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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

All reports of volcanic activity published by the Smithsonian since 1968 are available through a monthly table of contents or by searching for a specific volcano. Until 1975, reports were issued for individual volcanoes as information became available; these have been organized by month for convenience. Later publications were done in a monthly newsletter format. Links go to the profile page for each volcano with the Bulletin tab open.

Information is preliminary at time of publication and subject to change.

Recently Published Bulletin Reports

Erta Ale (Ethiopia) Thermal anomalies persist in the summit crater during May-September 2020

Merapi (Indonesia) Eruptions in April and June 2020 produced ash plumes and ashfall

Semeru (Indonesia) Ash plumes, lava flows, avalanches, and pyroclastic flows during March-August 2020

Kavachi (Solomon Islands) Discolored water plumes observed in satellite imagery during early September 2020

Krakatau (Indonesia) Eruption ends in mid-April 2020, but intermittent thermal anomalies continue

Raung (Indonesia) Eruptions confirmed during 2012- 2013; lava fills inner crater in November 2014-August 2015

Klyuchevskoy (Russia) Strombolian activity, gas-and-steam and ash plumes, and a lava flow during June-early July 2020

Fuego (Guatemala) Ongoing explosions, ash plumes, lava flows, and lahars during April-July 2020

Nishinoshima (Japan) Major June-July eruption of lava, ash, and sulfur dioxide; activity declines in August 2020

Turrialba (Costa Rica) New eruptive period on 18 June 2020 consisted of ash eruptions

Etna (Italy) Effusive activity in early April; frequent Strombolian explosions and ash emissions during April-July 2020

Ol Doinyo Lengai (Tanzania) Multiple lava flows within the summit crater; September 2019-August 2020



Erta Ale (Ethiopia) — October 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Erta Ale

Ethiopia

13.6°N, 40.67°E; summit elev. 613 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Thermal anomalies persist in the summit crater during May-September 2020

Erta Ale is an active basaltic volcano in Ethiopia, containing multiple active pit craters in the summit and southeastern caldera. Volcanism has been characterized by lava flows and large lava flow fields since 2017. This report describes continued thermal activity in the summit caldera during May through September 2020 using information from various satellite data.

Volcanism at Erta Ale was relatively low from May to early August 2020. Across all satellite data, thermal anomalies were identified for a total of 2 days in May, 7 days in June, 4 days in July, 11 days in August, and 15 days in September. Beginning in early June and into September 2020 the Sentinel-2 MODIS Thermal Volcanic Activity graph provided by the MIROVA system identified a small cluster of thermal anomalies in the summit area after a brief hiatus from early January 2020 (figure 99). By mid-August, a small pulse of thermal activity was detected by the MIROVA (Middle Infrared Observation of Volcanic Activity) system. Many of these thermal anomalies were seen in Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery on clear weather days from June to September.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 99. A small cluster of thermal anomalies were detected in the summit area of Erta Ale (red dots) during June-September 2020 as recorded by the Sentinel-2 MODIS Thermal Volcanic Activity data (bands 12, 11, 8A). Courtesy of MIROVA.

On 12 June a minor thermal anomaly was observed in the S pit crater; a larger anomaly was detected on 17 June in the summit caldera where there had been a previous lava lake (figure 100). In mid-August, satellite data showed thermal anomalies in both the N and S pit craters, but by 5 September only the N crater showed elevated temperatures (figure 101). The thermal activity in the N summit caldera persisted through September, based on satellite data from NASA VIIRS and Sentinel Hub Playground.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 100. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery of Erta Ale on 17 June 2020 showing a strong thermal anomaly in the summit caldera. Sentinel-2 satellite image with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 101. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery of Erta Ale showing thermal anomalies in the N and S pit craters on 21 (top left), 26 (top right), and 31 (bottom left) August 2020. On 5 September (bottom right) only the anomaly in the N crater remained. Sentinel-2 satellite image with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Erta Ale is an isolated basaltic shield that is the most active volcano in Ethiopia. The broad, 50-km-wide edifice rises more than 600 m from below sea level in the barren Danakil depression. Erta Ale is the namesake and most prominent feature of the Erta Ale Range. The volcano contains a 0.7 x 1.6 km, elliptical summit crater housing steep-sided pit craters. Another larger 1.8 x 3.1 km wide depression elongated parallel to the trend of the Erta Ale range is located SE of the summit and is bounded by curvilinear fault scarps on the SE side. Fresh-looking basaltic lava flows from these fissures have poured into the caldera and locally overflowed its rim. The summit caldera is renowned for one, or sometimes two long-term lava lakes that have been active since at least 1967, or possibly since 1906. Recent fissure eruptions have occurred on the N flank.

Information Contacts: MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); NASA Worldview (URL: https://worldview.earthdata.nasa.gov/).


Merapi (Indonesia) — October 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Merapi

Indonesia

7.54°S, 110.446°E; summit elev. 2910 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruptions in April and June 2020 produced ash plumes and ashfall

Merapi, located just north of the city of Yogyakarta, Indonesia, is a highly active stratovolcano; the current eruption began in May 2018. Volcanism has recently been characterized by lava dome growth and collapse, small block-and-ash flows, explosions, ash plumes, ashfall, and pyroclastic flows (BGVN 44:10 and 45:04). Activity has recently consisted of three large eruptions in April and June, producing dense gray ash plumes and ashfall in June. Dominantly, white gas-and-steam emissions have been reported during April-September 2020. The primary reporting source of activity comes from Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG, the Center for Research and Development of Geological Disaster Technology, a branch of PVMBG), the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), and the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC).

Activity at Merapi dominantly consisted of frequent white gas-and-steam emissions that generally rose 20-600 m above the crater (figure 95). On 2 April an eruption occurred at 1510, producing a gray ash plume that rose 3 km above the crater, and accompanied by white gas-and-steam emissions up to 600 m above the crater. A second explosion on 10 April at 0910 generated a gray ash plume rising 3 km above the crater and drifting NW, accompanied by white gas-and-steam emissions rising 300 m above the crater (figure 96). Activity over the next six weeks consisted primarily of gas-and-steam emissions.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 95. Gas-and-steam emissions were frequently observed rising from Merapi as seen on 3 April (left) and 4 August (right) 2020. Courtesy of BPPTKG.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 96. Webcam image showed an ash plume rising 3 km above the crater of Merapi at 0917 on 10 April 2020. Courtesy of BPPTKG and MAGMA Indonesia.

On 8 June PVMBG reported an increase in seismicity. Aerial photos from 13 June taken using drones were used to measure the lava dome, which had decreased in volume to 200,000 m3, compared to measurements from 19 February 2020 (291,000 m3). On 21 June two explosions were recorded at 0913 and 0927; the first explosion lasted less than six minutes while the second was less than two minutes. A dense, gray ash plume reached 6 km above the crater drifting S, W, and SW according to the Darwin VAAC notice and CCTV station (figure 97), which resulted in ashfall in the districts of Magelang, Kulonprogo, and as far as the Girimulyo District (45 km). During 21-22 June the gas-and-steam emissions rose to a maximum height of 6 km above the crater. The morphology of the summit crater had slightly changed by 22 June. Based on photos from the Ngepos Post, about 19,000 m3 of material had been removed from the SW part of the summit, likely near or as part of the crater rim. On 11 and 26 July new measurements of the lava dome were taken, measuring 200,000 m3 on both days, based on aerial photos using drones. Gas-and-steam emissions continued through September.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 97. Webcam image showed an ash plume rising 6 km above the crater of Merapi at 0915 on 21 June 2020. Courtesy of BPPTKG.

Geologic Background. Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately north of the major city of Yogyakarta. It is the youngest and southernmost of a volcanic chain extending NNW to Ungaran volcano. Growth of Old Merapi during the Pleistocene ended with major edifice collapse perhaps about 2,000 years ago, leaving a large arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Subsequent growth of the steep-sided Young Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent activity, began SW of the earlier collapse scarp. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated lands on the western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities.

Information Contacts: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG), Center for Research and Development of Geological Disaster Technology (URL: http://merapi.bgl.esdm.go.id/, Twitter: @BPPTKG); Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/).


Semeru (Indonesia) — October 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Semeru

Indonesia

8.108°S, 112.922°E; summit elev. 3657 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash plumes, lava flows, avalanches, and pyroclastic flows during March-August 2020

Semeru in eastern Java, Indonesia, has been erupting almost continuously since 1967 and is characterized by ash plumes, pyroclastic flows, lava flows and lava avalanches down drainages on the SE flanks. The Alert Level has remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) since May 2012, and the public reminded to stay outside of the general 1-km radius from the summit and 4 km on the SSE flank. This report updates volcanic activity from March to August 2020, using primary information from the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), and satellite data.

Activity at Semeru consisted of dominantly dense white-gray ash plumes rising 100-600 m above the crater, incandescent material that was ejected 10-50 m high and descended 300-2,000 from the summit crater, and lava flows measuring 500-1,000 m long. Two pyroclastic flows were also observed, extending 2.3 km from the summit crater in March and 2 km on 17 April.

During 1-2 March gray ash plumes rose 200-500 m above the crater, accompanied by incandescent material that was ejected 10-50 m above the Jonggring-Seloko Crater. Lava flows reaching 500-1,000 m long traveled down the Kembar, Bang, and Kobokan drainages on the S flank. During 4-10 March ash plumes up to 200 m high were interspersed with 100-m-high white gas-and-steam plumes. At the end of a 750-m-long lava flow on the S flank, a pyroclastic flow that lasted 9 minutes traveled as far as 2.3 km. During 25-31 March incandescent material found at the end of the lava flow descended 700-950 m from the summit crater (figure 42).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery showed lava avalanches descending the SSE flank on 26 March 2020. Images using short-wave infrared (SWIR, bands 12, 8A, 4) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Incandescent material continued to be observed in April, rising 10-50 m above the Jonggring-Seloko Crater. Some incandescent material descended from the ends of lava flows as far as 700-2,000 m from the summit crater. Dense white-gray ash plumes rose 100-600 m above the crater drifting N, SE, and SW. During 15-21 April incandescent lava flows traveled 500-1,000 m down the Kembar, Bang, and Kobokan drainages on the S flank. On 17 April at 0608 a pyroclastic flow was observed on the S flank in the Bang drainage measuring 2 km (figure 43). During 22-28 April lava blocks traveled 300 m from the end of lava flows in the Kembar drainage.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 43. A pyroclastic flow at Semeru on 17 April 2020 moving down the S flank toward Besuk Bang. Photo has been color corrected. Courtesy of PVMBG.

Similar activity continued in May, with incandescent material from lava flows in the Kembar and Kobokan drainages descending a maximum distance of 2 km during 29 April-12 May, and 200-1,200 m in the Kembar drainage during 13-27 May, accompanied by dense white-gray ash plumes rising 100-500 m above the crater drifting in different directions. White gas-and-steam plumes rose 300 m above the crater on 26-27 May. Dense white-to-gray ash plumes were visible most days during June, rising 100-500 m above the crater and drifting in various directions. During 3-9 June incandescent material from lava flows descended 200-1,600 m in the Kembar drainage.

Activity in July had decreased slightly and consisted of primarily dense white-gray ash plumes that ranged from 200-500 m above the crater and drifted W, SW, N, and S. Weather conditions often prevented visual observations. On 7 July an ash plume at 0633 rose 400 m drifting W. Similar ash activity was observed in August rising 200-500 m above the crater. On 14 and 16 August a Darwin VAAC advisory stated that white-gray ash plumes rose 300-400 m above the crater, drifting W and WSW; on 16 August a thermal anomaly was observed in satellite imagery. MAGMA Indonesia reported ash plumes were visible during 19-31 August and rose 200-400 m above the crater, drifting S and SW.

Hotspots were recorded by MODVOLC on 11, 6, and 7 days during March, April, and May, respectively, with as many as four pixels in March. Thermal activity decreased to a single hotspot in July and none in August. The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) system recorded numerous thermal anomalies at the volcano during March-July; a lower number was recorded during August (figure 44). The NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide page showed high levels of sulfur dioxide above or near Semeru on 18, 24-25, and 29-31 March, and 9 April.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 44. Thermal anomalies at Semeru detected during March-June 2020. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The steep-sided volcano, also referred to as Mahameru (Great Mountain), rises above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia (Multiplatform Application for Geohazard Mitigation and Assessment in Indonesia), PVMBG, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Kavachi (Solomon Islands) — October 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Kavachi

Solomon Islands

8.991°S, 157.979°E; summit elev. -20 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Discolored water plumes observed in satellite imagery during early September 2020

Kavachi is an active submarine volcano in the SW Pacific, located in the Solomon Islands south of Gatokae and Vangunu islands. Volcanism has been characterized by phreatomagmatic explosions that ejected steam, ash, and incandescent bombs. The previous report described discolored water plumes extending from a single point during early 2018 and April 2020 (BGVN 45:05); similar activity was recorded for this current reporting period covering May through September 2020 and primarily using satellite data.

Activity at Kavachi is most frequently observed through satellite images and typically consists of discolored submarine plumes. On 2 September 2020 a slight yellow discoloration in the water was observed extending E from a specific point (figure 22). Similar faint plumes continued to be recorded on 5, 7, 12, and 17 September, each of which seemed to be drifting generally E from a point source above the summit where previous activity has occurred. On 7 September the discolored plume was accompanied by white degassing and possibly agitated water on the surface at the origin point (figure 22).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 22. Sentinel-2 satellite images of a discolored plume (light yellow) at Kavachi beginning on 2 September (top left) and continuing through 17 September 2020 (bottom right). The light blue circle on the 7 September image highlights the surface degassing and source of the discolored water plume. The white arrow on the bottom right image is pointing to the faint discolored plume. Images with “Natural color” rendering (bands 4, 3, 2); courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Named for a sea-god of the Gatokae and Vangunu peoples, Kavachi is one of the most active submarine volcanoes in the SW Pacific, located in the Solomon Islands south of Vangunu Island. Sometimes referred to as Rejo te Kvachi ("Kavachi's Oven"), this shallow submarine basaltic-to-andesitic volcano has produced ephemeral islands up to 1 km long many times since its first recorded eruption during 1939. Residents of the nearby islands of Vanguna and Nggatokae (Gatokae) reported "fire on the water" prior to 1939, a possible reference to earlier eruptions. The roughly conical edifice rises from water depths of 1.1-1.2 km on the north and greater depths to the SE. Frequent shallow submarine and occasional subaerial eruptions produce phreatomagmatic explosions that eject steam, ash, and incandescent bombs. On a number of occasions lava flows were observed on the ephemeral islands.

