Logo link to homepage

Katla

Photo of this volcano
  • Iceland
  • Iceland Neovolcanic Rift Zone
  • Cluster | Fissure vent(s)
  • 1918 CE
  • Country
  • Volcanic Province
  • Landform | Volc Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 63.633°N
  • 19.083°W

  • 1490 m
    4888 ft

  • 372030
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

Most Recent Weekly Report: 3 May-9 May 2023 Citation IconCite this Report

Iceland Met Office (IMO) reported that an intense seismic swarm began at Katla at 0941 on 4 May with three earthquakes larger than M 4 occurring beneath the caldera within about 10 minutes. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-color scale. According to a news article the three largest events were magnitudes 4.8, 4.7, and 4.5, adjusted from previous estimates of 4.5, 4.3, and 4.2. The larger earthquakes were felt in Thórsmörk and by residents in areas S of Mýrdalsjökull glacier (the glacier that covers Katla). The intensity of the events decreased after noon, though smaller earthquakes continued. Seismicity had decreased significantly by the next day with only five events recorded during 0000-0915 on 5 May. In an update posted at 1140 the activity was described as normal, and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green. More than 40 earthquakes had been recorded during the previous day and no other data indicated significant changes or anomalies. It was noted that the magnitudes were unusually large and similar to events that last occurred in 2016.

Sources: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), Iceland Monitor


Most Recent Bulletin Report: November 2011 (BGVN 36:11) Citation IconCite this Report

Jökulhlaup and elevated seismicity in 2011; filming sparks eruption fears

Microseismicity preceded and accompanied a jökulhlaup (a glacier-outburst flood) on 9 July 2011, as reported by the Iceland Met Office (IMO). The jökulhlaup escaped from under Mýrdalsjökull, the glacier that rests above Iceland's Katla volcano, its 10 x 14 km caldera, and environs (figure 4). IMO reported that microseismicity was registered near several ice cauldrons in the caldera for a few weeks prior to the event (figure 5). Peak harmonic tremor on 8 July coincided with rising water levels and increased water conductivity, as measured by the main flood gauge (figure 6; gauge is at red triangle on figure 4).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 4. A map of road closures and restricted areas of Mýrdalsjökull glacier resulting from the 9 July 2011 jökulhlaup at Katla (see key, lower left). The town of Vík is shown near the bottom (in black), and the main road through the area is shown in red; the trace of Katla caldera is shown in black and labeled. The main flood gauge was on the bridge across the Múlakvísl river; both were destroyed in the jökulhlaup event (red triangle). Inset shows the geographic location of Katla and Mýrdalsjökull in the S of Iceland. Restricted areas map modified from ágúst Gunnar Gylfason of the National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police-Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management; index map modified from Ginkgo Maps.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 5. Map (top) and plot (bottom) of the seismicity recorded during 8-9 July 2011 at Katla. Colors indicate the timing of epicenters and their respective plotted magnitudes, recorded as late as 2250 on 9 July 2011, according to the scheme shown below the map. Black triangles indicate seismic monitoring stations. Courtesy of Iceland Met Office (IMO).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 6. Running plots of (a) water level, (b) water temperature, and (c) water conductivity at the main flood gauge of the Múlakvísl river during 3-9 July 2011. The plots show rising water level and conductivity that were coincident with peak harmonic tremor. The plots stop abruptly (red vertical line) when the gauge was destroyed along with the bridge crossing the Múlakvísl river. Courtesy of Iceland Met Office (IMO).

IMO reported that, on the same day, the main flood gauge was damaged when flood waters reached the instrument near midnight; another station, normally not in the water, started recording rising water around 0400 on 9 July, and the water level there rose 5 m within 5 minutes (figure 7). When the flood reached the main road approximately one hour later, the main bridge over the Múlakvísl river was destroyed and the road was closed (red triangle, figure 41).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. A running plot of water level at the second flood gauge (normally not submerged). The plot shows a significant rise in water level (5 m within 5 minutes). Courtesy of Iceland Met Office (IMO).

According to the news source Morgunblaðið, 200 people were safely evacuated, and allowed to return to their homes by that afternoon. Morgunblaðið reported that analysis of the flood waters indicated that the flood was caused by geothermal water, but that a sub-glacial eruption at Katla could not be ruled out. IMO stated that the harmonic tremor declined on 9 July, following the jökulhlaup event. After observational flights, new cracks and cauldrons were reported in the ice of Mýrdalsjökull glacier (figure 8).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. Cracking and subsidence of the Mýrdalsjökull glacier around an ice cauldron above the Katla caldera. Widespread gray tephra deposited on the ice surface is due to the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption (BGVN 35:03, 35:04). Courtesy of the Icelandic Coast Guard.

