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Sirung

Photo of this volcano
  • Country
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  •  
  • 8.508°S
  • 124.13°E

  • 862 m
    2828 ft

  • 264270
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number
Most Recent Weekly Report: 30 March-5 April 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

PVMBG reported that white emissions rose 10-50 m above the summit of Sirung and drifted NE, E, and SE. Seismicity was relatively low and showed a consistent decrease since July 2021. As a result, the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) at 1800 on 1 April.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


Most Recent Bulletin Report: October 2021 (BGVN 46:10) Citation IconCite this Report

Phreatic eruption on 21 July 2021

Sirung, located at the S end of Pantar Island, is truncated by a 2-km-wide caldera with a floor that often contains one or more small lakes. Fourteen eruptions have been documented since 1852, often with phreatic activity, including its most recent one that occurred during 7-8 July 2015; activity was characterized by a small, short-lived ash eruption (BGVN 41:02). This report updates information through September 2021 and includes a short eruption during July 2021, based on information from the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM, or the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation) and the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC).

No significant activity has been reported since an ash plume on 7 and 8 July 2015. Low seismicity was recorded during April through June 2021; a minor increase in tremor amplitude lasted 10 hours on 21 July, though there were no volcanic earthquakes indicative of magma movement. However, the Volcano Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) later that day. Following this increase in seismicity, a phreatic eruption was recorded at 1644 through 1800 on 21 July, which produced a white-and-gray ash plume that rose 2 km above the summit and drifted N (figure 1). Weak, intermittent, white gas-and-steam emissions continued to rise up to 500 m above the summit through August, according to PVMBG; some gas-and-steam emissions were noted during September.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Webcam image of the phreatic eruption at Sirung on 21 July 2021 that consisted of a white-and-gray ash plume. Courtesy of PVMBG.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/).

Weekly Reports - Index


2022: March
2021: July
2015: July
2012: May | June | September
2004: May


30 March-5 April 2022 Citation IconCite this Report

PVMBG reported that white emissions rose 10-50 m above the summit of Sirung and drifted NE, E, and SE. Seismicity was relatively low and showed a consistent decrease since July 2021. As a result, the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) at 1800 on 1 April.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


21 July-27 July 2021 Citation IconCite this Report

PVMBG reported that a phreatic eruption at Sirung was recorded at 1644 on 21 July. A white-and-gray ash plume rose 2 km above the summit and drifted N. The report noted that the event was preceded by an increase in tremor amplitude that lasted about 10 hours; no volcanic earthquakes indicating magma movement were recorded and tremor amplitude did not notably increase. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4), with visitors and tourists prohibited within a 1.5 km radius of Sirung.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


8 July-14 July 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 8 July an ash plume from Sirung drifted 55 km W at an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


1 July-7 July 2015 Citation IconCite this Report

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 7 July an ash plume from Sirung rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 85 km SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


5 September-11 September 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

CVGHM reported that on 7 September the Alert Level for Sirung was lowered from 2 to 1 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


13 June-19 June 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

CVGHM reported that during 1-13 June diffuse white plumes from Sirung rose 30-70 m above the crater. A sulfur odor was occasionally noted at the Sirung observation post. Based on seismic activity and visual observations, on 15 June CVGHM reiterated that the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).Visitors and tourists were not permitted to go within a 1.5 km radius of Sirung.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


23 May-29 May 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

CVGHM reported that during 13-18 May diffuse white plumes from Sirung rose 10-50 m above the crater. Seismicity was elevated during 12-17 May then decreased through 23 May, although levels remained above background. On 25 May the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


9 May-15 May 2012 Citation IconCite this Report

CVGHM reported that on 8 May a three-hour long ash eruption from Sirung was accompanied by loud sounds and incandescence that reached 10 m above the crater. An ash plume rose 3.5 km above the crater and drifted N, producing ashfall up to 4 mm thick near the crater. During 9-12 May white plumes rose 30-50 m above the crater. A sulfur odor was reported in areas up to 3 km away on 12 May. That same day CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and recommended that visitors not approach the volcano within a 2.5 km radius.

Based on a report from a ground-based observer and analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC noted that on 12 May an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 95 km SW.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


19 May-25 May 2004 Citation IconCite this Report

According to DVGHM, the news reports of an eruption at Sirung around 13 May were false. There was no activity at the volcano.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


12 May-18 May 2004 Citation IconCite this Report

According to a news article, Sirung began erupting "smoke and dust" around 13 May. A local government official reportedly said that hundreds of residents were evacuated from within 1 or 2 kilometers of the volcano. There were no reports of injuries or damage.

Source: ABC News - Australian Broadcasting Corporation


Bulletin Reports - Index

Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

12/1987 (SEAN 12:12) Fumaroles and crater lake normal after earthquake

02/2016 (BGVN 41:02) Small short-lived ash eruptions in May 2012 and July 2015

10/2021 (BGVN 46:10) Phreatic eruption on 21 July 2021




Information is preliminary and subject to change. All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


December 1987 (SEAN 12:12) Citation IconCite this Report

Fumaroles and crater lake normal after earthquake

A VSI observer visited the volcano on 12 December. Fumaroles and the crater lake were normal and showed no evidence of increased activity that might be attributed to the M 6.5 earthquake of 26 November (preliminary epicenter 8.35°S, 124.25°E). The only notable change in the crater was a fresh landslide scar that may have resulted from the earthquake.

Information Contacts: VSI.


February 2016 (BGVN 41:02) Citation IconCite this Report

Small short-lived ash eruptions in May 2012 and July 2015

Small eruptions from Sirung were reported in May 2012 and July 2015. These were the first reported eruptions since 1970 from the volcano at the southern end of Pantar island, which sometimes has a crater lake and a history of phreatic activity.

Activity during 2012. The Indonesian Centre for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) reported that on 8 May 2012 a three-hour long ash eruption that was accompanied by loud sounds and incandescence material that reached 10 m above the crater. An ash plume rose 3.5 km above the crater and drifted N, causing ashfall up to 4 mm thick near the crater. During 9-12 May white plumes rose 30-50 m above the crater.

On 12 May an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km and drifted about 95 km SW, and a sulfur odor was reported in areas up to 3 km away. That same day CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and recommended that visitors not approach the volcano within a 2.5 km radius. During 13-18 May 2012 diffuse white plumes rose 10-50 m above the crater. Seismicity was elevated during 12-17 May then decreased through 23 May, although levels remained above background. On 25 May the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

CVGHM reported that during 1-13 June 2012 diffuse white plumes rose 30-70 m above the crater. A sulfur odor was occasionally noted at the Sirung observation post. Based on seismic activity and visual observations, on 15 June CVGHM reiterated that the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). On 7 September 2012 the Alert Level was lowered from 2 to 1 (on a scale of 1-4).

Activity during 2015. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 7 July 2015 an ash plume from Sirung rose to an altitude of 1.5 km and drifted 85 km SW. On 8 July an ash plume at an altitude of 1.5 km drifted 55 km W.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/).


October 2021 (BGVN 46:10) Citation IconCite this Report

Phreatic eruption on 21 July 2021

Sirung, located at the S end of Pantar Island, is truncated by a 2-km-wide caldera with a floor that often contains one or more small lakes. Fourteen eruptions have been documented since 1852, often with phreatic activity, including its most recent one that occurred during 7-8 July 2015; activity was characterized by a small, short-lived ash eruption (BGVN 41:02). This report updates information through September 2021 and includes a short eruption during July 2021, based on information from the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM, or the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation) and the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC).

No significant activity has been reported since an ash plume on 7 and 8 July 2015. Low seismicity was recorded during April through June 2021; a minor increase in tremor amplitude lasted 10 hours on 21 July, though there were no volcanic earthquakes indicative of magma movement. However, the Volcano Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) later that day. Following this increase in seismicity, a phreatic eruption was recorded at 1644 through 1800 on 21 July, which produced a white-and-gray ash plume that rose 2 km above the summit and drifted N (figure 1). Weak, intermittent, white gas-and-steam emissions continued to rise up to 500 m above the summit through August, according to PVMBG; some gas-and-steam emissions were noted during September.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Webcam image of the phreatic eruption at Sirung on 21 July 2021 that consisted of a white-and-gray ash plume. Courtesy of PVMBG.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/).

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.

Eruptive History

There is data available for 11 confirmed Holocene eruptive periods.

2021 Jul 21 - 2021 Jul 21 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 1

Episode 1 | Phreatic Episode
2021 Jul 21 - 2021 Jul 21 Evidence from Observations: Reported
 A phreatic eruption was recorded at 1644 on 21 July 2021. A white-and-gray ash plume rose 2 km above the summit and drifted N.

List of 3 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
2021 Jul 21    - - - - Phreatic activity
2021 Jul 21    - - - - Ash
2021 Jul 21    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index) VEI 1

2015 Jul 7 - 2015 Jul 8 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 1

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
2015 Jul 7 - 2015 Jul 8 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 1 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
2015 Jul 7    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

2012 May 8 - 2012 May 12 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
2012 May 8 - 2012 May 12 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 8 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
2012 May 8    - - - - Explosion CVGHM reported that a three-hour long ash eruption from Sirung was accompanied by loud sounds and incandescence that reached 10 m above the crater.
2012 May 8    - - - - Ash Plume An ash plume rose 3.5 km above the crater and drifted N, producing ashfall up to 4 mm thick near the crater.
2012 May 8    - - - - Ashfall An ash plume rose 3.5 km above the crater and drifted N, producing ashfall up to 4 mm thick near the crater.
2012 May 8    - - - - Incandescence CVGHM reported that a three-hour long ash eruption from Sirung was accompanied by loud sounds and incandescence that reached 10 m above the crater.
2012 May 8    - - - - Audible Sounds CVGHM reported that a three-hour long ash eruption from Sirung was accompanied by loud sounds and incandescence that reached 10 m above the crater.
2012 May 8    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index) VEI 2
2012 May 12    - - - - Ash Plume Based on a report from a ground-based observer and analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC noted that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km and drifted about 95 km SW.
2012 May 12 2012 May 23 Seismicity (volcanic) Seismicity was elevated during 12-17 May then decreased through 23 May, although levels remained above background.

1970 Jul 2 ± 182 days Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1970 Jul 2 ± 182 days - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 1 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
1970    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1965 Nov 2 - 1965 Nov 2 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 1

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1965 Nov 2 - 1965 Nov 2 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 3 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity Uncertain
   - - - -    - - - - Ash weak or small
1965 Nov 2    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1965 May 7 - 1965 May 18 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 1

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1965 May 7 - 1965 May 18 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 5 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Lapilli
   - - - -    - - - - Bombs
1965 May 7    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1964 Feb 8 - 1964 Oct 5 (in or after) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 1

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1964 Feb 8 - 1964 Oct 5 (in or after) Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 3 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
1964 Feb 8    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1960 Mar 13 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1960 Mar 13 - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 1 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
1960 Mar 13    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1953 Jun 16 ± 15 days Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1953 Jun 16 ± 15 days - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Property Damage
1953 Jun    - - - - Fatalities

1947 Apr - 1947 May Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1947 Apr - 1947 May Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity
1947 Apr    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1934 Jun 14 - 1934 Jul 15 ± 5 days Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 2

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1934 Jun 14 - 1934 Jul 15 ± 5 days Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 4 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatic activity
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Blocks
1934 Jun 14    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

[ 1927 ] Uncertain Eruption

[ 1899 Mar - 1899 Apr ] Uncertain Eruption

[ 1852 ] Uncertain Eruption

Deformation History

There is no Deformation History data available for Sirung.

Emission History

There is no Emissions History data available for Sirung.

Photo Gallery

Steam clouds rise above a fumarole field on the flank of Gunung Sirung, south of Airmama village. The crater walls contain extensive areas of light-colored hydrothermally altered rock.

Photo by L.D. Reksowirogo, 1972 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
Sirung volcano, seen here from the north, lies at the NE end of a 14-km-long line of volcanic centers forming a peninsula at the southern end of Pantar Island. A 2-km-wide caldera at the summit has been the source of small phreatic eruptions during the 20th century. A lava dome (right) forms the 862-m-high summit of the volcano at the west side of the caldera.

Photo by L.D. Reksowirogo, 1972 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
The steaming summit caldera of Gunung Sirung volcano is seen here from the eastern caldera rim. Sirung volcano lies at the NE end of a 14-km-long line of volcanic centers forming a peninsula at the southern end of Pantar Island. A lava dome (center) at the western side of the caldera forms the summit of Gunung Sirung volcano; other cones along the chain to the SE increase in height. The 2-km-wide summit caldera has been the source of small phreatic eruptions during the 20th century.

Photo by L.D. Reksowirogo, 1972 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
The summit of 862-m-high Gunung Sirung volcano on Pantar Island is truncated by a 2-km wide caldera whose floor often contains one or more small lakes. A number of small phreatic eruptions have taken place in the 20th century from vents inside the caldera.

Photo by L.D. Reksowirogo, 1972 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
Steam rises from a fumarole in the crater complex B, seen here from the NE. The summit of Gunung Sirung is cut by many craters and explosion pits, five of which contain lakes.

Photo by L.D. Reksowirogo, 1972 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
The Gunung Sirung volcanic massif rises to the south of the villages of Kaka and Mauta. The historically active cone is located at the NE end of a 14-km-long chain of volcanic centers that forms a peninsula extending south into the Sawu Sea. The light-colored area (right center) is a fumarole field near Airmama village. Gunung Sopak, the 1318 m high point of the massif, forms the peak at the upper right.

Photo courtesy of Volcanological Survey of Indonesia, 1990.
GVP Map Holdings

The maps shown below have been scanned from the GVP map archives and include the volcano on this page. Clicking on the small images will load the full 300 dpi map. Very small-scale maps (such as world maps) are not included. The maps database originated over 30 years ago, but was only recently updated and connected to our main database. We welcome users to tell us if they see incorrect information or other problems with the maps; please use the Contact GVP link at the bottom of the page to send us email.


Title: Geology of Australia
Publisher: BMR, Geology & Geophysics, Dept Natural Resources
Country: Australia
Year: 1976
Map Type: Geology
Scale: 1:2,500,000
Map of Geology of Australia

Title: Australia, Indonesia
Publisher: DMA & Defence Department, AIS, Melbourne,Australia
Country: Indon, Australia
Year: 1971
Series: ONC
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Australia, Indonesia

Title: Pulau Lomblen
Publisher: Director of Military Survey, UK
Country: Indonesia
Year: 1970
Series: 1501
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:250,000
Map of Pulau Lomblen

Title: Riangeba
Publisher: US Army Corps of Engineers
Country: Indonesia
Year: 1945
Series: T551
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:250,000
Map of Riangeba

Title: Koepang
Publisher: US Army Map Service
Country: Indonesia
Year: 1944
Series: AMS
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Koepang

Title: Boetoeng
Publisher: US Army Map Service
Country: Indonesia
Year: 1944
Series: AMS
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Boetoeng
Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Sirung in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

External Sites