Information Contacts: Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Krakatau (Indonesia) — October 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Krakatau

Indonesia

6.102°S, 105.423°E; summit elev. 155 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruption ends in mid-April 2020, but intermittent thermal anomalies continue

Krakatau, located in the Sunda Strait between Indonesia’s Java and Sumatra Islands, experienced a major caldera collapse around 535 CE, forming a 7-km-wide caldera ringed by three islands. Presently, the caldera is underwater, except for three surrounding islands (Verlaten, Lang, and Rakata) and the active Anak Krakatau that was constructed within the 1883 caldera and has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927. On 22 December 2018, a large explosion and flank collapse destroyed most of the 338-m-high island of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) and generated a deadly tsunami (BGVN 44:03). A larger explosion in December 2019 produced the beginnings of a new cone above the surface of crater lake (BGVN 45:02). The previous report (BGVN 45:06) described activity that included Strombolian explosions, ash plumes, and crater incandescence. This report updates information from June through September 2020 using information primarily from Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, also known as Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) and satellite data.

A VONA notice from PVMBG reported that the last eruptive event at Krakatau was reported on 17 April 2020, though the eruptive column was not observed. Activity after that was relatively low through September 2020, primarily intermittent diffuse white gas-and-steam emissions, according to PVMBG. No activity was reported during June-August, except for minor seismicity. During 11-13, 16, and 18 September, the CCTV Lava93 webcam showed intermittent white gas-and-steam emissions rising 25-50 m above the crater.

The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) graph of MODIS thermal anomaly data showed intermittent hotspots within 5 km of the crater from May through September (figure 113). Some of these thermal hotspots were also detected in Suomi NPP/VIIRS sensor data. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery showed faint thermal anomalies in the crater during June; no thermal activity was detected after June (figure 114).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 113. Intermittent thermal activity at Anak Krakatau from 13 October 2019-September 2020 shown on a MIROVA Low Radiative Power graph. The power of the thermal anomalies decreased after activity in April but continued intermittently through September. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 114. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showing a faint thermal anomaly in the crater during 1 (left) and 11 (right) June 2020. Sentinel-2 satellite images with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 or 535 CE, formed a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this ancestral volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan, and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan, and left only a remnant of Rakata. This eruption, the 2nd largest in Indonesia during historical time, caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of devastating tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40 km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); NASA Worldview (URL: https://worldview.earthdata.nasa.gov/).


Raung (Indonesia) — September 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Raung

Indonesia

8.119°S, 114.056°E; summit elev. 3260 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruptions confirmed during 2012- 2013; lava fills inner crater in November 2014-August 2015

A massive stratovolcano in easternmost Java, Raung has over sixty recorded eruptions dating back to the late 16th Century. Explosions with ash plumes, Strombolian activity, and lava flows from a cinder cone within the 2-km-wide summit crater have been the most common activity. Visual reports of activity have often come from commercial airline flights that pass near the summit; Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM) has installed webcams to monitor activity in recent years. An eruption in 2015 produced a large volume of lava within the summit crater and formed a new pyroclastic cone in the same location as the previous one. Confirmation and details of eruptions in 2012, 2013, and 2014-2015 are covered in this report with information provided by PVMBG, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), several sources of satellite data, and visitors to the volcano.

Newly available visual and satellite information confirm eruptions at Raung during October 2012-January 2013, June-July 2013, and extend the beginning of the 2015 eruption back to November 2014. The 2015 eruption was the largest in several decades; Strombolian activity was reported for many months and fresh lava flows covered the crater floor. Raung was quiet after the 2015 eruption ended in August of that year until July 2020.

Eruption during October 2012-January 2013. A MODVOLC thermal alert appeared inside the summit crater of Raung on 14 October 2012, followed by another four alerts on 16 October. Multiple daily alerts were reported on many days through 8 November, most within the main crater. Single alerts appeared on 29 November and 1 December 2012 (figure 9). PVMBG raised the Alert Level on 17 October from 1 to 2 due to increased seismicity and raised it further to Level 3 on 22 October. A local news report by Aris Yanto indicted that a minor Strombolian eruption occurred inside the crater on 19 October. Strombolian activity was also observed inside the inner crater on 5 November 2012 by visitors (figure 10); they reported loud rumbling sounds that could be heard up to 15 km from the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 9. Thermal activity at Raung during October and November 2012 included multiple days of multi-pixel anomalies, with almost all activity concentrated within the summit crater. Strombolian activity was observed on 5 November. Image shows all pixels from 23 September-1 December 2012. Courtesy of MODVOLC.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 10. Strombolian activity was observed inside the inner crater of Raung on 5 November 2012 by visitors. They reported loud rumbling sounds that could be heard up to 15 km from the crater. Photo by Galih, courtesy of Volcano Discovery.

The Darwin VAAC issued an advisory of an eruption plume to 9.1 km altitude reported at 0237 UTC on 8 November 2012. In a second advisory about two hours later they noted that an ash plume was not visible in satellite imagery. A press article released by the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (PVMBG) indicated that gray ash plumes were observed on 6 January 2013 that rose 300 m above the summit crater rim. Incandescence was observed around the crater and thundering explosions were heard by nearby residents.

Eruption during June-July 2013. Two MODVOLC thermal alerts were measured inside the summit crater on 29 June 2013. A photo taken on 21 July showed minor Strombolian activity at the inner crater (figure 11). A weak SO2 anomaly was detected in the vicinity of Raung by the OMI instrument on the Aura satellite on 27 July. Thermal alerts were recorded on 29 and 31 July. When Google Earth imageryrom 14 March 2011 created by Maxar Technologies is compared with imagery from 29 July 2013 captured by Landsat/Copernicus, dark tephra is filling the inner crater in the 2013 image; it was not present in 2011 (figure 12).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 11. Strombolian activity was observed inside the inner crater at the summit of Raung on 21 July 2013. Photo by Agus Kurniawan, courtesy of Volcano Discovery.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 12. Satellite imagery from Google Earth showing the eroded pyroclastic cone inside the summit crater of Raung on 14 March 2011 (left) and 29 July 2013 (right). Dark tephra deposits filling the inner crater in the 2013 image were not present in 2011. The crater of the pyroclastic cone is 200 m wide; N is to the top of the images. Courtesy of Google Earth.

Eruption during November 2014-August 2015. Information about this eruption was previously reported (BGVN 41:12), but additional details are provided here. Landsat-8 imagery from 28 October 2014 indicated clear skies and little activity within the summit crater. Local observers reported steam plumes beginning in mid-November (figure 13). MODVOLC thermal alerts within the summit crater were issued on 28 and 30 November, and then 15 alerts were issued on seven days in December. Thermal Landsat-8 imagery from cloudy days on 29 November and 15 December indicated an anomaly over the area of the pyroclastic cone inside the summit crater (figure 14).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 13. Local observers reported steam plumes at Raung beginning in mid-November 2014; this one was photographed on 17 November 2014. Courtesy of Volcano Discovery.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. Satellite evidence of new eruptive activity at Raung first appeared on 29 November 2014. The true color-pansharpened Landsat-8 image of Raung from 28 October 2014 (left) shows the summit crater and an eroded pyroclastic cone with its own crater (the inner crater) with no apparent activity. Although dense meteoric clouds on 29 November (center) and 15 December 2014 (right) blocked true color imagery, thermal imagery indicated a thermal anomaly from the center of the pyroclastic cone on both dates. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

In January 2015 the MODVOLC system identified 25 thermal anomalies in MODIS data, with a peak of eight alerts on 8 January. Visitors to the summit crater on 6 January witnessed explosions from the inner crater approximately every 40 minutes that produced gas and small amounts of ash and tephra. They reported lava flowing continuously from the inner crater onto the larger crater floor, and incandescent activity was seen at night (figure 15). Landsat-8 images from 16 January showed a strong thermal anomaly covering an area of fresh lava (figure 16).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. Visitors to the summit crater of Raung on 6 January 2015 witnessed explosions from the inner crater approximately every 40 minutes that produced abundant gas and small amounts of ash and tephra. Lava was flowing continuously from the inner crater onto the larger crater floor, and incandescent activity was observed at night. Photos by Sofya Klimova, courtesy of Volcano Discovery.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. On a clear 16 January 2015, Landsat-8 satellite imagery revealed fresh lava flows NW of the pyroclastic cone within the summit crater at Raung. A strong thermal anomaly matches up with the dark material, suggesting that it flowed NW from within the pyroclastic cone. Left image is true color-pansharpened rendering, right image is thermal rendering. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Satellite images were obscured by meteoric clouds during February 2015, but PVMBG reported gray and brown plumes rising 300 m multiple times and incandescence and rumbling on 14 February. Visitors to the summit crater during the second half of February reported Strombolian activity with lava fountains from the inner crater, at times as frequently as every 15 minutes (figure 17). Loud explosions and rumbling were heard 10-15 km away. MODVOLC thermal alerts stopped on 25 February and did not reappear until late June.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. A report issued on 25 February 2015 from visitors to the summit of Ruang noted large Strombolian explosions with incandescent ejecta and lava flowing across the crater floor. The fresh lava on the crater floor covered a noticeably larger area than that shown in early January (figure 15). Photo by Andi, courtesy of Volcano Discovery.

PVMBG raised the Alert Level to 2 in mid-March 2015. Weak thermal anomalies located inside and NW of the pyroclastic cone were present in satellite imagery on 21 March. PVMBG reported gray and brown emissions during March, April, and May rising as high as 300 m above the crater. Landsat imagery from 22 April showed a small emission inside the pyroclastic cone, and on 8 May showed a clearer view of the fresh black lava NW and SW of the pyroclastic cone (figure 18).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Fresh lava was visible in Landsat-8 satellite imagery in April and May 2015 at Raung. A small emission was present inside the pyroclastic cone at the summit of Raung on 22 April 2015 (left). Fresh dark material is also evident in the SW quadrant of the summit crater that was not visible on 16 January 2015. A clear view on 8 May 2015 also shows the extent of the fresh black material around the pyroclastic cone (right). The summit crater is 2 km wide. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Nine MODVOLC thermal alerts appeared inside the summit crater on 21 June 2015 after no alerts since late February, suggesting an increase in activity. The Darwin VAAC issued the first ash advisory for 2015 on 24 June noting an aviation report of recent ash. The following day the Ujung Pandang Meteorological Weather Office (MWO) reported an ash emission drifting W at 3.7 km altitude. The same day, 25 June, Landsat-8 imagery clearly showed a new lava flow on the W side of the crater and a strong thermal anomaly. The thermal data showed a point source of heat widening SW from the center of the crater and a second point source of heat that appeared to be inside the pyroclastic cone. A small ash plume was visible over the cone (figure 19). Strombolian activity and ash plumes were reported by BNPB and PVMBG in the following days. On 26 June the Darwin VAAC noted the hotspot had remained visible in infrared imagery for several days. PVMBG reported an ash emission to 3 km altitude on 29 June.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. A new lava flow and strong thermal anomaly appeared inside the summit crater of Raung on 25 June 2015 in Landsat-8 imagery. The new flow was visible on the W side of the crater. The darker area extending SW from the rising ash plume is a shadow. The thermal data showed a point source of heat widening SW from the center of the crater and spreading out in the SW quadrant and a second point source of heat on the flank of the pyroclastic cone. Left image is True color-pansharpened rendering, and right image is thermal rendering. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Activity increased significantly during July 2015 (BGVN 41:12). Ash plumes rose as high as 6.7 km altitude and drifted hundreds of kilometers in multiple directions, forcing multiple shutdowns at airports on Bali and Lombok, as well as Banyuwangi and Jember in East Java. The Darwin VAAC issued 152 ash advisories during the month. Ashfall was reported up to 20 km W during July and 20-40 km SE during early August. Visitors to the summit in early July observed a new pyroclastic cone growing inside the inner crater from incandescent ejecta and dense ash emissions (figure 20). Landsat-8 imagery from 11 July showed a dense ash plume drifting SE, fresh black lava covering the 2-km-wide summit caldera floor, and a very strong thermal anomaly most intense at the center near the pyroclastic cone and cooler around the inner edges of the crater (figure 21). On 12 July, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite captured a view of an ash-and-gas plume drifting hundreds of kilometers SE from Raung (figure 22).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. A new pyroclastic cone was growing inside the inner crater at the summit of Raung when photographed by Aris Yanto in early July 2015. Courtesy of Volcano Discovery.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. Landsat-8 imagery of Raung during July 2015 indicated dense ash emissions and a large thermal anomaly caused by fresh lava. On 11 July a dense ash plume drifted SE and a strong thermal anomaly was centered inside the summit crater. The 2-km-wide crater floor was covered with fresh lava (compare with 25 June image in figure 19). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 22. On 12 July 2015 the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite captured a natural-color view of a plume of ash and volcanic gases drifting hundreds of kilometers SE from Raung. Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory.

A satellite image on 20 July showed fresh incandescent lava covering the floor of the summit crater and a dense ash plume drifting N from the summit (figure 23). Incandescent ejecta emerged from two vents on the new pyroclastic cone inside the inner crater on 26 July (figure 24). On 27 July a dense ash plume was visible again in satellite imagery drifting NW and the hottest part of the thermal anomaly was in the SE quadrant of the crater (figure 25). Substantial SO2 plumes were recorded by the OMI instrument on the Aura satellite during July and early August 2015 (figure 26).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 23. A satellite image of the summit of Raung on 20 July 2015 showed fresh, incandescent lava covering the floor of the summit crater and a dense ash plume drifting N from the summit. Thermal activity on the NE flank was likely the result of incandescent ejecta from the crater causing a fire. Image created by DigitalGlobe, captured by WorldView3, courtesy of Volcano Discovery.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 24. Incandescent ejecta emerged from two vents on the new pyroclastic cone growing inside the inner crater of Raung on 26 July 2015. Photo by Vianney Tricou, used with permission, courtesy of Volcano Discovery.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 25. Landsat-8 imagery of Raung during July 2015 indicated dense ash emissions and large thermal anomalies from fresh lava. The 2-km-wide crater floor was fully covered with fresh lava by 11 July. On 27 July the dense ash plume was drifting NW and the highest heat was concentrated in the SE quadrant of the crater. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 26. Substantial plumes of sulfur dioxide from Raung were measured by the OMI instrument on the AURA satellite during July and August 2015. The first plumes were measured in mid-June; they intensified during the second half of July and the first week of August, but had decreased by mid-August. Wind directions were highly variable throughout the period. The date is recorded above each image. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Page.

Significant ash emissions continued into early August 2015 with numerous flight cancellations. The Darwin VAAC reported ash plumes rising to 5.2 km altitude and extending as far as 750 km SE during the first two weeks in August (figure 27). Satellite imagery indicated a small ash plume drifting W from the center of the crater on 12 August and weak thermal anomalies along the E and S rim of the floor of the crater (figure 28). The summit crater was covered with fresh lava on 14 August when viewed by visitors, and ash emissions rose a few hundred meters above the crater rim from a vent in the SW side of the pyroclastic cone (figure 29). The visitors observed pulsating ash emissions rising from the SW vent on the large double-crater new cinder cone. The larger vent to the NE was almost entirely inactive except for two small, weakly effusive vents on its inner walls.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 27. A dense ash plume drifted many kilometers S from Raung on 2 August 2015 in this view from nearly 100 km W. Incandescence at the summit indicated ongoing activity from the major 2015 eruption. In the foreground is Lamongan volcano whose last known eruption occurred in 1898. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 28. Landsat-8 satellite imagery of Raung indicated a small ash plume drifting W from the center of the crater on 12 August 2015. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 29. The summit crater of Raung on 14 August 2015 was filled with fresh lava from an eruption that began in November 2014. Ash emissions from a vent in the side of the newly grown pyroclastic cone within the crater rose a few hundred meters above the crater rim. Courtesy of Volcano Discovery.

