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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 6 March-12 March 2024
Name Country Eruption Start Date Report Status
Ahyi United States New
Fernandina Ecuador New
Masaya Nicaragua 2015 Oct 3 New
Aira Japan 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Ambae Vanuatu Continuing
Ebeko Russia 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Fuego Guatemala 2002 Jan 4 Continuing
Great Sitkin United States 2021 May 25 Continuing
Huaynaputina Peru Continuing
Lewotolok Indonesia 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Marapi Indonesia 2023 Dec 3 Continuing
Merapi Indonesia 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Nevado del Ruiz Colombia 2014 Nov 18 Continuing
Poas Costa Rica 2023 Dec 1 Continuing
Popocatepetl Mexico 2005 Jan 9 Continuing
Santa Maria Guatemala 1922 Jun 22 Continuing
Semeru Indonesia 2017 Jun 6 Continuing
Sheveluch Russia 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Stromboli Italy 1934 Feb 2 Continuing
Suwanosejima Japan 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Ubinas Peru 2024 May 6 Continuing
Yasur Vanuatu 1270 ± 110 years Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 20,183 individual reports over 1,223 weeks (average of 17 per week) on 334 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Poas Sulu Range
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Popocatepetl Sumbing
Aira Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Purace Sundoro
Akan Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suoh
Alaid Davidof Irazu Lopevi Rabaul Suretamatai
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Iya Machin Raikoke Suwanosejima
Ambae Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Ranakah Taal
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Ambrym Dukono Kaba Manam Rasshua Takawangha
Anatahan East Epi Kadovar Manda Hararo Raung Talang
Aniakchak Ebeko Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Redoubt Tambora
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Reventador Tanaga
Antuco Edgecumbe Kambalny Martin Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Apoyeque Egon Kanaga Masaya Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Arenal Ekarma Kanlaon Maule, Laguna del Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Asamayama Eldey Karangetang Mauna Loa Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Askja Erebus Karkar Mayon Rotorua Ta'u
Asosan Erta Ale Karthala McDonald Islands Ruang Taupo
Atka Volcanic Complex Etna Karymsky Melebingoy Ruapehu Telica
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruby Tenerife
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Katla Merapi Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Awu Fagradalsfjall Katmai Midagahara Sabancaya Three Sisters
Axial Seamount Fernandina Kavachi Misti, El Sakar Tinakula
Azul, Cerro Fogo Kelimutu Miyakejima Salak Tofua
Azumayama Fonualei Kelud Momotombo San Cristobal Tokachidake
Bagana Fournaise, Piton de la Kerinci Monowai San Miguel Tolbachik
Balbi Fourpeaked Ketoi Montagu Island San Vicente Toliman
Bamus Fuego Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Sangay Tongariro
Banda Api Fujisan Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky Sangeang Api Trident
Bardarbunga Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kie Besi Myojinsho Santa Ana Tungurahua
Barren Island Galeras Kikai Nabro Santa Maria Turrialba
Batur Galunggung Kilauea Negra, Sierra Sao Jorge Ubinas
Bezymianny Gamalama Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ugashik-Peulik
Bogoslof Gamkonora Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ukinrek Maars
Brava Gareloi Kizimen Nishinoshima Saunders Ulawun
Bristol Island Gaua Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bulusan Gorely Kolokol Group Novarupta Semeru Unnamed
Calbuco Great Sitkin Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Callaqui Grimsvotn Krakatau Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Cameroon Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Sheveluch Vulcano
Campi Flegrei Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Ofu-Olosega Shishaldin West Mata
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Okataina Simbo Westdahl
Cayambe Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okmok Sinabung Whakaari/White Island
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Ontakesan Sinarka Witori
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Oraefajokull Siple Wolf
Chiginagak Hekla La Palma Osorno Sirung Wrangell
Chikurachki Helgrindur Lamington Pacaya Slamet Yakedake
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamongan Pagan Snaefellsjokull Yasur
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Palena Volcanic Group Soputan Yufu-Tsurumi
Chirinkotan Home Reef Lanin Paluweh Sorikmarapi Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirpoi Hood Lascar Panarea Sotara Zavodovski
Ciremai Huaynaputina Late Papandayan Soufriere Hills Zhupanovsky
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent Zubair Group
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Peuet Sague Spurr
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Pinatubo St. Helens
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Ahyi
Signs of unrest at Ahyi Seamount continued. A small plume of discolored seawater in the vicinity of the seamount was observed in a 5 March satellite image. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory (the second lowest level on a four-level scale).