By 16 July, the National Commissioner of Icelandic Police in the Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management reported that a new bridge had been built to replace the bridge destroyed in the jökulhlaup (figure 9).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 9. Photograph of the remains of the bridge crossing of the Múlakvísl river, destroyed in the jökulhlaup event on 9 July 2011. The new bridge, constructed by the 16 July 2011, can be seen in the background. Courtesy of John A. Stevenson.

August-December seismicity. IMO reported increased seismicity under Mýrdalsjökull in October (figure 10). They reported that 512 earthquakes occurred, with ~ 380 originating within the Katla caldera; a large portion (nearly 100) of those 512 earthquakes occurred on one day near the beginning of October (figure 11). The largest reported earthquake was M 4, with seven being larger than M 3. On 8 November, an M 3.2 earthquake that originated in the S most part of the caldera was felt by residents in the town of Vík.

Overall, following the July 2011 jökulhlaup event, seismicity has increased above background levels of the past year. The seismic peak is noticeable with respect to the number of earthquakes, their largest magnitudes, and the clustering under Katla (figures 10 and 11). The largest earthquakes were as large, or slightly larger, than the other earthquakes of M 3 or greater in earlier episodes of unrest (i.e., 1999 and 2002-2004, figure 10). The bulk of the 2011 seismic increase occurred over a shallow depth range (within 4 km of the surface, figure 12).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 10. Plots of seismicity (greater than M 0.6) at Katla since 1999, showing the October 2011 seismicity in comparison with past episodes of non-eruptive unrest, such as in 1999 (sub-glacial eruption is uncertain in the GVP database) and 2002-2004. Plots (from the top) show: the monthly number of earthquakes (log scale); the magnitudes of earthquakes; cumulative number of earthquakes (red) and cumulative seismic moment (blue); and the focal depths of the located earthquakes. Courtesy of Iceland Met Office (IMO).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 11. Seismic events (stronger than M 0.5) per day at Katla during December 2010-December 2011. Raw data is shown in blue, the 5 day moving average is shown in red, and events stronger than M 3.0 are indicated by gold stars. These trends highlight the increased seismicity of August-December 2011. Courtesy of the University of Edinburgh School of Geosciences.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 12. Cumulative number of seismic events (stronger than M 0.5) at Katla since 23 November 2010. All events are shown in yellow, and events originating at depths greater than 4 and 10 km are shown in orange and red, respectively. During the August-December 2011 increase in seismicity, the majority of the recorded events originated from shallow depths (less than 4 km). Courtesy of the University of Edinburgh School of Geosciences.

Television filming sparks eruption fears. The Iceland Review reported that, in the early morning of 9 December, the Icelandic emergency hotline received calls from residents reporting bright lights on the slopes of Mýrdalsjökull. Callers feared that an eruption had started at Katla. The bright lights had also been noticed on a webcam by observers in Norway, who also enquired if there was an eruption. When the glacial slopes were inspected to find the cause of the lights, it was discovered that they were from film crews for the HBO series "Game of Thrones", who were filming in the early morning to capture the desired light conditions.

Information Contacts: Einar Kjartansson, Iceland Met Office (IMO), Bústaðavegi 9, 150 Reykjavík, Iceland (URL: http://en.vedur.is/); National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police-Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management, Skúlagata 21, 101 Reykjavík, Iceland (URL: http://www.almannavarnir.is/); Ginkgo Maps (URL: http://ginkgomaps.com/); Morgunblaðið, Hádegismóum 2, 110 Reykjavík, Iceland (URL: http://mbl.is/); Icelandic Coast Guard, Skógarhlíð 14, 105 Reykjavík, Iceland (URL: http://www.lhg.is/); John A. Stevenson (URL: http://all-geo.org/volcan01010/); The University of Edinburgh School of Geosciences (URL: http://www.ed.ac.uk/schools-departments/geosciences); The Iceland Review, Borgartúni 23, 105 Reykjavík, Iceland (URL: http://www.icelandreview.com/).