The lengthy sequence of multiple daily VAAC reports that began in late June ended on 16 August 2015 with reports becoming more intermittent and ash plume heights rising to only 3.7-3.9 km altitude. Multiple discontinuous eruptions to 3.9 km altitude were reported on 18 August. The plumes extended about 100 km NW. The last report of an ash plume was from an airline on 22 August noting a low-level plume 50 km NW. Two MODVOLC alerts were issued that day. By 28 August only a very small steam plume was present at the center of the crater; the southern half of the edge of the crater floor still had small thermal anomalies (figure 30). The last single MODVOLC thermal alerts were on 29 August and 7 September. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 on 24 August 2015, and further lowered to 1 on 20 October 2016.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 30. By 28 August 2015 only a very small steam plume was present at the center of the summit crater of Raung, and the southern half of the edge of the crater floor only had weak thermal anomalies from cooling lava. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Raung, one of Java's most active volcanoes, is a massive stratovolcano in easternmost Java that was constructed SW of the rim of Ijen caldera. The unvegetated summit is truncated by a dramatic steep-walled, 2-km-wide caldera that has been the site of frequent historical eruptions. A prehistoric collapse of Gunung Gadung on the W flank produced a large debris avalanche that traveled 79 km, reaching nearly to the Indian Ocean. Raung contains several centers constructed along a NE-SW line, with Gunung Suket and Gunung Gadung stratovolcanoes being located to the NE and W, respectively.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), National Disaster Management Agency, Graha BNPB - Jl. Scout Kav.38, East Jakarta 13120, Indonesia (URL: http://www.bnpb.go.id/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/);Google Earth (URL: https://www.google.com/earth/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); NASA Earth Observatory, EOS Project Science Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/, https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/86213/eruption-of-raung-volcano); Tom Pfeiffer, Volcano Discovery (URL: http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/); Aris Yanto (URL: https://www.exploredesa.com/2012/11/mount-raung-produce-of-vulcanic-ash-plume-and-continue-eruption/); DigitalGlobe (URL: https://www.maxar.com/, https://twitter.com/Maxar/status/875449111398547457); Øystein Lund Andersen (URL: https://twitter.com/OysteinVolcano/status/1194879946042142726, http://www.oysteinlundandersen.com).


Klyuchevskoy (Russia) — September 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Klyuchevskoy

Russia

56.056°N, 160.642°E; summit elev. 4754 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strombolian activity, gas-and-steam and ash plumes, and a lava flow during June-early July 2020

Klyuchevskoy is a frequently active stratovolcano located in northern Kamchatka. Historical eruptions dating back 3,000 years have included more than 100 flank eruptions with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks. The previous report (BGVN 45:06) described ash plumes, nighttime incandescence, and Strombolian activity. Strombolian activity, ash plumes, and a strong lava flow continued. This report updates activity from June through August 2020 using weekly and daily reports from the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory (VAAC), and satellite data.

Moderate explosive-effusive activity continued in June 2020, with Strombolian explosions, frequent gas-and-steam emissions that contained some amount of ash, and an active lava flow. On 1 June a gas-and-steam plume containing some ash extended up to 465 km SE and E. The lava flow descended the SE flank down the Apakhonchich chute (figure 43). Occasionally, phreatic explosions accompanied the lava flow as it interacted with snow. Intermittent ash plumes, reported throughout the month by KVERT using video and satellite data and the Tokyo VAAC using HIMAWARI-8 imagery, rose to 5.5-6.7 km altitude and drifted in different directions up to 34 km from the volcano. On 12 and 30 June ash plumes rose to a maximum altitude of 6.7 km. On 19 June, 28-30 June, and 1-3 July some collapses were detected alongside the lava flow as it continued to advance down the SE flank.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 43. Gray ash plumes (left) and a lava flow descending the Apakhonchich chute on the SE flank, accompanied by a dark ash plume and Strombolian activity (right) were observed at the summit of Klyuchevskoy on 10 June 2020. Courtesy of E. Saphonova, IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.

During 1-3 July moderate Strombolian activity was observed, accompanied by gas-and-steam emissions containing ash and a continuous lava flow traveling down the Apakhonchich chute on the SE flank. On 1 July a Tokyo VAAC advisory reported an ash plume rising to 6 km altitude and extending SE. On 3 July the activity sharply decreased. KVERT reported there was some residual heat leftover from the lava flow and Strombolian activity that continued to cool through at least 13 July; KVERT also reported frequent gas-and-steam emissions, which contained a small amount of ash through 5 July, rising from the summit crater (figure 44). The weekly KVERT report on 16 July stated that the eruption had ended on 3 July 2020.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 44. Fumarolic activity continued in the summit crater of Klyuchevskoy on 7 July 2020. Courtesy of KSRS ME, Russia, KVERT.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data shows frequent and strong thermal activity within 5 km of the summit crater from March through June followed by a sharp and sudden decline in early July (figures 45). A total of six weak thermal anomalies were detected between July and August. According to the MODVOLC thermal algorithm, a total of 111 thermal alerts were detected at or near the summit crater from 1 June to 1 July, a majority of which were due to the active lava flow on the SE flank and Strombolian explosions in the crater. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery frequently showed the active lava flow descending the SE flank as a strong thermal anomaly, sometimes even through weather clouds (figure 46). These thermal anomalies were also recorded by the Sentinel-2 MODIS Thermal Volcanic Activity data on a MIROVA graph, showing a strong cluster during June to early July, followed by a sharp decrease and then a hiatus in activity (figure 47).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 45. Thermal activity at Klyuchevskoy was frequent and strong during February through June 2020, according to the MIROVA graph (Log Radiative Power). Activity sharply decreased during July through August with six low-power thermal anomalies. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 46. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images show the strong and persistent lava flow (bright yellow-orange) originating from the summit crater at Klyuchevskoy from 1 June through 1 July 2020. The lava flow was active in the Apakhonchich chute on the SE flank. Sentinel-2 satellite images with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 47. Strong clusters of thermal anomalies were detected in the summit at Klyuchevskoy (red dots) during January through June 2020, as recorded by the Sentinel-2 MODIS Thermal Volcanic Activity data (bands 12, 11, 8A). Activity sharply decreased during July through August with few low-power thermal anomalies. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. Klyuchevskoy (also spelled Kliuchevskoi) is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. It rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of the 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Fuego (Guatemala) — September 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Fuego

Guatemala

14.473°N, 90.88°W; summit elev. 3763 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ongoing explosions, ash plumes, lava flows, and lahars during April-July 2020

Fuego, located in Guatemala, is a stratovolcano that has been erupting since 2002 with historical eruptions dating back to 1531. Volcanism is characterized by major ashfalls, pyroclastic flows, lava flows, and lahars. The previous report (BGVN 45:04) described recent activity that included multiple ash explosions, block avalanches, and intermittent lava flows. This report updates activity from April through July 2020 that consisted of daily explosions, ash plumes, block avalanches ashfall, intermittent lava flows, and lahars. The primary source of information comes from the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanología, Meteorología e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and various satellite data.

Summary of activity during April-July 2020. Daily activity throughout April-July 2020 was characterized by multiple hourly explosions, ash plumes that rose to a maximum of 4.9 km altitude, incandescent pulses that reached 600 m above the crater, block avalanches into multiple drainages, and ashfall affecting nearby communities (table 21). The highest rate of explosions occurred on 2 and 3 April and 2 May with up to 16 explosions per hour. White degassing occurred frequently during the reporting period, rising to a maximum altitude of 4.5 km and drifting in multiple directions. Intermittent lava flows were observed each month in the Seca (Santa Teresa) and Ceniza drainages (figure 132); the number of flows decreased in June through July, which is represented in the MIROVA analysis of MODIS satellite data, where the strength and frequency of thermal activity slightly decreased (figure 133). Occasional lahars were detected descending several drainages on the W and SE flanks, sometimes carrying tree branches and large blocks up to 1 m in diameter.

Table 21. Activity summary by month for Fuego with information compiled from INSIVUMEH daily reports.

Month Number of explosions per hour Ash plume heights (km) Ash plume distance (km) and direction Drainages affected by block avalanches Villages reporting ashfall
Apr 2020 5-16 4.3-4.9 km 8-20 km E, NE, SE, W, NW, SW, S, N Taniluyá, Ceniza, Las Lajas, Trinidad, Seca, Honda, and Santa Teresa Morelia, Panimaché I and II, Sangre de Cristo, Santa Sofía, Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa, Las Cruces Quisache, La Rochela, Ceylan, and Osuna
May 2020 4-16 4.3-4.9 km 10-17 km S, SW, W, N, NE, E, SE Trinidad, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Las Lajas, Santa Teresa, Seca, and Honda Panimaché I, La Rochela, Ceilán, Morelia, San Andrés Osuna, Finca Palo Verde, Santa Sofía, Seilán, San Pedro Yepocapa, Alotenango, Ciudad Vieja, San Miguel Dueñas, and Antigua Guatemala
Jun 2020 3-15 4.2-4.9 km 10-25.9 km E, SE, S, N, NE, W, SW, NW Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, Santa Teresa and Honda San Pedro Yepocapa, Sangre de Cristo, Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Finca Palo Verde, El Porvenir, Yucales, Santa Emilia, Santa Sofía
Jul 2020 1-15 4-4.9 km 10-24 km W, NW, SW, S, NE Trinidad, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Honda, Las Lajas, Seca, and Santa Teresa Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Santa Sofía, Finca Palo Verde, Sangre de Cristo, San Pedro Yepocapa, and El Porvenir
Figure (see Caption) Figure 132. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images of Fuego between 9 April 2020 and 13 July 2020 showing lava flows (bright yellow-orange) traveling generally S and W from the summit crater. Some lava flows were accompanied by gas emissions (9 April, 9 May, and 24 May 2020). Sentinel-2 satellite images with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 133. Thermal activity at Fuego was persistent and strong from 16 September through late May 2020, according to the MIROVA graph (Log Radiative Power). From early to mid-June activity seemed to stop briefly before resuming again at a lower rate. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Activity during April-May 2020. Activity in April 2020 consisted of 5-16 explosions per hour, generating ash plumes that rose 4.3-4.9 km altitude and drifted 8-20 km in multiple directions. Ashfall was reported in Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Las Cruces Quisache (8 km NW), La Rochela, Ceylan, Osuna (12 km SW). The Washington VAAC issued multiple aviation advisories for a total of six days in April. Intermittent white gas-and-steam emissions reached 4.1-4.5 km altitude drifting in multiple directions. Incandescent ejecta was frequently observed rising 75-400 m above the crater; material ejected up to 600 m above the crater on 11 April. These constant explosions produced block avalanches that traveled down the Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Las Lajas (SE), Trinidad (S), Seca (W), Honda, and Santa Teresa (W) drainages. Effusive activity was reported on 6-13 and 15 April from the summit vent, traveling 150-800 m down the Ceniza drainage, accompanied by block avalanches in the front of the flow up to 1 km. Crater incandescence was also observed.

On 19-20 April a new lava flow descended the Ceniza drainage measuring 200-400 long, generating incandescent block avalanches at the front of the flow that moved up to 1 km. On 22 April lahars descended the Honda, Las Lajas, El Juté (SE), Trinidad, Ceniza, Taniluyá, Mineral, and Seca drainages and tributaries in Guacalate, Achiguate, and Pantaleón. During the evening of 23 April the rate of effusive activity increased; observatory staff observed a second lava flow in the Seca drainage was 170 m long and incandescent blocks from the flow traveled up to 600 m. Two lava flows in the Ceniza (130-400 m) and Seca (150-800 m) drainages continued from 23-28 April and had stopped by 30 April. On 30 April weak and moderate explosions produced ash plumes that rose 4.5-4.7 km altitude drifting S and SE, resulting in fine ashfall in Panimaché I, Morelia, Santa Sofía (figure 134).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 134. Photo of a small ash plume rising from Fuego on 30 April 2020. Photo has been slightly color corrected. Courtesy of William Chigna, CONRED.

During May 2020, the rate of explosion remained similar, with 4-16 explosions per hour, which generated gray ash plumes that rose 4.3-4.9 km altitude and drifted 10-17 km generally W and E. Ashfall was observed in Panimaché I, La Rochela, Ceilán, Morelia, San Andrés Osuna, Finca Palo Verde, Santa Sofía, Seilán, San Pedro Yepocapa, Alotenango (8 km ENE), Ciudad Vieja (13.5 km NE), San Miguel Dueñas (10 km NE), and Antigua Guatemala (18 km NE). The Washington VAAC issued volcanic ash advisory notices on six days in May. White gas-and-steam emissions continued, rising 4-4.5 km altitude drifting in multiple directions. Incandescent ejecta rose 100-400 m above the crater, accompanied by some crater incandescence and block avalanches in the Trinidad, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Las Lajas, Santa Teresa, Seca, and Honda drainages that moved up to 1 km and sometimes reached vegetated areas.

During 8-11 May a new 400 m long lava flow was detected in the Ceniza drainage, accompanied by constant crater incandescence and block avalanches traveling up to 1 km, according to INSIVUMEH. On 8 and 17 May moderate to strong lahars descended the Santa Teresa and Mineral drainages on the W flank and on 21 May they descended the Las Lajas drainage on the E flank and the Ceniza drainage on the SW flank. During 20-24 May a 100-400 m long lava flow was reported in the Ceniza drainage alongside degassing and avalanches moving up to 1 km and during 25-26 May a 150 m long lava flow was reported in the Seca drainage.

Activity during June-July 2020. The rate of explosions in June 2020 decreased slightly to 3-15 per hour, generating gray ash plumes that rose 4.2-4.9 km altitude and drifted 10-26 km in multiple directions (figure 135). As a result, intermittent ashfall was reported in San Pedro Yepocapa, Sangre de Cristo, Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Finca Palo Verde, El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Yucales (12 km SW), Santa Emilia, Santa Sofia, according to INSIVUMEH. VAAC advisories were published on eight days in June. Degassing persisted in the summit crater that rose 4.1-4.5 km altitude extending in different directions. Crater incandescence was observed occasionally, as well as incandescent pulses that rose 100-300 m above the crater. Block avalanches were observed descending the Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, Santa Teresa, and Honda drainages, which could sometimes carry blocks up to 1 km in diameter.