Source: US Geological Survey
Report for Fernandina
IG-EPN reported that the eruption at Fernandina continued during 6-12 March from a circumferential fissure located on the upper SE flank, though gradually decreased during the week. Hundreds of thermal anomalies over the lava flows were identified daily in satellite images during 5-8 March, and the longest lava flow advanced 100 m to a total length of 8 km. Gas emissions associated with the emplacement of lava flows drifted WSW. A fire W of the flow field was observed on 7 March. During 8-11 March dozens of thermal anomalies were identified daily in satellite images. Sulfur dioxide emissions measured from satellite were variable, with measurements between about 1,870 and 4,160 tons per day during 7-10 March.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN)
Report for Masaya
According to news articles, INETER reported that gas emissions increased at Masaya’s Santiago Crater in February, small landslides occurred from the inner NW crater wall, and the level of the lava lake had slightly increased. The report noted that SINAPRED recommended limits on the number of people and the time spent at the viewing area at the crater rim. A larger landslide occurred on 2 March and covered the active lava lake. A satellite image from 3 March showed a much smaller thermal anomaly on the crater floor compared to a 22 February image. According to an 8 March news article, INETER reported that small landslides continued to occur, originating from the inner SW and NW crater walls; a more notable landslide was recorded at 0900. The lava lakes remained covered with the deposits. Constant gas emissions rose from vents possibly on the crater floor and from fractures on the inner walls, though the gas flux was at lower rate, estimated to be 25-30 percent of the normal values. Seismicity was low with RSAM values around 23. The report noted that the Parque Nacional Volcán Masaya may partially open, though the public was warned to stay 800 m away from Santiago Crater.
Sources: Copernicus, La Prensa (Nicaragua), El 19 Digital
Report for Aira
JMA reported ongoing eruptive activity at Minamidake Crater (Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 4-11 March with nighttime crater incandescence. Very small eruptive events occasionally occurred during 4-8 March. An explosion at 0359 on 9 March produced an ash plume that rose 800 m above the crater rim and drifted SE, and ejected large blocks 1.3-1.7 km from the vent. Eruptive events at 1540 on 10 March and at 0532 on 11 March generated ash plumes that rose 1.2-1.3 km above the crater rim and drifted E. An ash plume from an explosion at 2132 on 11 March rose 1.4 km above the crater rim and drifted NE; large blocks were ejected 500-700 m from the vent. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from both craters.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Ambae
On 8 March the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD) reported that emissions from the active vents at Ambae were ongoing based on recent field observations and photographs. The emissions contained gas, or steam, or ash, or some combination of all three. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5), and the public was warned to stay outside of the Danger Zone, defined as a 2-km radius around the active vents in Lake Voui, and away from drainages during heavy rains.
Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate explosive activity was ongoing at Ebeko during 29 February-6 March. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E), explosions on 29 February and 1 and 6 March generated ash plumes that rose as high as 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, E, and SE. Ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk on 6 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are UTC; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Fuego
INSIVUMEH reported that eruptive activity continued at Fuego during 6-12 March. Explosions were recorded daily, averaging 3-10 per hour on most days, when counts were reported. The explosions generated gas-and-ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted as far as 30 km in multiple directions. Explosions caused frequent block avalanches that descended various drainages including the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), and Las Lajas (SE), and sometimes reached vegetated areas. The explosions also ejected incandescent material 100-300 m above the summit on most days and occasionally ejected ballistics as far as 2 km. Weak rumbling sounds and shock waves were frequently reported. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Fincas La Candelaria, La Reunión (7 km SE), El Porvenir (11 km SW), El Rodeo, Finca Palo Verde, Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Yepocapa (8 km NW), La Soledad (11 km N), Acatenango (8 km E), Parramos (18 km NNE), and other nearby communities during 5-6 and 10-11 March; ashfall was forecasted for downwind areas on most of the other days.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that continuing slow lava effusion in Great Sitkin’s summit crater was last confirmed in a 9 March radar satellite image with continuing inflation over the vent and advancement of the NW lava flow; effusion likely continued during 10-12 March. Seismicity was low. Slightly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 5-8 March. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Huaynaputina
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that at 1553 on 6 March a lahar descended the El Volcán drainage, on the S flank of Huaynaputina, and traveled towards the Tambo River. The public was warned to stay away from the drainage and to be cautious when traveling along the Quinistaquillas-Sijuaya highway.
Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 6-10 March. White-and-gray ash plumes rose 100-600 m above the summit and drifted W, E, and SE on 6 March. The next day white, gray, and black ash plumes rose 100-800 m above the summit and drifted E and SE. White emissions rose 100-300 m and drifted E and SE on 8 March; no emissions were visible during 9-10 March. According to a news report the lava flows on the S and SE flanks were 600 m and 1.8 km long, respectively, as of 7 March and had not advanced. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the vent and 3 km away from the vent on the S and SE flank.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Antara News
Report for Marapi
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity at Marapi (on Sumatra) was ongoing during 6-12 March. White-and-gray ash plumes rose 250-700 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions during 6-8 March. White steam-and-gas plumes rose 150-250 m above the summit and drifted NE, E, and SE during 9-12 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 4.5 km away from the active crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi (on Java) continued during 1-7 March. Seismicity remained at high levels. The SW lava dome produced 123 lava avalanches that descended the S and SW flanks; one traveled S as far as 1 km down the upper part of the Boyong drainage and 122 traveled SW as far as 2 km down the upper part of the Bebeng drainage. A series of eight pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 2.6 km down the SW flank on 4 March; ashfall was reported at the Pasarbubar station, 800 m N, and minor ashfall was reported in Selo (6 km NNW) and Cepogo (4 km NE). Morphological changes to the SW lava dome identified in webcam images were due to continuing effusion and collapses of material. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit, based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Nevado del Ruiz
Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that eruptive activity at Nevado del Ruiz continued at moderate levels during 5-11 March. Seismic events indicating rock fracturing increased both in number and intensity compared to the previous week. These events were located in areas up to 13 km NW, SSW, and NE from Arenas Crater at depths of 1-10 km. The largest earthquake, a M 1.8, was recorded at 1108 on 7 March and was located 4 km SSW of the crater at a depth of 4 km. Seismicity associated with fluid movement in the conduit decreased in both number and magnitude. These events were mainly associated with ash-and-gas emissions that rose as high as 1.1 km above the summit and up to 2 km as the plume drifted downwind. Several thermal anomalies on the crater floor were identified in satellite data, though they had low-to-moderate values. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second level on a four-level scale), and the public was warned to stay out of the restricted areas around Arenas Crater.
Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)
Report for Poas
OVSICORI-UNA reported that about 900 small phreatic eruptions at Poás were recorded by the seismic network and often visually observed during 4 March to around 0800 on 8 March; no additional eruptions were recorded at least through 12 March. The small eruptive events ejected material no higher than 50 m. The water at the bottom of the crater had almost disappeared leaving a couple of muddy water puddles. Boca C remained underwater and frequently bubbled. Weak incandescence from sulfur combustion at Boca A (SW part of crater floor) was frequently observed at night. Gas-and-steam emissions rose from the vents and caused a sulfur odor in the vicinity of the volcano during the earlier part of the week.
Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)
Report for Popocatepetl
CENAPRED reported that eruptive activity continued at Popocatépetl during 5-12 March. The seismic network recorded daily periods of high-frequency, low-amplitude tremor that lasted from about 17 hours to almost 24 hours. The Washington VAAC reported that daily ash plumes visible in webcam and satellite images generally rose to 5.8-7.3 km (19,000-24,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted predominantly N, NE, and E. The ash emissions were continuous for periods of time with remnant ash often visible in subsequent satellite images, drifting almost 900 km before dissipating; on 9 March plumes were identified drifting across the southern Gulf of Mexico.

