for 365 minutes; incandescent tephra was ejected. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.
Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)
Report for Sabancaya
Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosions at Sabancaya averaged 13 per day during 10-16 September. Hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and of low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km above the crater rim and drifted 30 km N, NE, and SE. The MIROVA system detected seven thermal anomalies, and on 12 September the sulfur dioxide gas flux was high at 2,060 tons/day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.
Sources: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET), Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)
Report for Sangay
Based on satellite images and wind model data, the Washington VAAC reported that on 11, 13, 15, and 17 September ash emissions from Sangay rose to 5.8-6.4 km (19,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and W. A thermal anomaly was visible each day, and also on 16 September.
Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite data during 7-8 and 12-13 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that during 12-13 September eruptive events at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater generated plumes that rose 1.1 km above the crater rim. Tremor increased, and nighttime crater incandescence was also visible. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Turrialba
OVSICORI-UNA reported that passive gas-and-ash emissions from Turrialba were continuous in September through the 13th. Events during 17-18 September produced plumes that rose 300 m above the crater and drifted SW and NW.
Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)