On 2 June at 1050 a weak to moderate lahar was observed in the Las Lajas drainage on the SE flank. On 5 June, more lahars were detected in the Seca and Mineral drainages on the W flanks. A new lava flow was detected on 12 June, traveling 250 m down the Seca drainage on the NW flank, and accompanied by constant summit crater incandescence and gas emissions. The flow continued into 14 June, lengthening up to 300 m long. On 24 June weak and moderate explosions produced ash plumes that rose 4.3-4.7 km altitude drifting W and SW (figure 135). On 29 June at 1300 a weak lahar was reported in the Seca, Santa Teresa, and Mineral drainages on the W flank.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 135. Examples of small ash plumes at Fuego on 15 (left) and 24 (right) June 2020. Courtesy of William Chigna, CONRED.

Daily explosions and ash plumes continued through July 2020, with 1-15 explosions per hour and producing consistent ash plumes 4-4.9 km altitude drifting generally W for 10-24 km. These explosions resulted in block avalanches that descended the Trinidad, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Honda, Las Lajas, Seca, and Santa Teresa drainages. The number of white gas emissions decrease slightly compared to previous months and 4-4.4 km altitude. VAAC advisories were distributed on twenty different days in July. Incandescent ejecta was observed rising 100-350 m above the crater. Occasional ashfall was observed in Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Santa Sofía, Finca Palo Verde, Sangre de Cristo, San Pedro Yepocapa, and El Porvenir, according to INSIVUMEH.

On 4 July in the early morning, a lava flow began in the Seca drainage, which also produced some fine ash particles that drifted W. The lava flow continued into 5 July, measuring 150 m long. On the same day, weak to moderate lahars traveled only 20 m, carrying tree branches and blocks measuring 30 cm to 1 m. On 14, 24, and 29 July more lahars were generated in the Las Lajas drainages on the former date and both the Las Lajas and El Jute drainages on the two latter dates.

Geologic Background. Volcán Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is also one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between Fuego and Acatenango to the north. Construction of Meseta dates back to about 230,000 years and continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene. Collapse of Meseta may have produced the massive Escuintla debris-avalanche deposit, which extends about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at the mostly andesitic Acatenango. Eruptions at Fuego have become more mafic with time, and most historical activity has produced basaltic rocks. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hydrologia (INSIVUMEH), Unit of Volcanology, Geologic Department of Investigation and Services, 7a Av. 14-57, Zona 13, Guatemala City, Guatemala (URL: http://www.insivumeh.gob.gt/); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); William Chigna, CONRED (URL: https://twitter.com/william_chigna).


Nishinoshima (Japan) — September 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Nishinoshima

Japan

27.247°N, 140.874°E; summit elev. 25 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Major June-July eruption of lava, ash, and sulfur dioxide; activity declines in August 2020

Japan’s Nishinoshima volcano, located about 1,000 km S of Tokyo in the Ogasawara Arc, erupted above sea level in November 2013 after 40 years of dormancy. Activity lasted through November 2015 and returned during mid-2017, continuing the growth of the island with ash plumes, ejecta, and lava flows. A short eruptive event in July 2018 produced a small lava flow and vent on the side of the pyroclastic cone. The next eruption of ash plumes, incandescent ejecta, and lava flows began in early December 2019, resulting in significant growth of the island. This report covers the ongoing activity from March-August 2020 when activity decreased. Information is provided primarily from Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) monthly reports and the Japan Coast Guard (JCG), which makes regular overflights to make observations.

Renewed eruptive activity that began on 5 December 2019 continued during March-August 2020 but appeared to wane by the end of August. Major lava flows covered all sides of the island, with higher levels of activity during late June and early July. Ash emissions increased significantly during June and produced dense black ash plumes that rose up to 6 km altitude in early July. Explosive activity produced lightning and incandescent jets that rose 200 m and large bombs that fell to the base of the pyroclastic cone. Lava flow activity diminished at the end of July. Ash emissions decreased throughout August and appeared to cease after 27 August 2020. The MIROVA plot clearly reflects the high levels of thermal activity between December 2019 and August 2020 (figure 80); this event was reported by JMA as the largest eruption recorded to date. Sulfur dioxide emissions were very high during late June through early August, producing emissions that drifted across much of the western Pacific region.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 80. The MIROVA plot of thermal activity at Nishinoshima from 14 October 2019 through August 2020 indicates the high levels between early December 2019 and late July 2020 that resulted from the eruption of numerous lava flows on all flanks of the pyroclastic cone, significantly enlarging the island. Courtesy of MIROVA.

The Japan Coast Guard (JCG) conducted overflights of Nishinoshima on 9 and 15 March 2020 (figure 81). During both visits they observed eruptive activity from the summit crater, including ash emissions that rose to an altitude of approximately 1,000 m and lava flowing down the N and SE flanks (figure 82). Large ejecta was scattered around the base of the pyroclastic cone. The lava flowing north had reached the coast and was producing vigorous steam as it entered the water on 9 March; whitish gas emissions were visible on the N flank of the cone at the source of the lava flow (figure 83). On 9 March yellow-green discolored water was noted off the NE shore. The lava flow on the SE coast produced a small amount of steam at the ocean entry point and a strong signal in thermal imagery on 15 March (figure 84). Multiple daily MODVOLC thermal alerts were issued during 1-10, 17-24, and 27-30 March. Landsat-8 visual and thermal imagery on 30 March 2020 confirmed that thermal anomalies on the N and SE flanks of the volcano continued.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 81. The Japan Coast Guard conducted an overflight of Nishinoshima on 9 March 2020 and observed ash emissions rising 1,000 m above the summit and lava flowing into the ocean off the N flank of the island. Courtesy of Japan Coast Guard (JCG) and JMA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 82. Lava flows at Nishinoshima during February and March 2020 were concentrated on the N and SE flanks. The areas in blue indicate topographical changes due to lava flows and pyroclastic deposits from the previous measurement. The growth of the SE-flank flow decreased during March while the N-flank flow rate increased significantly. Left image shows changes between 14 and 28 February and right image shows the differences between 28 February and 13 March. The correlated image analysis uses ALOS-2 / PALSAR-2 and is carried out with the cooperation of JAXA through the activities of the Satellite Analysis Group of the Volcano Eruption Prediction Liaison Committee. The software was developed by the Japan National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention and uses the technical data C1-No 478 of the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. Courtesy of JAXA and JMA (Volcanic activity commentary material on Nishinoshima, March 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 83. Vigorous steam emissions on the N flank of Nishinoshima on 9 March 2020 were caused by the active flow on the N flank. Whitish steam and gas midway up the flank indicated the outlet of the flow. Ash emissions rose from the summit crater and drifted E. Courtesy of Japan Coast Guard and JMA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 84. Infrared imagery from 15 March 2020 at Nishinoshima showed the incandescent lava flow on the SE flank (foreground), blocks of ejecta scattered around the summit and flanks of the pyroclastic cone, and the active N-flank flow (left). Courtesy of Japan Coast Guard and JMA.

Ash emissions were not observed at Nishinoshima during JCG overflights on 6, 16, and 19 April 2020, but gas-and-steam emissions were noted from the summit crater, and a yellow discoloration interpreted by JMA to be sulfur precipitation was observed near the top of the pyroclastic cone. The summit crater was larger than during previous visits. Steam plumes seen each of those days on the N and NE coasts suggested active ocean entry of lava flows (figure 85). A lava flow was observed emerging from the E flank of the cone and entering the ocean on the E coast on 19 and 29 April (figure 86). During the overflight on 29 April observers noted lava flowing southward from a vent on the E flank of the pyroclastic cone. A narrow, brown, ash plume was visible on 29 April at the summit crater rising to an altitude of about 1,500 m. Thermal observations indicated continued flow activity throughout the month. Multiple daily MODVOLC thermal alerts were recorded during 2-6, 10-11, 17-23, and 28-30 April. Significant growth of the pyroclastic cone occurred between early February and late April 2020 (figure 87).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 85. Multiple entry points of lava flowed into the ocean producing jets of steam along the N flank of Nishinoshima on 6 April 2020. Courtesy of JCG and JMA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 86. Lava flowed down the E flank of Nishinoshima from a vent below the summit on 19 April 2020. The ocean entry produced a vigorous steam plume (left). Courtesy of JCG.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 87. The pyroclastic cone at Nishinoshima grew significantly in size between 4 February (left), 9 March (middle), and 19 April 2020 (right). View is to the E. Courtesy of JMA and JCG.

Infrared satellite imagery from 17 May 2020 showed a strong thermal anomaly at the summit and hot spots on the NW flank indicative of flows. Visible imagery confirmed emissions at the summit and steam plumes on the NW flank (figure 88). Gray ash plumes rose to about 1,800 m altitude on 18 May during the only overflight of the month made by the Japan Coast Guard. In addition, white gas emissions rose from around the summit area and large blocks of ejecta were scattered around the base of the pyroclastic cone (figure 89). Steam from ocean-entry lava on the N flank was reduced from previous months, but a new flow moving NW into the ocean was generating a steam plume and a strong thermal signature. Multi-pixel thermal alerts were measured by the MODVOLC system on 1-3, 9-10, 13-15, 18, and 26-30 May. Sulfur dioxide emissions had been weak and intermittent from March through early May 2020 but became more persistent during the second half of May. Although modest in size, the plumes were detectible hundreds of kilometers away from the volcano (figure 90).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 88. Landsat-8 satellite imagery of Nishinoshima from 17 May 2020 confirmed continued eruptive activity. Visible imagery showed emissions at the summit and steam plumes on the NW flank (left) and infrared imagery showed a strong thermal anomaly at the summit and anomalies on the NW flank indicative of lava flows (right). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 89. Lava continued to enter the ocean at Nishinoshima during May 2020. A new lava flow on the NW flank produced a strong steam plume at an ocean entry (left) on 18 May 2020. In addition to a light gray plume of gas and ash, steaming blocks of ejecta were visible on the flanks of the pyroclastic cone. The strong thermal signature of the NW-flank flow in infrared imagery that same day showed multiple new lobes flowing to the ocean (right). Courtesy of JCG and JMA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 90. Small but distinct SO2 emissions from Nishinoshima were recorded by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite during the second half of May 2020. The plumes drifted tens to hundreds of kilometers away from the volcano in multiple directions as the wind directions changed. Nishinoshima is about 1,000 kilometers S of Tokyo. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

Activity increased significantly during June 2020. Satellite imagery from 2 June revealed two intense thermal anomalies at the summit indicating a new crater, and lava flows active on the NW and NE flanks, all showing gas or steam emissions (figure 91). Dense brown and gray ash emissions were observed rising from the summit crater during JCG overflights on 7 and 15 June (figure 92). Plumes reached at least 1,500 m altitude, and ejecta reached the base of the pyroclastic cone. Between 5 and 19 June the lava flow on the WNW coast slowed significantly, while the flows to the N and E became significantly more active (figure 93). The Tokyo VAAC reported the first ash plume since mid-February on 12 June rose to 2.1 km and drifted NE. On 14 June they reported an ash plume extending E at 2.7 km altitude. Dense emissions continued to drift N and E at 2.1-2.7 km altitude until the last week of the month. The JCG overflight on 19 June observed darker ash emissions than two weeks earlier that drifted at least 180 km NE (figure 94) and incandescent tephra that exploded from the enlarged summit area where three overlapping craters trending E-W had formed.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 91. Landsat-8 satellite imagery on 2 June 2020 confirmed ongoing activity at Nishinoshima. Lava produced ocean-entry steam on the NE coast; a weak plume on the NW coast suggested reduced activity in that area (left). In addition, a dense steam plume drifted E from the summit, while a fainter plume adjacent to it also drifted E. The infrared image (right) indicated two intense anomalies at the summit, and weaker anomalies from lava flows on the NW and NE flanks. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 92. Lava flows at Nishinoshima entered the ocean on the N and NE coasts (left) on 7 June 2020, and dense, gray ash emissions rose to at least 1,500 m altitude. Courtesy of JCG.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 93. The lava flow on the WNW coast of Nishinoshima slowed significantly in early June 2020, while the flows to the N and E covered large areas of those flanks between 5 and 19 June. The areas in blue indicate topographical changes due to lava flows and pyroclastic deposits from the previous measurement. Left image shows the differences between 22 May and 5 June and right image shows changes between 5 and 19 June. The correlated image analysis uses ALOS-2 / PALSAR-2 and is carried out with the cooperation of JAXA through the activities of the Satellite Analysis Group of the Volcano Eruption Prediction Liaison Committee. The software was developed by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention and uses the technical data C1-No 478 of the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. Courtesy of JAXA and JMA (Volcanic activity commentary material on Nishinoshima, June 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 94. Ash emissions and explosive activity at Nishinoshima increased significantly during the second half of June. Dense black ash rose to 2.4 km altitude and drifted at least 180 km to the NE on 19 June 2020. Vigorous white steam plumes rose from the ocean on the E flank where a lava flow entered the ocean. Courtesy of JCG.

The Tokyo VAAC reported ash emissions that rose to 4.6 km altitude and drifted NE on 25 June. For the remainder of the month they rose to 2.7-3.9 km altitude and drifted N and NE. By the time of the JCG overflight on 29 June, the new crater that had opened on the SW flank had merged with the summit crater (figure 95). Dense black ash emissions rose to 3.4 km altitude and drifted NE, lava flowed down the SW flank into the ocean producing violent steam explosions, and incandescent tephra was scattered at least 200 m from the base of the pyroclastic cone from ongoing explosive activity (figure 96). Multiple layers of recent flow activity were visible along the SW coast (figure 97). Yellow-green discolored water encircled the entire island with a width of 1,000 m.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 95. The new crater on the SW flank of Nishinoshima had merged with the summit crater by 29 June 2020. Courtesy of JCG and JMA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 96. Dense black ash emissions rose to 3.4 km altitude and drifted NE from the summit of Nishinoshima on 29 June 2020. Lava flowed down the SW flank into the ocean producing steam explosions, and incandescent tephra was scattered at least 200 m from the base of the pyroclastic cone from ongoing explosive activity at the summit (inset). Courtesy of JCG.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 97. Different textures of lava flows were visible along the SW flank of Nishinoshima on 29 June 2020. The active flow appeared dark brown and blocky, and produced steam explosions at the ocean entry site (right). Slightly older, brownish-red lava (center) still produced steam along the coastline. Courtesy of JCG.

MODVOLC thermal alerts reached their highest levels of the period during June 2020 with multi-pixel alerts recorded on most days of the month. Sulfur dioxide emissions increased steadily throughout June to the highest levels recorded for Nishinoshima; by the end of the month plumes of SO2 were drifting thousands of kilometers across the Pacific Ocean and being captured in complex atmospheric circulation currents (figure 98).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 98. Sulfur dioxide emissions at Nishinoshima increased noticeably during the second half of June 2020 as measured by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite. Atmospheric circulation currents produced long-lived plumes that drifted thousands of kilometers from the volcano. Nishinoshima is 1,000 km S of Tokyo. Courtesy of NASA Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

By early July 2020, satellite data indicated that the NE quadrant of the island was covered with ash, and a large amount of new lava had flowed down the SW flank, creating fans extending into the ocean (figure 99). The Tokyo VAAC reported ash emissions that rose to 3.7-4.9 km altitude and drifted N during 1-6 July. The altitude increased to 6.1 km during 8 and 9 July, and ranged from 4.6-6.1 km during 10-14 July while the drift direction changed to NE. The marine meteorological observation ship "Ryofu Maru" reported on 11 July that dense black ash was continuously erupting from the summit crater and drifting W at 1,700 m altitude or higher. They observed large volcanic blocks scattered around the base of the pyroclastic cone, and ash falling from the drifting plume. During the night of 11 July incandescent lava and volcanic lightning rose to about 200 m above the crater rim (figure 100).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 99. By early July 2020, satellite data from Nishinoshima indicated that the NE quadrant of the island was covered with ash, and a large amount of new lava had flowed down the SW flank creating fans extending into the ocean. The areas in blue indicate topographical changes due to lava flows and pyroclastic deposits from the previous measurement. Left image shows differences between 5 and 19 June and the right image shows changes between 19 June and 3 July that included abundant ashfall on the NE flank. The correlated image analysis uses ALOS-2 / PALSAR-2 and is carried out with the cooperation of JAXA through the activities of the Satellite Analysis Group of the Volcano Eruption Prediction Liaison Committee. The software was developed by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention and uses the technical data C1-No 478 of the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. Courtesy of JAXA and JMA (Volcanic activity commentary material on Nishinoshima, June 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 100. High levels of activity were observed at Nishinoshima by crew members aboard the marine meteorological observation ship "Ryofu Maru” on 11 July 2020. Abundant ash emissions filled the sky and tephra fell out of the ash cloud for several kilometers downwind (left, seen from 6 km NE). Incandescent explosions rose as much as 200 m into the night sky (right, seen from 4 km E). Courtesy of JMA.

During 16-26 July 2020 the Tokyo VAAC reported ash emissions at 3.7-5.2 km altitude that drifted primarily N and NE. The vessel "Keifu Maru" passed Nishinoshima on 20 July and crewmembers observed continuing emissions from the summit of dense, black ash. JCG observed an ash plume rising to at least 2.7 km altitude during their overflight of 20 July. A large dome of fresh lava was visible on the SW flank of the island (figure 101). Lower ash emissions from 2.4-3.7 km altitude were reported by the Tokyo VAAC during 27-29 July, but the altitude increased to 5.5-5.8 km during the last two days of the month. During an overflight on 30 July by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, dark and light gray ash emissions rose to 3.0 km altitude, but no flowing lava or large bombs were observed. They also noted thick deposits of brownish-gray ash on the N side of the island (figure 102).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 101. JCG observed an ash plume at Nishinoshima rising to at least 2.7 km altitude during their overflight of 20 July 2020. A large dome of fresh lava was visible on the SW flank of the island. Courtesy of JCG.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 102. Ash emissions changed from dark to light gray on 30 July 2020 at Nishinoshima as seen during an overflight by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention. Thick brownish-gray ash was deposited over the lava on the N side of the island. Courtesy of JMA (Information on volcanic activity in Nishinoshima, July 2020).

JMA reported a sharp decrease in the lava eruption rate during July with thermal anomalies decreasing significantly mid-month. Multiple daily MODVOLC thermal alerts were recorded during the first half of the month but were reduced to two or three per day during the last third of July. Throughout July, SO2 emissions were the highest recorded in modern times for Nishinoshima. High levels of emissions were measured daily, producing streams with high concentrations of SO2 that were caught up in rotating wind currents and drifted thousands of kilometers across the Pacific Ocean (figure 103).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 103. Complex atmospheric wind patterns carried the largest SO2 plumes recorded from Nishinoshima thousands of kilometers around the western Pacific Ocean during July 2020. Nishinoshima is about 1,000 km S of Tokyo. Top and bottom left images both show 6 July but at different scales. Courtesy of NASA Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

Thermal activity was greatly reduced during August 2020. Only one or two MODVOLC alerts were issued on 11, 18, 20, 21, 29, and 30 August, and no fresh lava flows were observed. The Tokyo VAAC reported ash emissions daily from 1-20 August. Plume heights were 4.9-5.8 km altitude during 1-4 August after which they dropped to 3.9 km altitude through 15 August. A brief pulse to 4.6 km altitude was recorded on 16 August, but then they dropped to 3.0 km or lower through the end of the month and became intermittent. The last ash emission was reported at 2.7 km altitude drifting W on 27 August.

No eruptive activity was observed during the Japan Coast Guard overflights on 19 and 23 August. High temperatures were measured on the inner wall of the summit crater on 19 August (figure 104). Steam plumes rose from the summit crater to about 2.5 km altitude during both visits (figure 105). Yellow-green discolored water was present on 23 August around the NW and SW coasts. No lava flows were observed, and infrared cameras did not measure any surface thermal anomalies outside of the crater. Very high levels of SO2 emissions were measured through 12 August when they began to noticeably decrease (figure 106). By the end of the month, only small amounts of SO2 were measured in satellite data.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 104. A strong thermal anomaly was still present inside the newly enlarged summit crater at Nishinoshima on 19 August 2020. Courtesy of JCG.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 105. Only steam plumes were observed rising from the summit crater of Nishinoshima during the 23 August 2020 overflight by the Japan Coast Guard. Courtesy of JCG.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 106. Sulfur dioxide emissions remained very high at Nishinoshima until 12 August 2020 when they declined sharply. Circulating air currents carried SO2 thousands of kilometers around the western Pacific region. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

Geologic Background. The small island of Nishinoshima was enlarged when several new islands coalesced during an eruption in 1973-74. Another eruption that began offshore in 2013 completely covered the previous exposed surface and enlarged the island again. Water discoloration has been observed on several occasions since. The island is the summit of a massive submarine volcano that has prominent satellitic peaks to the S, W, and NE. The summit of the southern cone rises to within 214 m of the sea surface 9 km SSE.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html); Japan Coast Guard (JCG), Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department, 3-1-1, Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8932, Japan (URL: https://www1.kaiho.mlit.go.jp/GIJUTSUKOKUSAI/kaiikiDB/kaiyo18-e1.htm); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency-Earth Observation Research Center (JAXA-EORC), 7-44-1 Jindaiji Higashi-machi, Chofu-shi, Tokyo 182-8522, Japan (URL: http://www.eorc.jaxa.jp/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/).


Turrialba (Costa Rica) — September 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Turrialba

Costa Rica

10.025°N, 83.767°W; summit elev. 3340 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


New eruptive period on 18 June 2020 consisted of ash eruptions

Turrialba is a stratovolcano located in Costa Rica that overlooks the city of Cartago. Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2,200 m summit depression that is breached to the NE. Activity described in the previous report primarily included weak ash explosions and minor ash emissions (BGVN 44:11). This reporting period updates information from November 2019-August 2020; volcanism dominantly consists of ash emissions during June-August, based on information from daily and weekly reports by the Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA) and satellite data.

Volcanism during November 2019 through mid-June was relatively low, dominated by low SO2 emissions (100-300 tons/day) and typical low seismic tremors. A single explosion was recorded at 1850 on 7 December 2019, and two gas-and-steam plumes rose 800 m and 300 m above the crater on 25 and 27 December, respectively. An explosion was detected on 29 January 2020 but did not result in any ejecta. An overflight during the week of 10 February measured the depth of the crater (140 m); since the previous measurements made in February 2019 (220 m), the crater has filled with 80 m of debris due to frequent collapses of the NW and SE internal crater walls. Beginning around February and into at least early May 2020 the Sentinel-2 MODIS Thermal Volcanic Activity graph provided by the MIROVA system detected a small cluster of thermal anomalies (figure 52). Some of these anomalies were faintly registered in Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery during 10 and 25 April, with a more distinct anomaly occurring on 15 May (figure 53).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 52. A small cluster of thermal anomalies were detected in the summit area of Turrialba (red dots) during February-May 2020 as recorded by the Sentinel-2 MODIS Thermal Volcanic Activity data (bands 12, 11, 8A). Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 53. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery detected minor gas-and-steam emissions (left) and a weak thermal anomaly (right) in the summit crater at Turrialba on 11 January and 15 May 2020, respectively. Sentinel-2 atmospheric penetration (bands 12, 11, 8A) images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

On 18 June activity increased, which marked the start of a new eruptive period that produced ash emissions rising 100 m above the crater rim at 1714, 1723, and 1818. The next morning, 19 June, two more events at 1023 and 1039 resulted in ash emissions rising 100 m above the crater. During 23-26 June small ash emissions continued to occur each day, rising no higher than 100 m above the crater. A series of small ash eruptions that rose 100 m above the crater occurred during 28 and 29 June; four events were recorded at 0821, 1348, 1739, and 2303 on 28 June and five more were recorded at 0107, 0232, 0306, 0412, and 0818 on 29 June. The two events at 0107 and 0412 were accompanied by ballistics ejected onto the N wall of the crater, according to OVSICORI-UNA.

Almost daily ash emissions continued during 1-7 July, rising less than 100 m above the crater; no ash emissions were observed on 3 July. On 6 July, gas-and-steam and ash emissions rose hundreds of meters above the crater at 0900, resulting in local ashfall. Passive gas-and-steam emissions with minor amounts of ash were occasionally visible during 9-10 July. On 14 July an eruptive pulse was observed, generating brief incandescence at 2328, which was likely associated with a small ash emission. Dilute ash emissions at 1028 on 16 July preceded an eruption at 1209 that resulted in an ash plume rising 200 m above the crater. Ash emissions of variable densities continued through 20 July rising as high as 200 m above the crater; on 20 July incandescence was observed on the W wall of the crater. An eruptive event at 0946 on 29 July produced an ash plume that rose 200-300 m above the crater rim. During 30-31 July a series of at least ten ash eruptions were detected, rising no higher than 200 m above the crater, each lasting less than ten minutes. Some incandescence was visible on the SW wall of the crater during this time.

On 1 August at 0746 an ash plume rose 500 m above the crater. During 4-5 August a total of 19 minor ash emissions occurred, accompanied by ash plumes that rose no higher than 200 m above the crater. OVSICORI-UNA reported on 21 August that the SW wall of the crater had fractured; some incandescence in the fracture zone had been observed the previous month. Two final eruptions were detected on 22 and 24 August at 1253 and 2023, respectively. The eruption on 24 August resulted in an ash plume that rose to a maximum height of 1 km above the crater.

Geologic Background. Turrialba, the easternmost of Costa Rica's Holocene volcanoes, is a large vegetated basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano located across a broad saddle NE of Irazú volcano overlooking the city of Cartago. The massive edifice covers an area of 500 km2. Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2200 m summit depression that is breached to the NE. Most activity originated from the summit vent complex, but two pyroclastic cones are located on the SW flank. Five major explosive eruptions have occurred during the past 3500 years. A series of explosive eruptions during the 19th century were sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Fumarolic activity continues at the central and SW summit craters.

Information Contacts: Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), Apartado 86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica (URL: http://www.ovsicori.una.ac.cr/, https://www.facebook.com/OVSICORI/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Etna (Italy) — September 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Etna

Italy

37.748°N, 14.999°E; summit elev. 3320 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Effusive activity in early April; frequent Strombolian explosions and ash emissions during April-July 2020

Etna, located on the island of Sicily, Italy, is a stratovolcano that has had historical eruptions dating back 3,500 years. Its most recent eruptive period began in September 2013 and has continued through July 2020, characterized by Strombolian explosions, lava flows, and ash plumes. Activity has commonly originated from the summit areas, including the Northeast Crater (NEC), the Voragine-Bocca Nuova (or Central) complex (VOR-BN), the Southeast Crater (SEC, formed in 1978), and the New Southeast Crater (NSEC, formed in 2011). The newest crater, referred to as the "cono della sella" (saddle cone), emerged during early 2017 in the area between SEC and NSEC. Volcanism during this reporting period from April through July 2020 includes frequent Strombolian explosions primarily in the Voragine and NSEC craters, ash emissions, some lava effusions, and gas-and-steam emissions. Information primarily comes from weekly reports by the Osservatorio Etneo (OE), part of the Catania Branch of Italy's Istituo Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologica (INGV).

Summary of activity during April-July 2020. Degassing of variable intensity is typical activity from all summit vents at Etna during the reporting period. Intra-crater Strombolian explosions and ash emissions that rose to a maximum altitude of 5 km on 19 April primarily originated from the Voragine (VOR) and New Southeast Crater (NSEC) craters. At night, summit crater incandescence was occasionally visible in conjunction with explosions and degassing. During 18-19 April small lava flows were observed in the VOR and NSEC craters that descended toward the BN from the VOR Crater and the upper E and S flanks of the NSEC. On 19 April a significant eruptive event began with Strombolian explosions that gradually evolved into lava fountaining activity, ejecting hot material and spatter from the NSEC. Ash plumes that were produced during this event resulted in ashfall to the E of Etna. The flows had stopped by the end of April; activity during May consisted of Strombolian explosions in both the VOR and NSEC craters and intermittent ash plumes rising 4.5 km altitude. On 22 May Strombolian explosions in the NSEC produced multiple ash plumes, which resulted in ashfall to the S. INGV reported that the pit crater at the bottom of BN had widened and was accompanied by degassing. Explosions with intermittent ash emissions continued during June and July and were primarily focused in the VOR and NSEC craters; mild Strombolian activity in the SEC was reported in mid-July.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data shows multiple episodes of thermal activity throughout the reporting period (figure 296). In early April, the frequency and power of the thermal anomalies began to decrease through mid-June; in July, they had increased in power again but remained less frequent compared to activity in January through March. According to the MODVOLC thermal algorithm, a total of seven alerts were detected in the summit craters during 10 April (1), 17 April (1), 24 April (2), 10 July (1), 13 July (1), and 29 July (1) 2020. These thermal hotspots were typically registered during or after a Strombolian event. Frequent Strombolian activity contributed to distinct SO2 plumes that drifted in different directions (figure 297).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 296. Multiple episodes of varying thermal activity at Etna from 14 October 2019 through July 2020 were reflected in the MIROVA data (Log Radiative Power). In early April, the frequency and power of the thermal anomalies decreased through mid-June. In July, the thermal anomalies increased in power, but did not increase in frequency. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 297. Distinct SO2 plumes from Etna were detected on multiple days during April to July 2020 due to frequent Strombolian explosions, including, 24 April (top left), 9 May (top right), 25 June (bottom left), and 21 July (bottom right) 2020. Captured by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel 5P satellite, courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

Activity during April-May 2020. During April, INGV reported Strombolian explosions that produced some ash emissions and intra-crater effusive activity within the Voragine Crater (VOR) and abundant degassing from the New Southeast Crater (NSEC), Northeast Crater (NEC), and from two vents on the cono della sella (saddle cone) that were sometimes accompanied by a modest amount of ash (figure 298). At night, summit crater incandescence was observed in the cono della salla. The Strombolian activity in the VOR built intra-crater scoria cones while lava flows traveled down the S flank of the largest, main cone. On 18 April effusive activity from the main cone in the VOR Crater traveled 30 m toward the Bocca Nuova (BN) Crater; the pit crater at the bottom of the BN crater had widened compared to previous observations. A brief episode of Strombolian explosions that started around 0830 on 19 April in the NSEC gradually evolved into modest lava fountaining activity by 0915, rising to 3 km altitude and ejecting bombs up to 100 m (figure 299). A large spatter deposit was found 50 m from the vent and 3-4 small lava flows were descending the NSEC crater rim; two of these summit lava flows were observed at 1006, confined to the upper E and S flanks of the cone. Around 1030, one or two vents in the cono della sella produced a gas-and-steam and ash plume that rose 5 km altitude and drifted E, resulting in ashfall on the E flank of Etna in the Valle del Bove, as well as between the towns of Zafferana Etnea (10 km SE) and Linguaglossa (17 km NE). At night, flashes of incandescence were visible at the summit. By 1155, the lava fountaining had gradually slowed, stopping completely around 1300. The NEC continued to produce gas-and-steam emissions with some intra-crater explosive activity. During the week of 20-26 April, Strombolian activity in the VOR intra-crater scoria cone ejected pyroclastic material several hundred meters above the crater rim while the lava flows had significantly decreased, though continued to travel on the E flank of the main cone. Weak, intra-crater Strombolian activity with occasional ash emissions and nightly summit incandescence were observed in the NSEC (figure 300). By 30 April there were no longer any active lava flows; the entire flow field had begun cooling. The mass of the SO2 emissions varied in April from 5,000-15,000 tons per day.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 298. Photos of Strombolian explosions at Etna in the Voragine Crater (top left), strong degassing at the Northeast Crater (NEC) (top right), and incandescent flashes and Strombolian activity in the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) seen from Tremestieri Etneo (bottom row) on 10 April 2020. Photos by Francesco Ciancitto (top row) and Boris Behncke (bottom row), courtesy of INGV.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 299. Strombolian activity at Etna’s “cono della sella” of the NSEC crater on 19 April 2020 included (a-b) lava fountaining that rose 3 km altitude, ejecting bomb-sized material and a spatter deposit captured by the Montagnola (EMOV) thermal camera. (c-d) An eruptive column and increased white gas-and-steam and ash emissions were captured by the Montagnola (EMOV) visible camera and (e-f) were also seen from Tremestieri Etneo captured by Boris Behncke. Courtesy of INGV (Report 17/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 13/04/2020 – 19/04/2020, data emissione 21/04/2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 300. Webcam images showing intra-crater explosive activity at Etna in the Voragine (VOR) and New Southeast Crater (NSEC) on 24 April 2020 captured by the (a-b) Montagnola and (c) Monte Cagliato cameras. At night, summit incandescence was visible and accompanied by strong degassing. Courtesy of INGV (Report 18/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 20/04/2020 – 26/04/2020, data emissione 28/04/2020).

Strombolian explosions produced periodic ash emissions and ejected mild, discontinuous incandescent material in the VOR Crater; the coarse material was deposited onto the S flank of BN (figure 301). Pulsating degassing continued from the summit craters, some of which were accompanied by incandescent flashes at night. The Strombolian activity in the cono della sella occasionally produced reddish ash during 3-4 May. During 5 and 8 May, there was an increase in ash emissions at the NSEC that drifted SSE. A strong explosive event in the VOR Crater located E of the main cone produced a significant amount of ash and ejected coarse material, which included blocks and bombs measuring 15-20 cm, that fell on the W edge of the crater, as well as on the S terrace of the BN Crater (figure 302).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 301. Photos of Strombolian explosions and summit incandescence at Etna on 4 May (left) and during the night of 11-12 May. Photos by Gianni Pennisi (left) and Boris Behncke (right, seen from Tremestieri Etneo). Courtesy of INGV.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 302. A photo on 5 May (left) and thermal image on 8 May (right) of Strombolian explosions at Etna in the Voragine Crater accompanied by a dense, gray ash plume. Photo by Daniele Andronico. Courtesy of INGV (Report 20/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 04/05/2020 – 10/05/2020, data emissione 12/05/2020).

On 10 May degassing continued in the NSEC while Strombolian activity fluctuated in both the VOR and NSEC Craters, ejecting ballistics beyond the crater rim; in the latter, some of the blocks fell back in, accumulated on the edge, and rolled down the slopes (figure 303). During the week of 11-17 May, eruptive activity at the VOR Crater was the lowest observed since early March; there were 4-5 weak, low intensity pulses not accompanied by bombs or ashfall in the VOR Crater. Degassing continued in the BN Crater. The crater of the cono della sella had widened further N following collapses due to the Strombolian activity, which exposed the internal wall.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 303. Map of the summit craters of Etna showing the active vents, the area of cooled lava flows (light green), and the location of the widening pit crater in the Bocca Nuova (BN) Crater (light blue circle) updated on 9 May 2020. The base is modified from a 2014 DEM created by Laboratorio di Aerogeofisica-Sezione Roma 2. Black hatch marks indicate the crater rims: BN = Bocca Nuova, with NW BN-1 and SE BN-2; VOR = Voragine; NEC = North East Crater; SEC = South East Crater; NSEC = New South East Crater. Red circles indicate areas with ash emissions and/or Strombolian activity, yellow circles indicate steam and/or gas emissions only. Courtesy of INGV (Report 29/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 06/07/2020 – 12/07/2020, data emissione 14/07/2020).

On 18 May an ash plume from the NSEC rose 4.5 km altitude and drifted NE. Strombolian explosions on 22 May at the NSEC produced multiple ash plumes that rose 4.5 km altitude and drifted S and SW (figure 304), depositing a thin layer of ash on the S slope, and resulting in ashfall in Catania (27 km S). Explosions from the VOR Crater had ejected a deposit of large clasts (greater than 30 cm) on the NE flank, between the VOR Crater and NEC on 23 May. INGV reported that the pit crater in the BN continued to widen and degassing was observed in the NSEC, VOR Crater, and NEC. During the week of 25-31 May persistent visible flashes of incandescence at night were observed, which suggested there was intra-crater Strombolian activity in the SEC and NSEC. The mass of the SO2 plumes varied between 5,000-9,000 tons per day.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 304. Photo of repeated Strombolian activity and ash emissions rising from Etna above the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) on 22 May 2020 seen from Zafferana Etnea on the SE flank at 0955 local time. Photo by Boris Behncke, INGV.

Activity during June-July 2020. During June, moderate intra-crater Strombolian activity with intermittent ash emissions continued in the NSEC and occurred more sporadically in the VOR Crater; at night, incandescence of variable intensity was observed at the summit. During the week of 8-14 June, Strombolian explosions in the cono della sella generated some incandescence and rare jets of incandescent material above the crater rim, though no ash emissions were reported. On the morning of 14 June a sequence of ten small explosions in the VOR Crater ejected incandescent material just above the crater rim and produced small ash emissions. On 25 June an overflight showed the developing pit crater in the center of the BN, accompanied by degassing along the S edge of the wall; degassing continued from the NEC, VOR Crater, SEC, and NSEC (figure 305). The mass of the SO2 plumes measured 5,000-7,000 tons per day, according to INGV.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 305. Aerial photo of Etna from the NE during an overflight on 25 June 2020 by the Catania Coast Guard (2 Nucleo Aereo della Guardia Costiera di Catania) showing degassing of the summit craters. Photo captured from the Aw139 helicopter by Stefano Branca. Courtesy of INGV (Report 27/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 22/06/2020 – 28/06/2020, data emissione 30/06/2020).

Similar modest, intra-crater Strombolian explosions in the NSEC, sporadic explosions in the VOR Crater, and degassing in the BN, VOR Crater, and NEC persisted into July. On 2 July degassing in the NEC was accompanied by weak intra-crater Strombolian activity. Intermittent weak ash emissions and ejecta from the NSEC and VOR Crater were observed during the month. During the week of 6-12 July INGV reported gas-and-steam emissions continued to rise from the vent in the pit crater at the bottom of BN (figure 306). On 11 July mild Strombolian activity, nighttime incandescence, and degassing was visible in the SEC (figure 307). By 15 July there was a modest increase in activity in the NSEC and VOR Craters, generating ash emissions and ejecting material over the crater rims while the other summit craters were dominantly characterized by degassing. On 31 July an explosion in the NSEC produced an ash plume that rose 4.5 km altitude.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 306. Photos of the bottom of the Bocca Nuova (BN) crater at Etna on 8 July 2020 showing the developing pit crater (left) and degassing. Minor ash emissions were visible in the background at the Voragine Crater (right). Both photos by Daniele Andronico. Courtesy of INGV (Report 29/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 06/07/2020 – 12/07/2020, data emissione 14/07/2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 307. Mild Strombolian activity and summit incandescence in the “cono della sella” (saddle vent) at the Southeast crater (SEC) of Etna on 11 July 2020, seen from Piano del Vescovo (left) and Piano Vetore (right). Photo by Boris Behncke, INGV.

Geologic Background. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BCE. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello stratovolcano, truncated by several small calderas, was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur, sometimes simultaneously. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more summit craters. Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by Strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank.

Information Contacts: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma 2, 95123 Catania, Italy (URL: http://www.ct.ingv.it/it/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Boris Behncke, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma 2, 95123 Catania, Italy.


Ol Doinyo Lengai (Tanzania) — September 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Ol Doinyo Lengai

Tanzania

2.764°S, 35.914°E; summit elev. 2962 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Multiple lava flows within the summit crater; September 2019-August 2020

Ol Doinyo Lengai, located near the southern end of the East African Rift in Tanzania, is a stratovolcano known for its unique low-temperature carbonatitic lava. Frequent eruptions have been recorded since the late 19th century. Activity primarily occurs in the crater offset to the N about 100 m below the summit where hornitos (small cones) and pit craters produce lava flows and spattering. Lava began overflowing various flanks of the crater in 1993. The eruption transitioned to significant explosive activity in September 2007, which formed a new pyroclastic cone inside the crater. Repeated ash emissions reached altitudes greater than 10 km during March 2008. By mid-April 2008 explosive activity had decreased. In September new hornitos with small lava flows formed on the crater floor. The most recent eruptive period began in April 2017 and has been characterized by spattering confined to the crater, effusive activity in the summit crater, and multiple lava flows (BGVN 44:09). Effusive activity continued in the summit crater during this reporting period from September 2019 through August 2020, based on data and images from satellite information.

Throughout September 2019 to August 2020, evidence for repeated small lava flows was recorded in thermal data and satellite imagery. A total of seven low-level pulses of thermal activity were detected within 5 km from the summit in MIROVA data during September 2019 (1), February (2), March (2), and August (2) 2020 (figure 207). Sentinel-2 satellite imagery also provided evidence of multiple lava flows within the summit crater throughout the reporting period. On clear weather days, intermittent thermal anomalies were observed in thermal satellite imagery within the summit crater; new lava flows were detected due to the change in shape, volume, and location of the hotspot (figure 208). During a majority of the reporting period, the thermal anomaly dominantly appeared in the center of the crater, though occasionally it would also migrate to the SE wall, as seen on 3 February, the E wall on 12 July, or the NE wall on 31 August. In Natural Color rendering, fresh lava flows appear black within the crater that quickly cools to a white-brown color. These satellite images showed the migration of new lava flows between February, March, and June (figure 209). The flow on 8 February occurs in the center and along the W wall of the crater; the flow on 9 March is slightly thinner and is observed in the center and along the E wall of the crater; finally, the flow on 17 June is located in the center and along the N wall of the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 207. Seven low-level pulses of thermal activity within 5 km of the summit of Ol Doinyo Lengai were recorded in the MIROVA thermal data between September 2019 to August 2020; one in early September 2019, two in February, two in March, and two in August 2020. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 208. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images of Ol Doinyo Lengai from November 2019 to August 2020 show intermittent thermal anomalies (bright yellow-orange) within the summit crater. The location of these anomalies occasionally changes, indicating new lava flows. Images with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 209. Sentinel-2 satellite images of new lava flows within the summit crater at Ol Doinyo Lengai during 8 February (left), 9 March (middle), and 17 June (right) 2020. Lava flows appear black in the center of the crater that changes in volume and location from February to June. Images with “Natural Color” (bands 4, 3, 2) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

During August, multiple lava flows were detected in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery. On relatively clear days, lava flows were visible in the middle of the summit crater, occasionally branching out to one side of the crater (figure 210). On 6 August, a thin lava flow branched to the E flank, which became thicker by 11 August. On 16 and 21 August, the lava remained mostly in the center of the crater. A large pulse of fresh lava occurred on 31 August, extending to the NW and SE sides of the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 210. Sentinel-2 images of multiple new lava flows at Ol Doinyo Lengai during August 2020. When visible in the first half of August, dark lava is concentrated in the center and E side of the crater; by the end of August the lava flows had reached the NW side of the crater. Images with “Natural Color” (bands 4, 3, 2) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The symmetrical Ol Doinyo Lengai is the only volcano known to have erupted carbonatite tephras and lavas in historical time. The prominent stratovolcano, known to the Maasai as "The Mountain of God," rises abruptly above the broad plain south of Lake Natron in the Gregory Rift Valley. The cone-building stage ended about 15,000 years ago and was followed by periodic ejection of natrocarbonatitic and nephelinite tephra during the Holocene. Historical eruptions have consisted of smaller tephra ejections and emission of numerous natrocarbonatitic lava flows on the floor of the summit crater and occasionally down the upper flanks. The depth and morphology of the northern crater have changed dramatically during the course of historical eruptions, ranging from steep crater walls about 200 m deep in the mid-20th century to shallow platforms mostly filling the crater. Long-term lava effusion in the summit crater beginning in 1983 had by the turn of the century mostly filled the northern crater; by late 1998 lava had begun overflowing the crater rim.

Information Contacts: MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).

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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network - Volume 43, Number 11 (November 2018)

Managing Editor: Edward Venzke

Gamalama (Indonesia)

Weak explosion on 4 October 2018

Langila (Papua New Guinea)

Several weak ash plumes during June, September, and October 2018

Masaya (Nicaragua)

Lava lake activity continued from May through October 2018; lava lake lower than recent months

Pacaya (Guatemala)

Frequent lava flows and Strombolian activity from April through September 2018

Popocatepetl (Mexico)

Gas, steam, and ash plumes continue through August 2018 with occasional explosions ejecting incandescent blocks onto the slopes

Reventador (Ecuador)

Ash plumes and explosions with ballistic ejecta continue during April-September 2018 with several lava flows and pyroclastic flows; five new vents after partial flank collapse

Sangeang Api (Indonesia)

Ongoing crater activity and thermal anomalies during September 2017-October 2018

Sarychev Peak (Russia)

Thermal anomalies, surface activity, and ash explosions during October-November 2017 and September-October 2018

Sheveluch (Russia)

Thermal anomalies along with minor gas and steam emissions continue through October 2018

Ulawun (Papua New Guinea)

Ash plumes on 8 June, 21 September, and 5 October 2018



Gamalama (Indonesia) — November 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Gamalama

Indonesia

0.8°N, 127.33°E; summit elev. 1715 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Weak explosion on 4 October 2018

The most recent of the previous intermittent weak explosions on Gamalama was on 3 August 2016, which produced an ash plume and ashfall that closed a nearby airport for a day (BGVN 42:03). This report discusses eruptive activity in October 2018. The volcano is monitored by the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM).

