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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 10 January-16 January 2024
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Ahyi Mariana Islands (USA) 2024 Jan 1 New
Ambrym Vanuatu New
Grimsvotn Iceland New
Lewotobi Flores Island 2023 Dec 23 New
Marapi Central Sumatra 2023 Dec 3 New
Reykjanes Reykjanes Peninsula New
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Bulusan Luzon (Philippines) Continuing
Dukono Halmahera 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Great Sitkin Andreanof Islands (USA) 2021 May 25 Continuing
Lewotolok Lembata Island 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Merapi Central Java 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Poas Costa Rica 2023 Dec 1 Continuing
Popocatepetl Mexico 2005 Jan 9 Continuing
Rincon de la Vieja Costa Rica 2021 Jun 28 Continuing
Sangay Ecuador 2019 Mar 26 Continuing
Semeru Eastern Java 2017 Jun 6 Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 19,996 individual reports over 1,215 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 332 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Popocatepetl Sumbing
Ahyi Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Purace Sundoro
Aira Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suretamatai
Akan Davidof Irazu Lopevi Rabaul Suwanosejima
Alaid Dempo Iya Machin Raikoke Taal
Alu-Dalafilla Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Ranakah Tair, Jebel at
Ambae Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raoul Island Takawangha
Ambang Dukono Kaba Manam Rasshua Talang
Ambrym East Epi Kadovar Manda Hararo Raung Tambora
Anatahan Ebeko Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Redoubt Tanaga
Aniakchak Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Reventador Tandikat-Singgalang
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Edgecumbe Kambalny Martin Reykjanes Tangkoko-Duasudara
Antuco Egon Kanaga Masaya Rincon de la Vieja Tangkuban Parahu
Apoyeque Ekarma Kanlaon Maule, Laguna del Rinjani Tara, Batu
Arenal Eldey Karangetang Mauna Loa Ritter Island Ta'u
Asamayama Erebus Karkar Mayon Rotorua Taupo
Askja Erta Ale Karthala McDonald Islands Ruang Telica
Asosan Etna Karymsky Melebingoy Ruapehu Tenerife
Atka Volcanic Complex Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruby Tengger Caldera
Augustine Eyjafjallajokull Katla Merapi Ruiz, Nevado del Three Sisters
Avachinsky Fagradalsfjall Katmai Midagahara Sabancaya Tinakula
Awu Fernandina Kavachi Misti, El Sakar Tofua
Axial Seamount Fogo Kelimutu Miyakejima Salak Tokachidake
Azul, Cerro Fonualei Kelud Momotombo San Cristobal Tolbachik
Azumayama Fournaise, Piton de la Kerinci Monowai San Miguel Toliman
Bagana Fourpeaked Ketoi Montagu Island San Vicente Tongariro
Balbi Fuego Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Sangay Trident
Bamus Fujisan Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky Sangeang Api Tungurahua
Banda Api Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kie Besi Myojinsho Santa Ana Turrialba
Bardarbunga Galeras Kikai Nabro Santa Maria Ubinas
Barren Island Galunggung Kilauea Negra, Sierra Sao Jorge Ugashik-Peulik
Batur Gamalama Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ukinrek Maars
Bezymianny Gamkonora Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ulawun
Bogoslof Gareloi Kizimen Nishinoshima Saunders Unnamed
Brava Gaua Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bristol Island Gorely Kolokol Group Novarupta Semeru Veniaminof
Bulusan Great Sitkin Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Villarrica
Calbuco Grimsvotn Krakatau Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Vulcano
Callaqui Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Sheveluch West Mata
Cameroon Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Ofu-Olosega Shishaldin Westdahl
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Okataina Simbo Whakaari/White Island
Cayambe Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okmok Sinabung Witori
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Ontakesan Sinarka Wolf
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Oraefajokull Siple Wrangell
Chiginagak Hekla La Palma Osorno Sirung Yakedake
Chikurachki Helgrindur Lamington Pacaya Slamet Yasur
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamongan Pagan Snaefellsjokull Yufu-Tsurumi
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Palena Volcanic Group Soputan Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirinkotan Home Reef Lanin Paluweh Sorikmarapi Zavodovski
Chirpoi Hood Lascar Panarea Sotara Zhupanovsky
Ciremai Huaynaputina Late Papandayan Soufriere Hills Zubair Group
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Peuet Sague Spurr
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Pinatubo St. Helens
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Poas Sulu Range
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Ahyi
Signs of unrest at Ahyi Seamount were observed during the previous few weeks. Plumes of discolored water drifting as far as 10 km from the vent were identified in satellite data on 24 December 2023 and again on 4 and 10 January 2024. Hydroacoustic arrays located on Wake Island did not record any significant signals, though submarine plumes have been observed in the past without clear hydroacoustic evidence. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow (the second level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level was raised to Advisory (the second level on a four-level scale) on 14 January because the likelihood of an eruption had increased. No unusual activity observed in satellite data during 15-17 January.
Source: US Geological Survey
Report for Ambrym
The Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) reported that at 2217 on 13 January an eruption began at Ambrym’s Benbow Crater based on webcam and seismic data. The eruption was characterized by a loud explosion, intense incandescence at the crater, and gas-and-steam emissions. The Alert Level was raised from 1 to 3 (on a scale of 0-5) and the public to stay 2 km away from Benbow Crater and 4 km away from Marum Crater, and additionally to stay 500 m away from the ground cracks created by the December 2018 eruption. Sulfur dioxide emissions measured using satellite data were 1,116 tons per day on 14 January. Activity decreased during 15-17 January based on webcam images, seismic data, and field observations. Gas, steam, and ash emissions had decreased, and crater incandescence was dim or not visible at all. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 on 17 January.
Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD)
Report for Grimsvotn
IMO reported that at 0653 on 11 January a M 4.3 earthquake occurred at Grímsvötn and was the largest earthquake recorded at the volcano since measurements started in 1991. A gradual increase in tremor was recorded at Mt. Grímsfjall, which rises about 300 m above the flat ice shelf over the subglacial lake, since 7 January and the water level in the Gígjukvísl River began to rise on 10 January. IMO noted that a jökulhlaup had likely begun and that the earthquake was in response to pressure release from the flood. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow (the second level on a four-color scale) reflecting the slight increase in the likelihood of an eruption being triggered by the flood. IMO noted that the last eruption was in 2004; since then, 12 jökulhlaups had occurred with no eruptions.

Water levels in the Gígjukvísl River steadily and significantly increased during 11-12 January and the river widened; the river rose 70 cm based on data from a stream gauge at the bridge crossing Highway 1. The water level stabilized during 13-14 January, signifying that it had reached peak flow, and was then expected to subside. Around midnight on 15 January the seismometer at Grímsfjall began recording increased tremor, which was likely due to increased geothermal activity and is commonly observed at the end of a jökulhlaup.
Source: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO)
Report for Lewotobi
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotobi’s Laki-laki volcano was ongoing during 10-16 January. Dense white-and-gray or white, gray, and brown ash plumes rose as high as 2 km above the summit and drifted N and NE. Lava flows from the summit crater continued to advance down the N flank and were about 2 km long by 11 January. Rumbling was reported on 13 January. On 14 January as many as four pyroclastic flows traveled up to 1 km down the NE, N, and NNW flanks and lava avalanches traveled 1.5-2 km down the NE flank, according to news articles. Incandescent avalanches of material and accompanying pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 1.5 km N on 15 January. Incandescent avalanches also traveled 2-3 km NE and 1 km NNE. The exclusion zone was increased to 5 km from the Laki-laki Crater and 6 km from the crater on the N and NE flanks during the evening of 16 January. The Alert Level remained at 4 (the highest level on a scale of 1-4).
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Antara News, Antara News, Antara News, Antara News, Antara News
Report for Marapi
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity at Marapi (on Sumatra) was ongoing at Verbeek Crater during 10-16 January. Dense, white-and-gray ash plumes rose as high as 1.5 km above the summit and drifted NW, W, and SW during 11-15 January. Weather conditions sometimes prevented views of the volcano. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 4.5 km away from Verbeek Crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Reykjanes
IMO reported that a seismic swarm began near the older Sundhnúkagígar crater row on the Reykjanes peninsula around 0230 on 14 January. Both GPS data and borehole pressure readings indicated that magma was moving. IMO raised the Aviation Color Code to Orange (the third level on a four-color scale), noting an increased likelihood of an eruption. The locations of the earthquakes shifted towards the town of Grindavík where, according to Almannavarnadeild ríkislögreglustjóra (National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police and Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management), evacuations started around 0300.

A fissure eruption began at around 0757 just N of Grindavík, SE of Hagafell, and was visible on webcams. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Red, but then lowered back to Orange at 0826 because no ash was detected in radar data. A Coast Guard helicopter was dispatched to investigate the eruption site. A NE-SW-trending fissure was visible and notably lengthened within about 10 minutes according to a news article. The fissure grew to about 900 m long and crossed through the eastern part of a curving E-W-oriented earthen berm built to deflect lava flows away from the town. Lava fountaining occurred along the length of the fissure. Lava spread perpendicular from the fissure and to the SW, covering the E half of the berm, though the longest flow traveled WSW along the berm and away from the town. Construction workers managed to reach their heavy equipment that was being used to build the berm and drive them to safety away from the lava flows. Lava covered part of Grindavíkurvegur road and overtopped a small area of the berm at the road, flowing S.

A shorter second fissure that was about 100 m long opened at 1210 on 14 January to the SW of the first and S of the berm, about 200 m from the Efrahópi neighborhood in Grindavík. Lava flows traveled S, entering the town and setting at least three houses on fire. This fissure was no longer active by 1640 on 15 January and the effusion rate at the larger, main fissure had decreased. Seismicity and the rate of deformation had also decreased, though deformation near the S part of the magmatic dike near Grindavík continued to be detected. Displacement within the town was as high as 1.4 m during 14-15 January; ground cracks had developed, and existing ones had expanded. Thermal images from a 15 January drone flight indicated that previously mapped fissures SW of Grindavík had significantly enlarged. Lava effusion at the longer fissure was concentrated at two of four main vents. Lava effusion at the main fissure ceased around 0100 on 16 January. Seismicity continued to decrease, though event locations indicated that magma movement continued. Most of the seismic activity was concentrated near Hagafell, close to the main fissure. IMO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow at 2105, noting the ongoing decline of seismicity.

A man working on filling cracks in Grindavík fell into one of the cracks on 10 January and was unable to be located. Hundreds of rescue workers searched for the man but due to unsafe conditions and landslides occurring inside the crack the search was stopped on 12 January.
Sources: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), Almannavarnadeild ríkislögreglustjóra (National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police and Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management), Icelandic National Broadcasting Service (RUV), Independent
Report for Aira
JMA reported ongoing eruptive activity at Minamidake Crater (Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 8-15 January with incandescence at the crater observed nightly. An explosion at 1552 on 9 January produced an ash plume that rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim and drifted E and SE. Small eruptive events were occasionally recorded during 12-15 January. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from both craters.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Bulusan
PHIVOLCS reported increased seismicity at Bulusan in a special advisory. From 0500 on 11 January to 1000 on 11 January the seismic network recorded a total of 71 volcanic-tectonic earthquakes associated with rock fracturing. The earthquakes were located at depths of 1-6 km beneath the S flank. The largest event was a M 2.2. Diffuse gas plumes rose from the summit crater and drifted W and SE. The Alert Level remained at 1 (the second level on a scale of 0-5) and PHIVOLCS reminded the public not to enter the 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) and to be vigilant within the 2-km Extended Danger Zone (EDZ) on the SE flank.
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Report for Dukono
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Dukono was ongoing during 10-16 January. Gray-and-white ash plumes generally rose 100-700 m above the summit and drifted S during 10-15 January; emissions were not observed on 11 January. White-and-gray ash plumes rose to 1.7 km above the summit and drifted SW on 16 January. The Alert Level remained at Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate explosive activity was ongoing at Ebeko during 4-11 January. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E), explosions on 6, 8, and 9 January generated ash plumes that rose as high as 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l and drifted SE and NW. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are UTC; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Great Sitkin
On 11 January AVO reported that a radar image of Great Sitkin showed that the thick flow in the summit crater continued to expand to the E and reached the N margin of an earlier flow; effusion likely continued during 12-16 January. Local webcams and seismic data communications were offline due to a storm-related power failure. No unusual activity was visible in mostly cloudy satellite images. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data during 15-16 January. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 10-16 January. White-and-gray ash plumes rose 150 m above the summit and drifted E on 12 January. White steam-and-gas plumes rose as high as 200 m above the summit and drifted NE, E, and SE on the other days, though no emissions were visible on 12 January. Incandescent lava was occasionally ejected about the vent. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the summit crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi (on Java) continued during 5-11 January. The SW lava dome produced a total of 189 lava avalanches that descended the S, SW, and W flanks; eight traveled S as far as 1.5 km down the upper part of the Boyong drainage, 178 traveled SW as far as 1.8 km down the upper part of the Bebeng drainage, and three traveled as far as 1.5 km down the Sat/Putih drainage. Four pyroclastic flows descended the Boyong and Bebeng drainages as far as 1.5 km. Morphological changes to the SW lava dome identified in webcam images were due to continuing collapses of material. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit, based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Poas
OVSICORI-UNA reported that small phreatic eruptions at Poás continued to be observed during 8-16 January. Phreatic eruptions were recorded daily, ejecting sediment no more than 200 m above the lake’s surface and producing steam-and-gas plumes that rose no higher than 500 m. In a special report OVSICORI-UNA noted that both gas-and-steam emissions and seismicity began to increase during the second half of 2023. The lake level had been decreasing since October 2023 and eruptive events became more frequent and energetic in December; a phreatic eruption at 2051 on 11 January was the largest event recorded during December 2023-January 2024.
Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)
Report for Popocatepetl
CENAPRED reported that eruptive activity continued at Popocatépetl during 9-16 January. Long-period events totaling 6-64 per day were accompanied by steam-and-gas plumes that occasionally contained minor amounts of ash. The plumes mainly drifted ENE and NE. The seismic network recorded 14.5-23 daily hours of tremor, including both low- and high-frequency events. Minor amounts of ash fell in Nealtican (21 km E) during 11-12 January. Ashfall was also reported in Nativitas (40 km NE), Tetlatlahuaca (42 km NE), Zacatelco (45 km NE), Xicohtinco (45 km NE), Ayometla (46 km ENE), Papalotla (62 km NNW), Tenancingo, San Pablo del Monte (49 km E), Mazatecochco (50 km ENE), Tlaxcala (50 km NW), and Tepeyanco (47 km NW) in the state of Tlaxcala on 15 January and in Nealtican, Juan C. Bonilla (32 km ENE), and Tlaltenango in the state of Puebla on 16 January. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (the middle level on a three-color scale) and the public was warned to stay 12 km away from the crater.
Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)
Report for Rincon de la Vieja
OVSICORI-UNA reported continued unrest at Rincón de la Vieja during 8-16 January. Small phreatic eruptions were recorded almost daily, sometimes producing gas-and-steam plumes that rose as high as 3 km above the crater rim. Almost continuous gas-and-steam emissions were visible during 10-11 January. The Alert Level remained at Level 3, Orange, the third level on a four-level scale.
Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)
Report for Sangay
IG-EPN reported a high level of eruptive activity at Sangay during 9-16 January, with seismic stations recording 232-626 daily explosions. Ash-and-gas plumes were visible in both webcam and satellite images during 9-14 January, rising as high as 1.5 km above the crater rim and drifting W, WSW, and SW. On 12 January an explosion deposited incandescent material on all flanks as far as 1 km from the summit crater. At 1810 that same day a pyroclastic density current descended the SE drainage and an ash plume rose 1 km above the summit and drifted SW. Crater incandescence was sometimes visible at night, and during 11-12 and 13-14 January incandescent material was observed descending the SE drainage as far as 1 km. Cloudy weather prevented views during 15-16 January, though crater incandescence was observed overnight. Secretaría de Gestión de Riesgos maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN), Secretaría de Gestión de Riesgos (SGR)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity continued at Semeru during 10-16 January. Daily white-and-gray ash plumes that were sometimes dense rose 500-1,000 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 3 (third highest on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit in all directions, 13 km from the summit to the SE, 500 m from the banks of the Kobokan drainage as far as 17 km from the summit, and to avoid other drainages including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that the eruption at Sheveluch continued during 4-11 January with a daily thermal anomaly identified in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 8-15 January. Eruptive events on 11 January produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted SE. An explosion at 0548 on 13 January produced an ash plume that rose 800 m and drifted SE. At 0022 on 14 January an explosion ejected large blocks 1.1 km to the N and 1 km to the S of the vent and produced an ash plume that rose 500 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a 5-level scale) and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater. Another eruptive event at 2313 on 15 January generated an ash plume that rose more than 1 km above the crater rim and drifted S.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)