Weekly Reports - Index


2023: May
2017: July
2016: August | September
2011: July | October


3 May-9 May 2023 Citation IconCite this Report

Iceland Met Office (IMO) reported that an intense seismic swarm began at Katla at 0941 on 4 May with three earthquakes larger than M 4 occurring beneath the caldera within about 10 minutes. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-color scale. According to a news article the three largest events were magnitudes 4.8, 4.7, and 4.5, adjusted from previous estimates of 4.5, 4.3, and 4.2. The larger earthquakes were felt in Thórsmörk and by residents in areas S of Mýrdalsjökull glacier (the glacier that covers Katla). The intensity of the events decreased after noon, though smaller earthquakes continued. Seismicity had decreased significantly by the next day with only five events recorded during 0000-0915 on 5 May. In an update posted at 1140 the activity was described as normal, and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green. More than 40 earthquakes had been recorded during the previous day and no other data indicated significant changes or anomalies. It was noted that the magnitudes were unusually large and similar to events that last occurred in 2016.

Sources: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO); Iceland Monitor


26 July-1 August 2017 Citation IconCite this Report

On 29 July the Iceland Met Office (IMO) reported that a glacial outburst flood (jökulhlaup) in the Múlakvísl river, SE of Katla, had begun, and a M 3 earthquake along with a few smaller earthquakes were located in the N part of the caldera. Nearby seismic stations detected tremor possibly linked to the flood, though a subglacial volcanic component was not ruled out. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-color scale. The public was advised to stay away from the river; it was dark colored and had a sulfur odor. By 31 July the jökulhlaup had subsided with conductivity measurements and tremor slowly reaching normal levels. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green.

Source: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO)


28 September-4 October 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

The Iceland Met Office (IMO) reported that an intense seismic swarm began at Katla on 29 September. The activity intensified again at 1202 on 30 September with tremor and several earthquakes M 3 or larger. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow, the second highest level on a four-color scale. On 3 October IMO stated that the seismic swarm was the largest one in decades, though it appeared to be over. According to a news article from 3 October popular travel destinations near the glacier had been and remained closed to traffic.

Sources: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO); Iceland Magazine


31 August-6 September 2016 Citation IconCite this Report

The Iceland Met Office (IMO) reported that seismic activity within Katla's caldera had increased in mid-June and then began to decline. On 29 August two earthquakes of about M 4.5 occurred in the NE part of the caldera, the largest earthquakes detected at Katla since 1977. The ensuing swarm that same day produced over 100 earthquakes, the largest of which was M 3.3. Seismicity was low after the swarm had ended.

Throughout the summer, electrical conductivity levels in the Múlakvísl River, which drains from the E side of the Mýrdalsjökull glacier that covers Katla, had remained unusually high, reflecting a constant source of geothermal meltwater. There had also been frequent reports of a sulfur odor close to Múlakvísl; gas measurements near the source of Múlakvísl revealed unhealthy levels of hydrogen sulfide, also indicating high concentrations of geothermal fluids. IMO noted that the recent earthquake activity does not appear to have significantly affected conductivity levels in Múlakvísl.

IMO stated that summertime increases in caldera seismicity are an almost annual occurrence at Katla, often associated with the drainage of geothermal meltwater causing minor floods in glacial rivers from Mýrdalsjökull.

Source: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO)


12 October-18 October 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

The Iceland Met Office reported increased seismic activity within Katla's caldera. Unrest was first noted in July, when a short-lived glacial flood burst from the Myrdalsjökull glacier that covers Katla occurred in connection with increased seismicity. Since then, several hundred micro-earthquakes had taken place within the area of the caldera. On 5 October an intense earthquake swarm was detected. Most of the earthquakes originated at 5 km depth; the largest one was approximately a M 3.7.

Source: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO)


6 July-12 July 2011 Citation IconCite this Report

The Iceland Met Office and news sources reported that on 9 July a jökulhlaup from Myrdalsjökull, the ice sheet that covers Katla, originated from three ice cauldrons in the SE part of the caldera. During previous weeks microseismicity had been registered near several of the ice cauldrons. Around the time of peak harmonic tremor, in the early evening on 8 July, the Myrdalsjökull flood monitoring system indicated increased conduction. The water level reached the bridge around midnight and damaged the sensors. According to news articles, one new cauldron that had formed, along with cracks in the glacier around the cauldrons, may have been caused by a small eruption at Katla although no evidence of an eruption was observed. The jökulhlaup had destroyed a 128-m-long bridge and caused damage, resulting in the closing of part of the Ring Road. About 200 people were evacuated from the area but allowed to return home later that day. On 10 July the water had subsided and returned to normal levels.

Sources: Morgunbladid News; Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO); Iceland Review; Iceland Review; Iceland Review


Bulletin Reports - Index

Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

11/1977 (NSEB 02:11) Annual seismic energy release, 1970-September 1977

09/1999 (BGVN 24:09) Tremor in mid-July followed by a jökulhlaup and ice cauldron formation

11/2011 (BGVN 36:11) Jökulhlaup and elevated seismicity in 2011; filming sparks eruption fears




Information is preliminary and subject to change. All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


November 1977 (NSEB 02:11) Citation IconCite this Report

Annual seismic energy release, 1970-September 1977

Figure 1 shows annual seismic strain release from 1970-September 1977 in the Myrdalsjökull area. After 1977, the annual strain release was similar to that of 1970-74.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Annual seismic strain release in the Myrdalsjökull area, February 1970 through September 1977. From Skjálftabref (published by the Icelandic Meteorological Office, no. 26, October 1977. Courtesy of Ragnar Stefánsson.

Information Contacts: R. Stefánsson, Icelandic Meteorological Office.


September 1999 (BGVN 24:09) Citation IconCite this Report

Tremor in mid-July followed by a jökulhlaup and ice cauldron formation

In the early morning of 18 July, a small jökulhlaup (sudden glacier-outburst flood) lasting less than 24 hours, occurred in "Jökulsá á Sólheimasandi," one of the rivers draining from the Mýrdalsjökull icecap (figure 2) towards the S. Inspection of the icecap revealed that a new ice cauldron, ~2 km wide, and 50 m deep, had formed just above the origin of the Sólheimajökull outlet glacier. The jökulhlaup was preceded on 17 July by a 20-minute-long burst of modest volcanic tremor (reported by P. Einarsson). Intrusion of magma at a low level within the subglacial Katla volcano or even a small subglacial eruption may have occurred, possibly associated with pulse of CO2 which could have caused boiling in geothermal areas under the icecap.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Topographic map of the Mýrdalsjökull icecap over Katla volcano showing tilt stations. Courtesy of the Nordisk Vulkvanologisk Institut.

From 18 July until mid-August, ten new ice cauldrons formed along the W, S, and E borders of the Mýrdalsjökull caldera (figure 3), signifying increased geothermal activity along a large part of the caldera rim. Changes on the icecap surface have been reported for some of the earlier eruptions of Katla, and the current activity could be a possible long-term precursor to a new eruption. A flight over the area on 9 September by Reynir Ragnarsson at Vík, revealed that the ice cauldrons did not develop much after mid-August.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. One of the new ice cauldrons on Mýrdalsjökull, July-August 1999. Photo by Freysteinn Sigmundsson.

Information Contacts: Rósa Ólafsdóttir, Guðrún Sverrisdóttir, Freysteinn Sigmundsson, Erik Sturkell, and Níels Óskarsson, Nordisk Vulkvanologisk Institut, Grenásvegur 50, 108 Reyjavík, Iceland (URL: http://nordvulk.hi.is); Helgi Björnsson, Páll Einarsson, and Magnús Tumi Guðmundsson, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, 107 Reykjavík, Iceland (URL: http://www.raunvis.hi.is/); Ármann Höskuldsson, South Iceland Institute of Natural History, Strandvegur 50, 900 Vestmannaeyjar, Iceland (URL: https://www.nattsud.is/).


November 2011 (BGVN 36:11) Citation IconCite this Report

Jökulhlaup and elevated seismicity in 2011; filming sparks eruption fears

Microseismicity preceded and accompanied a jökulhlaup (a glacier-outburst flood) on 9 July 2011, as reported by the Iceland Met Office (IMO). The jökulhlaup escaped from under Mýrdalsjökull, the glacier that rests above Iceland's Katla volcano, its 10 x 14 km caldera, and environs (figure 4). IMO reported that microseismicity was registered near several ice cauldrons in the caldera for a few weeks prior to the event (figure 5). Peak harmonic tremor on 8 July coincided with rising water levels and increased water conductivity, as measured by the main flood gauge (figure 6; gauge is at red triangle on figure 4).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 4. A map of road closures and restricted areas of Mýrdalsjökull glacier resulting from the 9 July 2011 jökulhlaup at Katla (see key, lower left). The town of Vík is shown near the bottom (in black), and the main road through the area is shown in red; the trace of Katla caldera is shown in black and labeled. The main flood gauge was on the bridge across the Múlakvísl river; both were destroyed in the jökulhlaup event (red triangle). Inset shows the geographic location of Katla and Mýrdalsjökull in the S of Iceland. Restricted areas map modified from ágúst Gunnar Gylfason of the National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police-Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management; index map modified from Ginkgo Maps.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 5. Map (top) and plot (bottom) of the seismicity recorded during 8-9 July 2011 at Katla. Colors indicate the timing of epicenters and their respective plotted magnitudes, recorded as late as 2250 on 9 July 2011, according to the scheme shown below the map. Black triangles indicate seismic monitoring stations. Courtesy of Iceland Met Office (IMO).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 6. Running plots of (a) water level, (b) water temperature, and (c) water conductivity at the main flood gauge of the Múlakvísl river during 3-9 July 2011. The plots show rising water level and conductivity that were coincident with peak harmonic tremor. The plots stop abruptly (red vertical line) when the gauge was destroyed along with the bridge crossing the Múlakvísl river. Courtesy of Iceland Met Office (IMO).

IMO reported that, on the same day, the main flood gauge was damaged when flood waters reached the instrument near midnight; another station, normally not in the water, started recording rising water around 0400 on 9 July, and the water level there rose 5 m within 5 minutes (figure 7). When the flood reached the main road approximately one hour later, the main bridge over the Múlakvísl river was destroyed and the road was closed (red triangle, figure 41).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. A running plot of water level at the second flood gauge (normally not submerged). The plot shows a significant rise in water level (5 m within 5 minutes). Courtesy of Iceland Met Office (IMO).

According to the news source Morgunblaðið, 200 people were safely evacuated, and allowed to return to their homes by that afternoon. Morgunblaðið reported that analysis of the flood waters indicated that the flood was caused by geothermal water, but that a sub-glacial eruption at Katla could not be ruled out. IMO stated that the harmonic tremor declined on 9 July, following the jökulhlaup event. After observational flights, new cracks and cauldrons were reported in the ice of Mýrdalsjökull glacier (figure 8).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. Cracking and subsidence of the Mýrdalsjökull glacier around an ice cauldron above the Katla caldera. Widespread gray tephra deposited on the ice surface is due to the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption (BGVN 35:03, 35:04). Courtesy of the Icelandic Coast Guard.

By 16 July, the National Commissioner of Icelandic Police in the Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management reported that a new bridge had been built to replace the bridge destroyed in the jökulhlaup (figure 9).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 9. Photograph of the remains of the bridge crossing of the Múlakvísl river, destroyed in the jökulhlaup event on 9 July 2011. The new bridge, constructed by the 16 July 2011, can be seen in the background. Courtesy of John A. Stevenson.

August-December seismicity. IMO reported increased seismicity under Mýrdalsjökull in October (figure 10). They reported that 512 earthquakes occurred, with ~ 380 originating within the Katla caldera; a large portion (nearly 100) of those 512 earthquakes occurred on one day near the beginning of October (figure 11). The largest reported earthquake was M 4, with seven being larger than M 3. On 8 November, an M 3.2 earthquake that originated in the S most part of the caldera was felt by residents in the town of Vík.

Overall, following the July 2011 jökulhlaup event, seismicity has increased above background levels of the past year. The seismic peak is noticeable with respect to the number of earthquakes, their largest magnitudes, and the clustering under Katla (figures 10 and 11). The largest earthquakes were as large, or slightly larger, than the other earthquakes of M 3 or greater in earlier episodes of unrest (i.e., 1999 and 2002-2004, figure 10). The bulk of the 2011 seismic increase occurred over a shallow depth range (within 4 km of the surface, figure 12).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 10. Plots of seismicity (greater than M 0.6) at Katla since 1999, showing the October 2011 seismicity in comparison with past episodes of non-eruptive unrest, such as in 1999 (sub-glacial eruption is uncertain in the GVP database) and 2002-2004. Plots (from the top) show: the monthly number of earthquakes (log scale); the magnitudes of earthquakes; cumulative number of earthquakes (red) and cumulative seismic moment (blue); and the focal depths of the located earthquakes. Courtesy of Iceland Met Office (IMO).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 11. Seismic events (stronger than M 0.5) per day at Katla during December 2010-December 2011. Raw data is shown in blue, the 5 day moving average is shown in red, and events stronger than M 3.0 are indicated by gold stars. These trends highlight the increased seismicity of August-December 2011. Courtesy of the University of Edinburgh School of Geosciences.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 12. Cumulative number of seismic events (stronger than M 0.5) at Katla since 23 November 2010. All events are shown in yellow, and events originating at depths greater than 4 and 10 km are shown in orange and red, respectively. During the August-December 2011 increase in seismicity, the majority of the recorded events originated from shallow depths (less than 4 km). Courtesy of the University of Edinburgh School of Geosciences.

Television filming sparks eruption fears. The Iceland Review reported that, in the early morning of 9 December, the Icelandic emergency hotline received calls from residents reporting bright lights on the slopes of Mýrdalsjökull. Callers feared that an eruption had started at Katla. The bright lights had also been noticed on a webcam by observers in Norway, who also enquired if there was an eruption. When the glacial slopes were inspected to find the cause of the lights, it was discovered that they were from film crews for the HBO series "Game of Thrones", who were filming in the early morning to capture the desired light conditions.

Information Contacts: Einar Kjartansson, Iceland Met Office (IMO), Bústaðavegi 9, 150 Reykjavík, Iceland (URL: http://en.vedur.is/); National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police-Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management, Skúlagata 21, 101 Reykjavík, Iceland (URL: http://www.almannavarnir.is/); Ginkgo Maps (URL: http://ginkgomaps.com/); Morgunblaðið, Hádegismóum 2, 110 Reykjavík, Iceland (URL: http://mbl.is/); Icelandic Coast Guard, Skógarhlíð 14, 105 Reykjavík, Iceland (URL: http://www.lhg.is/); John A. Stevenson (URL: http://all-geo.org/volcan01010/); The University of Edinburgh School of Geosciences (URL: http://www.ed.ac.uk/schools-departments/geosciences); The Iceland Review, Borgartúni 23, 105 Reykjavík, Iceland (URL: http://www.icelandreview.com/).

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.

Eruptive History

There is data available for 128 confirmed Holocene eruptive periods.

[ 1999 Jul 17 (?) - 1999 Aug 15 ± 5 days ] Uncertain Eruption

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode W, S, and E margins of caldera
1999 Jul 17 (?) - 1999 Aug 15 ± 5 days Evidence from Unknown

List of 3 Events for Episode 1 at W, S, and E margins of caldera

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Seismicity (tremor) Before eruption.
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup
1999 Jul 17
(?)
   - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

[ 1955 Jun 25 ] Uncertain Eruption

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode East side of caldera
1955 Jun 25 - Unknown Evidence from Unknown

List of 2 Events for Episode 1 at East side of caldera

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup weak or small
1955 Jun 25    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1918 Oct 12 - 1918 Nov 4 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 4

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode South side of caldera, K-1918
1918 Oct 12 - 1918 Nov 4 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 6 Events for Episode 1 at South side of caldera, K-1918

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatomagmatic
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra violent, strong, or large
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup
   - - - -    - - - - Property Damage
1918 Oct 12    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1860 May 8 - 1860 May 27 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 4

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1860 May 8 - 1860 May 27 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 5 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatomagmatic
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup weak or small
1860 May 8    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1823 Jun 26 - 1823 Jul 23 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 3 (?)

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Arcuate fissure in south part of caldera
1823 Jun 26 - 1823 Jul 23 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 5 Events for Episode 1 at Arcuate fissure in south part of caldera

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatomagmatic
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup weak or small
1823 Jun 26    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1755 Oct 17 - 1756 Feb 13 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 5 (?)

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode E-W fissure in center of caldera
1755 Oct 17 - 1756 Feb 13 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 9 Events for Episode 1 at E-W fissure in center of caldera

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatomagmatic
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra extremely violent or catastrophic
   - - - -    - - - - Lightning
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup violent, strong, or large
   - - - -    - - - - Property Damage
   - - - -    - - - - Evacuations
1755    - - - - Fatalities
1755 Oct 17    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1721 May 11 - 1721 Oct 15 ± 45 days Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 5 (?)

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1721 May 11 - 1721 Oct 15 ± 45 days Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 6 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatomagmatic
   - - - -    - - - - Ash violent, strong, or large
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup violent, strong, or large
   - - - -    - - - - Property Damage
1721 May 11    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1660 Nov 3 - 1661 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 4

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1660 Nov 3 - 1661 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 6 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatomagmatic
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup violent, strong, or large
   - - - -    - - - - Property Damage
1660 Nov 3    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1625 Sep 2 - 1625 Sep 14 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 5

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1625 Sep 2 - 1625 Sep 14 Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 7 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatomagmatic
   - - - -    - - - - Ash violent, strong, or large
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup
   - - - -    - - - - Property Damage
   - - - -    - - - - Evacuations
1625 Sep 2    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1612 Oct 12 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 4

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1612 Oct 12 - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 4 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatomagmatic
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup
1612 Oct 12    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1580 Aug 11 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 4

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1580 Aug 11 - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 5 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatomagmatic
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup
   - - - -    - - - - Property Damage
1580 Aug 11    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1550 (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 4

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1550 (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 4 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup
1550
(?)
   - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1500 (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 4

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1500 (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 6 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatomagmatic
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra violent, strong, or large
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup
   - - - -    - - - - Property Damage
1500
(?)
   - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1450 ± 50 years Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1450 ± 50 years - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 3 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup

1440 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 4

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1440 - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 4 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup
1440    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1416 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 4 (?)