Several municipalities in Puebla reported ashfall on 7 March and operations at the Aeropuerto Internacional Hermanos Serdán in Puebla were suspended at 0700 so that the runways could be cleared of ashfall. At 1351 on 8 March and at 1650 on 9 March gas-and-steam plumes with low ash content rose 1.2 and 1.6 km above the crater rim, respectively, and drifted NE. Several municipalities in Puebla again reported ashfall during 10-11 March; municipalities in Tlaxcala reported ashfall on 11 March. The airport again suspended operations at 0700 on 11 and 12 March so that the runways could be cleared of ashfall.
Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
Report for Santa Maria
INSIVUMEH reported that eruptive activity continued at Santa Maria’s Santiaguito lava dome complex during 6-12 March with a lava extrusion and avalanches at the Caliente dome. Incandescence from the dome was visible during most nights and early mornings, and occasional incandescence was also present along the upper part of the lava flow on the WSW flank. Daily explosions generated gas-and-ash plumes that rose 600-900 m above the summit and drifted NW, W, SW, and S; the explosions occurred at a rate of 1-8 per hour on at least a few of the days where reported. The explosions produced block avalanches on the dome’s flanks and generated occasional, short-range pyroclastic flows that mainly descended the W, S, and E flanks. Block avalanches from the dome and the margins of the upper part of the lava flow were also sometimes visible. Rumblings were heard occasionally. Ashfall was reported in Belén (10 km S), Calaguache (9 km S), and Las Marías (10 km S) during 5-6 March and in San Marcos Palajunoj (8 km SW), Loma Linda (7 km W), and other nearby communities during 6-7 and 10-12 March; ash caused hazy conditions around the volcano during 8-9 March.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity continued at Semeru during 6-12 March. Gray-and-white ash plumes, that were often dense, rose 500-1,000 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions on most of the days; eruptive events were detected on 10 March but plumes were not observed. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the third highest level on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit in all directions, 13 km from the summit to the SE, 500 m from the banks of the Kobokan drainage as far as 17 km from the summit, and to avoid other drainages including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that eruptive activity at Sheveluch continued during 29 February-6 March with a daily thermal anomaly identified in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Stromboli
INGV reported that eruptive activity continued at Stromboli during 4-10 March. Webcam images showed Strombolian activity at two vents in Area N (one at N1 and one at N2), within the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco, and from two vents at S2 in Area C-S (South-Central Crater) in the crater terrace. At Area N, low-intensity explosive activity was observed from sectors N1 and N2 with the eruption of coarse material (bombs and lapilli) as high as 80 and 150 m above the vents, respectively. The average frequency of explosions from this area was 3-5 events per hour. At Area C-S, explosive activity was observed from sector S2 with the ejection of coarse and fine material (bombs, lapilli, and ash) as high as 150 m above the vent. The average explosions rate was 5-10 events per hour.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 4-11 March. Crater incandescence was observed in webcam images nightly and large blocks were sometimes ejected up to 400 m from the vent. An eruptive event at 0905 on 4 March generated an ash plume that rose straight up as high as 1.3 km above the crater rim. Explosions recorded at 1256 on 6 March, 1002 on 7 March, 1746 on 8 March, and 2333 on 9 March generated ash plumes that rose as high as 900 m before sometimes merging into weather clouds; plumes drifted S and SE. An explosion was recorded at 0138 on 7 March, though emission details were unknown. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale) and the public was warned to stay at least 1 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Ubinas
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that a lahar on the SE flank of Ubinas descended through the Volcánmayo drainage towards the Ubinas River at 1445 on 6 March. The public was warned to stay away from the drainage and to avoid driving on the Querapi-Ubinas-Huarina highway.
Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)
Report for Yasur
On 8 March the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD) reported that activity at Yasur continued at a level of “major unrest,” as defined by the Alert Level 2 status (on a scale of 0-5). Recent visual observations and photos taken in the field indicated that explosions continued, though activity was confined to the crater. The report warned that some of the explosions may eject material that falls in and around the crater. The public was reminded to not enter the restricted area within 600 m around the boundaries of the Permanent Exclusion Zone, defined by Danger Zone A on the hazard map.
Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD)