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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 26 September-2 October 2018
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Kerinci Central Sumatra New
Langila New Britain (Papua New Guinea) 2015 Oct 22 (?) New
Piton de la Fournaise Reunion Island (France) New
Sarychev Peak Matua Island (Russia) New
Semisopochnoi Aleutian Islands (USA) New
Soputan Sulawesi New
Veniaminof Alaska Peninsula, Alaska New
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Dukono Halmahera 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Etna Sicily (Italy) 2013 Sep 3 Continuing
Ibu Halmahera 2008 Apr 5 Continuing
Kadovar Northeast of New Guinea 2018 Jan 5 Continuing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) 2020 Apr 1 Continuing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) 2021 Sep 29 Continuing
Krakatau Sunda Strait 2021 May 25 Continuing
Manam Northeast of New Guinea 2014 Jun 29 Continuing
Merapi Central Java 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Sabancaya Peru 2016 Nov 6 Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Turrialba Costa Rica Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 18,215 individual reports over 1,135 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 328 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Poas Sulu Range
Aira Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Popocatepetl Sumbing
Akan Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Purace Sundoro
Alaid Davidof Irazu Lopevi Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suretamatai
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Iya Machin Rabaul Suwanosejima
Ambae Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Raikoke Taal
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Ranakah Tair, Jebel at
Ambrym Dukono Kaba Manam Raoul Island Takawangha
Anatahan Ebeko Kadovar Manda Hararo Rasshua Talang
Aniakchak Ebulobo Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Raung Tambora
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Edgecumbe Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Redoubt Tanaga
Antuco Egon Kambalny Martin Reventador Tandikat-Singgalang
Apoyeque Ekarma Kanaga Masaya Reykjanes Tangkoko-Duasudara
Arenal Epi Kanlaon Maule, Laguna del Rincon de la Vieja Tangkuban Parahu
Asamayama Erebus Karangetang Mauna Loa Rinjani Tara, Batu
Askja Erta Ale Karkar Mayon Ritter Island Ta'u
Asosan Etna Karthala McDonald Islands Rotorua Taupo
Atka Volcanic Complex Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Karymsky Melimoyu Ruang Telica
Augustine Eyjafjallajokull Kasatochi Merapi Ruapehu Tenerife
Avachinsky Fagradalsfjall Katla Midagahara Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Awu Fernandina Katmai Misti, El Sabancaya Three Sisters
Axial Seamount Fogo Kavachi Miyakejima Sakar Tinakula
Azul, Cerro Fonualei Kelimutu Momotombo Salak Tofua
Azumayama Fournaise, Piton de la Kelud Monowai San Cristobal Tokachidake
Bagana Fourpeaked Kerinci Montagu Island San Miguel Tolbachik
Balbi Fuego Ketoi Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Vicente Toliman
Bamus Fujisan Kharimkotan Mutnovsky Sangay Tongariro
Banda Api Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kick 'em Jenny Myojinsho Sangeang Api Trident
Bardarbunga Galeras Kie Besi Nabro Santa Ana Tungurahua
Barren Island Galunggung Kikai Negra, Sierra Santa Maria Turrialba
Batur Gamalama Kilauea Negro, Cerro Sao Jorge Ubinas
Bezymianny Gamkonora Kirishimayama Nightingale Island Sarigan Ugashik-Peulik
Bogoslof Gareloi Kita-Ioto Nishinoshima Sarychev Peak Ukinrek Maars
Brava Gaua Kizimen Nisyros Saunders Ulawun
Bristol Island Gorely Klyuchevskoy Novarupta Savo Unnamed
Bulusan Great Sitkin Kolokol Group NW Rota-1 Semeru Unnamed
Calbuco Grimsvotn Koryaksky Nyamulagira Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Callaqui Guagua Pichincha Krakatau Nyiragongo Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Cameroon Guallatiri Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Ofu-Olosega Sheveluch Vulcano
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Okataina Shishaldin West Mata
Cayambe Hachijojima Kuchinoerabujima Okmok Simbo Westdahl
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kurikomayama Ontakesan Sinabung Whakaari/White Island
Chaiten Heard Kusatsu-Shiranesan Oraefajokull Sinarka Witori
Chiginagak Hekla Kverkfjoll Osorno Siple Wolf
Chikurachki Helgrindur La Palma Pacaya Sirung Yakedake
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamington Pagan Slamet Yasur
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Lamongan Palena Volcanic Group Snaefellsjokull Yufu-Tsurumi
Chirinkotan Home Reef Langila Paluweh Soputan Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirpoi Hood Lanin Panarea Sorikmarapi Zavodovski
Ciremai Huaynaputina Lascar Papandayan Sotara Zhupanovsky
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Parker Soufriere Hills Zubair Group
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Peuet Sague Spurr
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Pinatubo St. Helens
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Kerinci
Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28-30 September and 2 October ash plumes from Kerinci rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and W.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Langila
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 September an ash plume from Langila rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Piton de la Fournaise
OVPF reported that the eruption at Piton de la Fournaise continued during 26 September-2 October, and tremor levels were stable. The cone continued to grow; one vent was active and ejected spatter. Lava flows were mostly confined to lava tubes, emerging 150-200 m downstream, S of the cone. During a field inspection on 29 September OVPF staff observed a small lava flow at the foot of the cone.
Source: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF)
Report for Sarychev Peak
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sarychev Peak was visible in satellite images on 22 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Semisopochnoi
AVO reported that during 19-25 September seismicity at Semisopochnoi remained elevated, alternating between periods of continuous and intermittent bursts of tremor. Tremor bursts at 1319 on 21 September and at 1034 on 22 September produced airwaves detected on a regional infrasound array on Adak Island; no ash emissions were identified above the low cloud deck in satellite data, and the infrasound detections likely reflected an atmospheric change instead of volcanic activity. The Aviation Color Code (ACC) remained at Yellow and Volcano Alert Level (VAL) remained at Advisory.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Soputan
PVMBG reported that increased seismicity at Soputan was notable on 2 October, characterized by an increased number of signals indicating emissions and avalanches (which began in September and mid-July, respectively), increased RSAM values, and a higher number of volcanic earthquakes (since September). Data from a thermal camera showed increased summit temperatures, indicating the presence of lava. The Alert Level was increased to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 3 October; residents and tourists were advised not to approach the craters within a radius of 4 km, with an additional expansion to 6.5 km in WSW direction due to increased risk from a breach in the crater rim. An eruption commenced at 0847 on 3 October, producing a dense ash plume that rose 4 km above the summit and drifted W and NW. Based on seismic data the event lasted six minutes. Events at 1044, 1112, and 1152 produced ash plumes that rose 2 km, 2.5 km , and 5 km above the crater rim, respectively. A thermal anomaly identified in satellite data significantly increased, and incandescent ejecta at the summit was clearly observed by residents. Avalanches of material traveled 2.5 km down the NE flank.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB)
Report for Veniaminof
AVO reported that the eruption at Veniaminof continued during 26 September-2 October, as evidenced by nighttime incandescence recorded by the FAA web camera in Perryville (35 km S), elevated surface temperatures in thermal satellite data, and elevated tremor levels. A gas plume was occasionally visible during clear daytime conditions. On 26 September lava fountains, visible in webcam images, rose from a second vent located 75 m N of the vent producing lava flows. Minor ash emissions associated with lava fountaining possibly rose as high as km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and quickly dispersed. The lava flow had traveled 1 km down the S flank of the summit cone by 1 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Aira
JMA reported that occasional, very small, events at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 25 September-1 October generated plumes that rose 400 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Dukono
Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26 September-2 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, N, NE, and E.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Ebeko
Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 21-28 September that sent ash plumes to 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 23 and 27 September, and ash plumes drifting as far as 68 km SE during 23-24 and 26-27 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Etna
INGV reported that during 24-30 September activity at Etna was characterized by gas emissions at the summit craters, with periodic Strombolian activity from vents in Bocca Nuova, Northeast Crater (NEC), and New Southeast Crater (NSEC). Strombolian activity at the N vent in Bocca Nuova (BN-1) ejected incandescent material almost as high as the W crater rim. No eruptive activity was observed at BN-2, though it produced explosions deep in the crater. A new high-temperature vent producing gas emissions was noted on 1 October in the same place a fumarole had been observed the previous week. Ash emissions from NSEC were sometimes accompanied by ejected incandescent material. Gas emissions increased at Voragine Crater from a vent that formed on 7 August 2016 on the E rim of the crater. NEC produced frequent brown-gray ash emissions, and ejected blocks and bombs, from a vent located in the W part of the crater floor.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Ibu
Based on satellite images and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 and 30 September ash plumes from Ibu rose to 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and N.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Kadovar
An ash plume from Kadovar was visible in satellite images on 28 September drifting SE at an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. On 1 October an ash plume rose to 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Karymsky
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images during 22-24 September, and ash plumes were visible drifting 365 km E during 22-23 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Kilauea
HVO reported no significant incandescence from a collapse pit in the central part of Kilauea’s Fissure 8 cone during 26 September-2 October, though a small amount of fuming was visible during the day. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit, and small aftershocks from the M 6.9 earthquake in early May were located along faults on the south flank. Sulfur dioxide emissions from the summit and the LERZ were low. On 1 October a rockfall at Pu'u 'O'o produced a small ash plume. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Krakatau
Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25 September-2 October ash plumes from Anak Krakatau rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.1 km (4,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, WSW, and SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 2 km of the crater.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Manam
RVO reported that pale-gray-to-brown ash plumes rose from Manam’s Southern Crater during 20 September-1 October. Activity was most intense on 24 September, with an increased amount of ash emissions, and occasional weak roaring and rumbling noises. Based on seismic data an eruption at Main Crater began during 0100-0130 on 1 October, peaked around 0200, and ended at 1200 (though a sharp decline was recorded at 1215). Ash plumes rose at least several hundred meters above the crater rim, though darkness obscured visual observations. Islanders described loud roaring and rumbling noises, as well as loud banging noises. Residents of Tabele on the SW side of the island observed bright summit incandescence, which was also visible from the Bogia Government Station on the mainland (22 km SSW). Scoria and minor amounts of ash fell in Jogari and villages to the N.
Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)
Report for Merapi
PVMBG reported that during 21-27 September the new lava dome in Merapi’s summit crater continued to slowly grow. By 27 September the volume of the lava dome was an estimated 129,000 cubic meters, and the growth rate was 1,000 cubic meters per day (slower than the previous week). White emissions of variable density rose a maximum of 450 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and resident were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sabancaya
Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosions at Sabancaya averaged 21 per day during 24-30 September. Hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and of low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3.7 km above the crater rim and drifted 50 km E, SE, and SW. The MIROVA system detected six thermal anomalies, and on 29 September the sulfur dioxide gas flux was high at 3,250 tons/day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.
Sources: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET), Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite data during 20, 23, and 27 September; weather clouds prevented views on the other days during 21-28 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Turrialba
OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 0915 on 27 September an event at Turrialba produced a passive ash plume that rose 200 m above the crater and drifted NW. During 30 September-1 October ash emissions rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim and drifted NW and NE.
Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)