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1416 - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 4 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatomagmatic
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup
1416    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1357 ± 3 years Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 4

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode SW of Kotlugja
1357 ± 3 years - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 8 Events for Episode 1 at SW of Kotlugja

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatomagmatic
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra violent, strong, or large
   - - - -    - - - - Earthquakes (undefined)
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup
   - - - -    - - - - Property Damage
   - - - -    - - - - Evacuations
1357 ± 3 years    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1311 Jan 18 Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1311 Jan 18 - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 6 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatomagmatic
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup violent, strong, or large
   - - - -    - - - - Property Damage
1311 Jan 18    - - - - Fatalities

1262 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 5

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1262 - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 6 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatomagmatic
   - - - -    - - - - Pumice
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup
1262    - - - - Fatalities Uncertain
1262    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1245 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 4

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1245 - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 5 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatomagmatic
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup
1245    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1210 (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 4

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1210 (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 3 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra
1210
(?)
   - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1177 ± 2 years Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 3

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1177 ± 2 years - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 5 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Phreatomagmatic
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup
   - - - -    - - - - Property Damage
1177 ± 2 years    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1150 ± 50 years Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1150 ± 50 years - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 3 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup

[ 1000 (?) ] Discredited Eruption

0960 (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 3

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0960 (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 3 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra
0960
(?)
   - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

0950 (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0950 (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 4 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Lava flow
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup
   - - - -    - - - - Property Damage
   - - - -    - - - - Evacuations

0934 ± 2 years - 0940 (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 4 (?)

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Eldgjá fissure system (NE flank)
0934 ± 2 years - 0940 (?) Evidence from Sidereal: Ice Core
 This fissure eruption, the "Eldgjá Fires", produced one of the largest lava flows recorded, comparable to the volume of the nearby 1783 Laki (Skaftar) lava flow. The lava flow spread out in a broad lobe on the coastal plain, reaching the sea at Mydalssandur. The eruption produced an estimated 18 km3 of basaltic lava and 1.3 km3 of tephra (Thordarson et al., 2001). Including the amount deposited at sea, Larsen (2000) estimated a volume in excess of 4 km3. Conflicting descriptions of the estates of early settlers suggests that the eruption affected farms in the area (Larsen, 1979). Jonsson (1987) considered the Landbrotshraun portion of the flow to be much older; however, Larsen (2000) and Thordarson et al. (2001) considered this lobe to part of this eruption. The eruption was considered to have lasted until 940 CE by Oladottir et al. (2008).

List of 10 Events for Episode 1 at Eldgjá fissure system (NE flank)

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Lava flow
   - - - -    - - - - Lava flow Entered water.
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Bombs
   - - - -    - - - - Scoria
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup
   - - - -    - - - - Property Damage
   - - - -    - - - - Evacuations
0934 ± 2 years    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index) VEI 4 (?)

0920 Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 4

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0920 - Unknown Evidence from Observations: Reported

List of 4 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup
   - - - -    - - - - Property Damage Uncertain
0920    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

[ 0904 (?) ] Uncertain Eruption

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0904 (?) - Unknown Evidence from Unknown

List of 1 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion Uncertain

0820 (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0820 (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

0780 (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0780 (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

0680 (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0680 (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

0610 (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0610 (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

0590 (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0590 (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 1 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

0540 (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0540 (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

0500 (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0500 (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

0400 (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0400 (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

0290 (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0290 (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

0270 ± 12 years Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 3

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Tephra layer YN
0270 ± 12 years - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (uncalibrated)

List of 4 Events for Episode 1 at Tephra layer YN

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup
0270 ± 12 years    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

0260 (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0260 (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

0200 (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0200 (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

0130 (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0130 (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

0030 (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0030 (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

0080 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0080 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

0250 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0250 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

0370 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0370 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

0430 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0430 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

0530 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0530 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

0550 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0550 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

0560 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0560 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

0600 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0600 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

0650 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0650 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

0700 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0700 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

0740 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0740 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

0780 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0780 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

0850 BCE ± 50 years Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 4

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Tephra layer UN
0850 BCE ± 50 years - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)

List of 5 Events for Episode 1 at Tephra layer UN

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Lapilli
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup
0850 BCE ± 50 years    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

0860 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0860 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

0920 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0920 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

0990 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
0990 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

1160 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1160 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

1190 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1190 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

1220 BCE ± 12 years Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 3

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Tephra layer MN
1220 BCE ± 12 years - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)

List of 4 Events for Episode 1 at Tephra layer MN

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup
1220 BCE ± 12 years    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1280 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1280 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

1290 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1290 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

1440 BCE ± 40 years Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 4

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Tephra layer LN
1440 BCE ± 40 years - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)

List of 5 Events for Episode 1 at Tephra layer LN

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Lapilli
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup
1440 BCE ± 40 years    - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1540 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1540 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

1640 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1640 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

1670 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1670 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

1700 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1700 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

1850 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1850 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

1910 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1910 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

1920 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 4

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Tephra layer N4
1920 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Isotopic: 14C (calibrated)

List of 5 Events for Episode 1 at Tephra layer N4

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Lapilli
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup
1920 BCE
(?)
   - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

1950 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
1950 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

2000 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
2000 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

2020 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
2020 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

2050 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
2050 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

2110 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
2110 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

2160 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
2160 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

2190 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
2190 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

2220 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
2220 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

2250 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
2250 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

2420 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
2420 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

2480 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
2480 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

2540 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
2540 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

2680 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
2680 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

2850 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
2850 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

2920 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption Max VEI: 3

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Tephra layer N2
2920 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 4 Events for Episode 1 at Tephra layer N2

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Ash
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup
2920 BCE
(?)
   - - - - VEI (Explosivity Index)

3180 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
3180 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

3280 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
3280 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

3370 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
3370 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

3390 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
3390 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

3480 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
3480 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

3510 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
3510 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

3640 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
3640 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

3670 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
3670 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

3720 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
3720 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

3790 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Tephra layer N1
3790 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 3 Events for Episode 1 at Tephra layer N1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup

3810 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Tephra layer A1
3810 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 3 Events for Episode 1 at Tephra layer A1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup

3930 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
3930 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

4060 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
4060 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

4210 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
4210 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

4240 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
4240 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

4280 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
4280 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 1 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion

4370 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
4370 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

4430 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
4430 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

4610 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
4610 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

4660 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
4660 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

4750 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
4750 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

4810 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
4810 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

4880 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
4880 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

5020 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
5020 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

5040 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
5040 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

5070 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
5070 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

5180 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Tephra layer A7
5180 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 3 Events for Episode 1 at Tephra layer A7

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup

5230 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
5230 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

5360 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
5360 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

5460 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Tephra layer A8
5460 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 3 Events for Episode 1 at Tephra layer A8

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup

5470 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
5470 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

5550 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode NE flank
5550 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 3 Events for Episode 1 at NE flank

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Lava flow
   - - - -    - - - - Lava flow Entered water.

5560 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode Tephra layer A9
5560 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 3 Events for Episode 1 at Tephra layer A9

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra
   - - - -    - - - - Jokulhaup

5630 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
5630 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

5710 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
5710 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

5720 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
5720 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

5730 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
5730 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

5850 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
5850 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

5890 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
5890 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

5960 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
5960 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

6050 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
6050 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

6170 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
6170 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 1 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion

6200 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
6200 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

6230 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
6230 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra

6380 BCE (?) Confirmed Eruption  

Episode 1 | Eruption Episode
6380 BCE (?) - Unknown Evidence from Correlation: Tephrochronology

List of 2 Events for Episode 1

Start Date End Date Event Type Event Remarks
   - - - -    - - - - Explosion
   - - - -    - - - - Tephra
Deformation History

There is data available for 1 deformation periods. Expand each entry for additional details.


Deformation during 1993 - 2004 [Uplift; Observed by GPS]

Start Date: 1993 Stop Date: 2004 Direction: Uplift Method: GPS
Magnitude: Unknown Spatial Extent: Unknown Latitude: Unknown Longitude: Unknown

Remarks: Campaign GPS measurements on nunataks in the ice cap show outward displacement from the center of the caldera.


Reference List: Sturkell et al. 2006.

Full References:

Sturkell, E., F. Sigmundsson, and R. Slunga,, 2006. 1983-2003 decaying rate of deflation at Askja caldera: Pressure decrease in an extensive magma plumbing system at a spreading plate boundary. Bull. Volc., 68, 727-735.

Emission History

There is no Emissions History data available for Katla.

GVP Map Holdings

Maps are not currently available due to technical issues.

The maps shown below have been scanned from the GVP map archives and include the volcano on this page. Clicking on the small images will load the full 300 dpi map. Very small-scale maps (such as world maps) are not included.

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Katla in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

External Sites