PVMBG reported that an explosion at 1152 on 4 October 2018, likely phreatic, generated an ash plume that rose about 250 m above the summit and drifted NW. Eight volcanic earthquakes were recorded about an hour before the event. Based on satellite data and information from PVMBG, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) reported that during 5-6 October ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.1 km and drifted W and NW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius. On 10 October PVMBG reported only gas emissions (mostly water vapor), and the Aviation Color Code was lowered from Orange to Yellow.

No significant SO2 levels near the volcano were recorded by NASA's satellite-borne ozone instruments (Suomi NPP/OMPS and Aura/OMI) during early October. However, Simon Carn reported that the newer TropOMI instrument aboard the Copernicus Sentinel-5P satellite showed significant SO2 levels as high as 12 TRM/DU (levels in middle troposphere layer, as measured in Dobson Units) on 4 October 2018 (figure 7).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. Weak SO2 emissions from Gamalama on 4 October 2018 were detected by the Sentinel-5P TROPOMI instrument. Courtesy of Simon Carn.

Geologic Background. Gamalama is a near-conical stratovolcano that comprises the entire island of Ternate off the western coast of Halmahera, and is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. The island was a major regional center in the Portuguese and Dutch spice trade for several centuries, which contributed to the thorough documentation of Gamalama's historical activity. Three cones, progressively younger to the north, form the summit. Several maars and vents define a rift zone, parallel to the Halmahera island arc, that cuts the volcano. Eruptions, recorded frequently since the 16th century, typically originated from the summit craters, although flank eruptions have occurred in 1763, 1770, 1775, and 1962-63.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 5+7, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL:http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Simon Carn, Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931, USA (URL: http://www.volcarno.com/, Twitter: @simoncarn).


Langila (Papua New Guinea) — November 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Langila

Papua New Guinea

5.525°S, 148.42°E; summit elev. 1330 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Several weak ash plumes during June, September, and October 2018

After Vulcanian activity in the latter part of 2009, activity at Langila subsided, with infrequent activity until 2016, when activity increased somewhat through May 2018 (BGVN 34:11, 35:02, 42:01, and 42:09). This pattern of intermittent activity continued through October 2018. No reports were available from the Rabaul Volcano Observatory during the current reporting period (June-October 2018), but volcanic ash warnings were issued by the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC).

Four explosions were reported by the Darwin VAAC in June 2018, generating ash plumes that rose 2.1-3.4 km (table 6). There were no reports of an explosion in July or August 2018. Additional ash plumes were detected on 29 September and 30 October 2018

Table 6. Reports of ash plumes from Langila during 1 June-30 October 2018 based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind model data. Courtesy of the Darwin VAAC.

Date Ash plume altitude (km) Ash plume drift Observations
07 Jun 2018 3.4 SW Detached from the summit.
10 Jun 2018 2.1 -- Dissipated.
17 Jun 2018 2.4 W --
20-21 Jun 2018 2.4 W, NW --
29 Sep 2018 2.4 NE --
30 Oct 2018 2.7 SE --

Geologic Background. Langila, one of the most active volcanoes of New Britain, consists of a group of four small overlapping composite basaltic-andesitic cones on the lower E flank of the extinct Talawe volcano in the Cape Gloucester area of NW New Britain. A rectangular, 2.5-km-long crater is breached widely to the SE; Langila was constructed NE of the breached crater of Talawe. An extensive lava field reaches the coast on the N and NE sides of Langila. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded since the 19th century from three active craters at the summit. The youngest and smallest crater (no. 3 crater) was formed in 1960 and has a diameter of 150 m.

Information Contacts: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL:http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/).


Masaya (Nicaragua) — November 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Masaya

Nicaragua

11.985°N, 86.165°W; summit elev. 594 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava lake activity continued from May through October 2018; lava lake lower than recent months

Masaya is one of the most active volcanoes in Nicaragua and one of the few volcanoes on Earth to contain an active lava lake. The edifice has a caldera that contains the Masaya (also known as San Fernando), Nindirí, San Pedro, San Juan, and Santiago (currently active) craters. In recent years, activity has largely consisted of lava lake activity along with dilute plumes of gas with little ash. In 2012 an explosive event ejected ash and blocks. This report summarizes activity during May through October 2018 and is based on Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER) reports and satellite data.

Reports issued from May through July 2018 noted that Masaya remained relatively calm. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images show consistently high temperatures in the Santiago crater with the active lava lake present (figure 65).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 65. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showing the detected heat signature from the active lava lake at Masaya during May-July 2018. The lava lake is visible (bright yellow-orange) and a gas-and-steam plume is visible traveling towards the W to SW. Thermal (urban) satellite images (bands 12, 11, 4) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Reports from August through October 2018 indicated relatively low levels of activity. On 28 September the lava lake within the Santiago crater was observed with a lower surface than previous months. Fumarole temperatures up to 340°C were recorded (figure 66). Sentinel-2 thermal images show the large amount of heat consistently emanating from the active lava lake (figure 67). Sulfur dioxide was measured on 28 and 30 August with an average of 1,462 tons per day, a higher value than the average of 858 tons per day detected in February. Sulfur dioxide levels ranged from 967 to 1,708 tons per day on 11 September.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 66. FLIR (forward-looking infrared) and visible images of the Santiago crater at Masaya showing fumarole temperatures. The scale in the center shows the range of temperatures in the FLIR images. Courtesy of INETER (September 2018 report).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 67. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showing the heat signature from the active lava lake at Masaya during August-October 2018. The lava lake is visible (bright yellow-orange) and a gas-and-steam plume is visible traveling towards the SW. Thermal (urban) satellite images (bands 12, 11, 4) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Overall, activity from May through October 2018 was relatively quiet with continued lava lake activity. The thermal energy detected by the MIROVA algorithm showed fluctuations but were consistent (figure 68). The MODVOLC algorithm for near-real-time thermal monitoring of global hotspots detected 4-8 anomalies per month for this period, which is lower than previous years (figure 69).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 68. Middle infrared MODIS thermal anomalies at Masaya for April through October 2018. The data show relatively constant thermal activity related to the persistent lava lake. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 69. Thermal alerts for Masaya in May through October 2018. Courtesy of HIGP - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System.

Geologic Background. Masaya is one of Nicaragua's most unusual and most active volcanoes. It lies within the massive Pleistocene Las Sierras caldera and is itself a broad, 6 x 11 km basaltic caldera with steep-sided walls up to 300 m high. The caldera is filled on its NW end by more than a dozen vents that erupted along a circular, 4-km-diameter fracture system. The Nindirí and Masaya cones, the source of historical eruptions, were constructed at the southern end of the fracture system and contain multiple summit craters, including the currently active Santiago crater. A major basaltic Plinian tephra erupted from Masaya about 6,500 years ago. Historical lava flows cover much of the caldera floor and there is a lake at the far eastern end. A lava flow from the 1670 eruption overtopped the north caldera rim. Masaya has been frequently active since the time of the Spanish Conquistadors, when an active lava lake prompted attempts to extract the volcano's molten "gold." Periods of long-term vigorous gas emission at roughly quarter-century intervals have caused health hazards and crop damage.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER), Apartado Postal 2110, Managua, Nicaragua (URL: http://webserver2.ineter.gob.ni/vol/dep-vol.html); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).


Pacaya (Guatemala) — November 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Pacaya

Guatemala

14.382°N, 90.601°W; summit elev. 2569 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Frequent lava flows and Strombolian activity from April through September 2018

Pacaya is one of the most active volcanoes in Guatemala and is located 30 km south of the capital city. It has produced nearly continuous Strombolian eruptions, lava flows, and ash plumes for decades. The current activity is centered at the Mackenney cone and is largely directed towards the N due to the trough that developed during increased activity in 2010.

This report summarizes activity from April through September 2018, and is based on reports by Instituto Nacional de Sismología, Vulcanologia, Meteorología E Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Sistema de la Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres (CONRED), and satellite data. During this period, activity was dominated by gas plumes, Strombolian explosions, and numerous short lava flows that traveled mainly to the N to NW (see details below, table 6).

Activity remained constant through April (figure 94), with a significant increase at the end of the month. White and blue-white gas-and-steam plumes were frequently observed up to 800 m above the Mackenney crater with the dispersal depending on wind direction. There was a partial collapse of the cone within the Mackenney crater during the week of 7-13 April. Strombolian activity was constant, with explosions ejecting material up to 50 m above the crater, until 21 April when activity decreased due to a small collapse that occurred in the cone and temporarily sealed the conduit. After elevated seismicity that was the highest since 2014, activity increased again on 26 April when Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 150 m above the crater. On 28 April there were 25-50 explosions recorded per hour, reaching 200 m above the cone and generating shock waves observed by communities 4 km away. A lava flow reached 600 m in length, the longest lava flow since the 2010 eruption. This lava flow continued through to the end of the month. Throughout the month, between one and four lava flows were frequently active, with lengths varying from 50 to 500 m from the vent. Lava flows were distributed to the NW, W, SW, and S, and were sometimes accompanied by avalanches with blocks reaching 1 m in diameter.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 94. Typical activity at Pacaya in April 2018. Top left: Degassing at the Mackenney cone. Top right: lava flows moving S, SW, and W with incandescent avalanches from the lava flow fronts; photo by Jorge Mejicanos. Bottom left: Strombolian activity erupting incandescent material to 150 m above the crater prior to the formation of the lava flow; photo by William Chigna. Bottom right: Descent of lava flows accompanied by Strombolian activity; photo by Byron Castillo. Images courtesy of INSIVUMEH (April 2018 monthly report).

Two new lava flows were seen moving down the NW flank on 3 May (figure 95). Activity in the first few days of May also included white and bluish white gas-and-steam plumes rising up to 900 m above the crater and frequent Strombolian explosions ejecting material to a maximum of 100 m above the crater. Increased weak-to-moderate explosions on 4 May ejected material 50-80 m above the crater and fed the NW-flank lava flows (figures 96 and 97). A slight increase in activity was noted 15-16 May, when constant explosions ejected material up to 50-70 m above the crater that were occasionally heard out to 3 km away. On 20 May approximately 50 explosions per hour were recorded, with material reaching 50-100 m above the crater. Elevated activity on 16 May produced a lava flow towards the W. Lava flows were observed on 1-3, 6, 12, and 16 May, with recorded lengths reaching 200-600 m on the NE, NW, and W flanks.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 95. Two new lava flows were observed traveling down the NW flank of Pacaya on 3 May 2018. Top: A thermal image of the lava flows and the Strombolian activity at the crater visible at the top of the image. Bottom: the location of the lava flows (April 28 to May 4, 2018 Weekly Monitoring Report). Right: The active lava flows on 5 May. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH
Figure (see Caption) Figure 96. Two lava flows and the active crater of Pacaya on 4 May 2018. This figure also shows the location of Cerro Chino and the directions of La Corona and Centro de Visitantes. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (April 2018 monthly report).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 97. Incandescent lava flows on Pacaya visible at night on 4 May 2018. The lava flows are approximately 500 m in length. Photo courtesy of CONRED (Bulletin 762018, 4 May).

White, blue-white, and gray-white plumes were frequently noted throughout June with heights above the crater ranging from 15 to 800 m. Strombolian activity continued, ejecting material up to maximum heights of 150 m, but more commonly 15-50 m above the crater. During 12-14 June ejecta reached 100-150 m above the crater, with explosions heard up to 10 km away on the 12th. An ash plume on the 13th reached 3.5 km above sea level and dispersed 10 km N and NW. A new lava flow was observed on 6-7 June accompanied by Strombolian explosions ejecting material up to 50 m above the crater (figure 98). No additional lava flows were reported this month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 98. June 2018 activity of Pacaya. Top left: Lava flow on 6 June that was 50 m long by approximately 20 m wide; courtesy of CONRED (Bulletin no. 1112018). Top left: Lava flow on 7 June, photo by Pedro Morales, via CONRED. Bottom: Lava flow on 7 June, photo by Berner Villea via CONRED.

Throughout July activity consisted of gas-and-steam plumes, Strombolian activity, and lava flows. White and blue-white plumes were low earlier in the month, but reached 300-450 m above the crater from 25 July to the end of the month. Strombolian explosions continued, ejecting material up to 5 to 50 m above the crater. Lava flows were frequently produced through July, with lengths ranging from 40-500 m from the vent, towards the SE, N, NW, and W. A decrease in activity was recorded on 4 July, which then increased again on 7 July. This increase produced a lava flow down to 400 m on the N flank, with an average width of 40 m.

Similar activity continued through August. White and blue-white plumes rose 50-600 m above the crater throughout the month. Strombolian activity continued, with explosions ejecting material 10-30 m above the crater, often reported as reaching low levels throughout August. One to two active lava flows were frequently described in daily reports, with lengths ranging from 75 to 500 m and traveling towards the NE, N, NW, and W. A slight increase in Strombolian activity occurred on the 27 August, generating 3-5 explosions per hour with some explosions heard up to 10 km away.

Frequent lava flows continued through September, with one to four active flows noted in daily reports (figure 99). Lava flow lengths ranged from 150 to 300 m and moved towards the N, NW, and W. White and blue-white plumes were observed reaching up to 800 m above the crater. Strombolian activity continued, ejecting material up to 10-30 m above the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 99. Lava flows on Pacaya in September 2018. Top: two new lava flows observed from San Vincente; photo by Wotzbely Suarez via CONRED. Bottom: A fumarole plume to a height of 300-400 m above the crater and a 200-m-long lava flow on the NW flank. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH.

Overall, Pacaya produced numerous short (up to 600 m long) lava flows from April through September 2018 (figure 100), along with frequent degassing and fumarolic plumes, and Strombolian activity. Lava emissions and Strombolian activity were centered at the active Mackenney cone and vents on the NW flank. There was a significant reduction in lava flow extrusion in June, evident by the lack of MODVOLC thermal alerts (figure 101) and the reduction in MIROVA thermal energy detected (figure 102). Activity then remained frequent from July through September.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 100. Examples of active vents and lava flows (bright yellow-orange) at Pacaya from July through October 2018. The lava flows are traveling towards the NE, N, and NW. These images demonstrate how the lava flows mostly originate on the flank due to weaknesses on the cone, it is rare that lava flows originate in the crater. False color (urban) images (bands 12, 11, 4) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 101. There were 79 MODVOLC thermal alerts for Pacaya from April through September 2018, based around the active crater and lava flows on the flanks. Courtesy of HIGP – MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 102. MIROVA thermal data showing detected energy for the period ending in October 2018. Activity was high from February through May, with a significant drop in activity in June and early July, then increased activity resumed in October. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Table 6. Summary of activity at Pacaya during April-September 2018. Information compiled from INSIVUMEH and CONRED reports.

Date Summary of Observations (all heights are above the crater unless specified)
01 Apr 2018 Moderate white/blue plume dispersed to the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 5-25 m. Two lava flows to the W and NW to 200 m.
02 Apr 2018 White/blue plume towards the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 35 m. A lava flow continues on the NW flank to 250 m.
04 Apr 2018 White/blue plume up to 50 m, towards the N. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 5-15 m. Two lava flows towards the NW to 150 m, and SW to 150 m.
05 Apr 2018 Moderate white/blue plume dispersed to the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 5-25 m. Two lava flows to the W and NW to 200 m.
06 Apr 2018 White/blue plume towards the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 40 m. Two lava flows to the S and SW to 200 m.
08 Apr 2018 White/blue plume up to 250 m towards the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 5-15 m. Three lava flows to the NW, W, and SW, to 250, 200, and 150 m.
09 Apr 2018 Moderate white/blue plume up to 50 m, towards the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 5-25 m. Two lava flows to the NW and SW to 150 and 50 m.
07-13 Apr 2018 Partial collapse of the cone forming in the Mackenney crater.
10 Apr 2018 Fumarole plume towards the S. Weak Strombolian explosions ejected material to 40 m. One lava flow to the SW and S to 250 m.
11 Apr 2018 Moderate steam plume. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 30 m. Two lava flows to the SW and S to 200 and 350 m, with accompanied avalanches.
13 Apr 2018 Two Lava flows to the S and SW to 250 and 200 m.
14 Apr 2018 White plume to 400 m, dispersed to the NE. Strombolian explosions continue. Two lava flows to the NW to 200 and 250 m.
15 Apr 2018 White/blue plume towards the SE. One lava flow to the NW to 250 m.
16 Apr 2018 White plume dispersed towards the S. Strombolian explosions continue. Two lava flows to the NW and W to 150 and 200 m.
17 Apr 2018 White/blue plume to the S. Two lava flows to the NW and SW to ~250 m. Strombolian explosions eject incandescent material up to 40 m.
18 Apr 2018 White plume up to 200 m, dispersed towards the N. Strombolian explosions continue. Four lava flows, two to the NW to 100 and 150 m, and two to the W to 50 and 150 m.
19 Apr 2018 Increased lava effusion in recent days. Since 18 April, four new lava flows on the SW, W, and NW flanks to 200-500 m, accompanied by constant avalanches. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 40-50 m.
20 Apr 2018 Incandescence from lava flows observed at night.
21 Apr 2018 White plume up to 50 m, dispersed towards the S. Strombolian explosions continue. The four lava flows have ceased.
22 Apr 2018 Degassing plume up to 50 m, towards the N. Some Strombolian explosions.
23 Apr 2018 Some Strombolian explosions.
24 Apr 2018 White/blue plume up to 50 m. Some Strombolian explosions.
25 Apr 2018 White/blue plume up to 25 m, dispersed to the S. Strombolian explosions eject material up to 5-50 m.
26 Apr 2018 White/blue plume up to ~800 m. Strombolian explosions eject material up to 25-50 m.
27 Apr 2018 Low white/blue plume to the S. Strombolian explosions eject material up to 5-50 m.
28 Apr 2018 Lava flow 500 m to the NW. Two to four weak Strombolian explosions per day with incandescent material reaching 50 m.
29 Apr 2018 White/blue degassing to low altitude. Lava flow 500 m to the NW.
01 May 2018 Over the past few days a new eruptive phase began. White/blue plume up to 150-200 m. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 20 m. One lava flow towards Cerro Chino to 200-300 m.
02 May 2018 White/blue plume from the NW flank. Lava flow 500 m to the NW.
03 May 2018 Moderate white/blue plume up to 150-200 m. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 20 m. One lava flow towards Cerro Chino to ~500 m. Incandescence observed.
04 May 2018 Change in eruptive behavior, generating constant weak-moderate explosions ejecting material up to 50-80 m above the Mackenney cone.
06 May 2018 Weak-moderate white/blue plume up to 100 m. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 15 m. One 600 m lava flow to the NE.
07 May 2018 Strombolian explosions continue.
09 May 2018 White/blue plume up to 300 m, dispersed to the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 50 m. Incandescence observed.
10 May 2018 Moderate white/blue plume up to 700 m. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 25-100 m.
11 May 2018 White/blue plume up to 600 m. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 15-50 m.
12 May 2018 Strombolian explosions sent material up to 50-75 m. Lava flow to the W.
13 May 2018 White/blue plume up to ~200 m, dispersed to the SW. Strombolian explosions eject material up to 25 m. Incandescence observed.
14 May 2018 Moderate white/blue plume to ~800 m, dispersed to the W. Strombolian explosions ejected material to 7-50 m.
15 May 2018 White plume to 600-700 m, dispersed towards the W. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 10-50 m.
16 May 2018 Constant Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 50-70 m, explosions occasionally heard 3 km away. Activity increased and produced a lava flow on the W flank.
17 May 2018 White/blue plume up to 300-400 m, dispersed to the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 25 m. Incandescence observed.
18 May 2018 White/blue plume up to 400 m, dispersed to the W. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 5-15 m.
19 May 2018 White/blue plume up to 200 m, dispersed to the N. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 10-50 m.
20 May 2018 Strombolian explosions at Mackenney crater ejected material up to 50 m. Small avalanches on W flank.
21 May 2018 White/blue degassing plume up to 100 m, dispersed towards the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 25 m. Incandescence observed in the evening.
22 May 2018 Moderate white/blue degassing plume up to 900 m, dispersed towards the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 5-10 m.
23 May 2018 White plume up to ~50 m, dispersed towards the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 25 m. Incandescence observed.
24 May 2018 Moderate white/blue plume up to 500-600 m, dispersed towards the W. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 5-10 m. Incandescence observed.
25 May 2018 White/blue plume up to 300 m, dispersed towards the N. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 25 m. Incandescence observed.
26 May 2018 White plume up to 800 m, dispersed towards the E. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 10-50 m.
28 May 2018 White/blue degassing plume up to 50 m, dispersed towards the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 50-100 m. Incandescence observed.
29 May 2018 White/blue degassing plume up to 200 m, dispersed towards the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 50-100 m, with ~50 explosions per hour. Incandescence observed.
31 May 2018 White/blue degassing plume up to 250 m, dispersed towards the S.
01 Jun 2018 White plume up to 500 m towards the N and NE. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 15-50 m.
02 Jun 2018 White plume up to 200 m, dispersed towards the W. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 15-50 m.
03 Jun 2018 White plume towards the W. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 25-50 m.
05 Jun 2018 White/blue plume up to 400-600 m towards the W. Occasional weak explosions.
06 Jun 2018 New lava flow 50 m long by 20 m wide. Strombolian explosions eject material up to 50 m. White plume up to 200 m.
07 Jun 2018 White plume to up 200-300 m towards the N. The lava flow continues.
08 Jun 2018 Low white/blue plume towards the W. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 15-50 m.
09 Jun 2018 White/blue degassing plume up to 400 m, dispersed towards the W.
10 Jun 2018 White/blue plume up to 300-400 m towards the SW. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 15-50 m.
11 Jun 2018 White plume towards the W. Strombolian explosions increased and ejected material up to 20-40 m.
12 June 2018 Strombolian explosions eject material up to 150 m, generating sounds heard ~10 km away.
13 June 2018 White/blue degassing plume up to 150-300 m, dispersed towards the N. Strombolian explosions eject material up to 15-100 m. Ash plume up to 3.5 km above sea level, dispersed to the N and NE to 10 km.
14 Jun 2018 Gray/white plume up to 600-800 m, dispersed to the NE. Strombolian explosions eject material up to 15-100 m.
16 Jun 2018 Abundant white/blue plume up to 50 m, dispersed to the N and NW. Increased Strombolian explosions eject material up to 25-40 m.
17 Jun 2018 Some Strombolian explosions at the Mackenney crater.
18 Jun 2018 Abundant white/blue plumes up to 25 m towards the W. Increased Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 25-50 m.
19 Jun 2018 White plume up to 15 m towards the N. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 5-25 m above the Mackenney crater.
20 Jun 2018 White/blue degassing plume up to 25 m, dispersed towards the N. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 5-30 m.
21 Jun 2018 Moderate white/blue degassing plume up to 15 m, dispersed towards the N. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 5-25 m.
22 Jun 2018 White/blue plume up to 25 m towards the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 25-50 m.
23 Jun 2018 White/blue degassing plume up to 150 m, dispersed towards the W. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 15, 50, and 70 m.
24 Jun 2018 Low white/blue degassing plume, dispersed towards the W. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 25 m.
25 Jun 2018 Degassing plume from Mackenney crater up to 30 m towards the W. Small Strombolian explosions occurred.
26 Jun 2018 Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 15-30 m.
27 Jun 2018 Low white/blue degassing plume, dispersed towards the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 5-25 m.
28 Jun 2018 Low white/blue degassing plume, dispersed towards the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 5-25 m.
29 Jun 2018 White/blue plume up to 50 m. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 25 m.
30 Jun 2018 Low white/blue degassing plume, dispersed towards the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 15-25 m.
01 Jul 2018 White/blue plume up to 200 m towards the SW. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 15-50 m.
02 Jul 2018 Low white/blue plume, dispersed towards the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 15-25 m.
03 Jul 2018 Low white/blue plume, dispersed towards the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 5-30 m. Increase in activity generated two lava flows, one 5 x 40 m flow towards the N, one 30 x 50 m towards the SE.
04 Jul 2018 Activity and lava flows decreasing.
05 Jul 2018 Strombolian explosions eject material up to 25 m. A lava flow 60 x 400 m continues.
06 Jul 2018 Strombolian explosions eject material up to 5-25 m.
07 Jul 2018 Lava flow from the Mackenney crater, 400 m long with an average width of 30 m, moving towards the N.
08 Jul 2018 Lava flow continues, now 500 m long. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 30 m. Degassing plume to 30 m towards the SW.
09 Jul 2018 Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 5-25 m. Incandescence observed.
10 Jul 2018 Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 5-25 m. Incandescence observed. Lava flow continues towards the N.
11 Jul 2018 Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 25-50 m. Incandescence observed. Lava flow continues towards the N to ~350 m.
12 Jul 2018 Small Strombolian explosions continue. Lava flow continues towards the N to ~100 m.
13 Jul 2018 Small white plume dispersed to the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 5-25 m. A Lava flow continues towards the N to 200 m.
14 Jul 2018 Incandescence observed. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 15-40 m. A ~150 m lava flow moved towards the N.
15 Jul 2018 Lava flow on the N to NW flank down to ~400 m, accompanied by small avalanches. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 15-75 m.
16 Jul 2018 Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 5-25 m. Incandescence observed. A lava flow descended towards the NW to ~400 m.
17 Jul 2018 Incandescence observed. Strombolian explosions eject material up to 25-50 m. A new lava flow moved towards the N.
18 Jul 2018 Degassing and Strombolian explosions produced material up to 25-30 m. A 500 m lava flow continued towards the N.
19 Jul 2018 Strombolian explosions ejected material to a low level. A 300 m lava flow descended towards the N.
20 Jul 2018 Low white/blue plume towards the S. Incandescence observed during the night/morning. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 5-25 m. A 200 m lava flow moving towards Cerro Chino.
21 Jul 2018 White/blue plume displaced towards the W. Lava flow continues 300 m towards the N.
22 Jul 2018 White/blue plume dispersed towards the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material to a low level. A lava flow moved towards the NW to ~500 m.
23 Jul 2018 Strombolian explosions ejected material to a low level. A lava flow moved towards the NW to ~250 m.
24 Jul 2018 Low white/blue plume towards the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 10-30 m. Lava flow to ~200 m towards Cerro Chino.
25 Jul 2018 White/blue plume up to 450 m, dispersed towards the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material to a low level. A 75 x 250 m lava flow moved towards the NW.
26 Jul 2018 White/blue plume up to 300 m, dispersed towards the W. Strombolian explosions ejected material to a low level. A lava flow moved towards the NW to 200 m.
27 Jul 2018 White plume up to 300 m, dispersed towards the W. Strombolian explosions ejected material to a low level. A lava flow moved towards the NW to 200 m.
28 Jul 2018 Moderate white/blue degassing plume dispersed towards the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material to a low level. A lava flow moved towards Cerro Chino to 150 m.
29 Jul 2018 White plume up to 300 m, dispersed towards the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material to a low level. Two lava flows moved towards the W to 50 and 150 m.
30 Jul 2018 Moderate white/blue degassing plume dispersed towards the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material to a low level. A lava flow moved towards Cerro Chino to 200 m.
31 Jul 2018 White plume up to 200 m, dispersed towards the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material to a low level. A lava flow moved 150 m towards the NW.
01 Aug 2018 White/blue plume up to 600 m, dispersed towards the W. Strombolian explosions ejected material to a low level. A lava flow moved towards Cerro Chino to 500 m.
02 Aug 2018 White/blue plume dispersed towards the N. Strombolian explosions ejected material to a low level. A lava flow moved towards Cerro Chino to 300 m.
03 Aug 2018 White/blue plume up to 50 m, dispersed towards the SW. Strombolian explosions ejected material to a low level. A lava flow moved towards Cerro Chino to 150 m.
04 Aug 2018 White plume dispersed towards the SE. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 30 m. A lava flow moved towards the N to 300 m.
05 Aug 2018 Moderate white plume up to 100 m, dispersed towards the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material to a low level. A lava flow moved towards Cerro Chino to 300 m.
06 Aug 2018 White plume dispersed towards the SE. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 30 m. Lava flow continues 300 m towards the N.
07 Aug 2018 Low white/blue plume dispersed towards the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 10-50 m. Two lava flows to the NE to 200 and 400 m.
08 Aug 2018 Moderate white plume dispersed towards the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material to a low level. A lava flow moved towards Cerro Chino to 150 m.
09 Aug 2018 Moderate white/blue plume up to 250 m, dispersed towards the W. Strombolian explosions ejected material to a low level. A lava flow moved towards the W to 150 m.
10 Aug 2018 Moderate white/blue plume dispersed towards the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material to a low level. Two lava flows moved towards Cerro Chino to 75 and 300 m.
11 Aug 2018 Low white/blue plume, dispersed towards the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 10-25 m. A lava flow moved towards Cerro Chino to 250 m.
12 Aug 2018 Moderate white/blue plume up to 500 m, dispersed towards the NW. Strombolian explosions ejected material to a low level. A lava flow moved towards Cerro Chino to 300 m.
13 Aug 2018 Small Strombolian explosions. Weak white/blue plume up to ~100 m. Lava flow ~300 m towards Cerro Chino.
14 Aug 2018 Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 25-30 m. Lava flow on the NW flank continues down to 300 m.
15 Aug 2018 Moderate white plume up to ~100 m, dispersed to the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 5-20 m. Two lava flows moved towards Cerro Chino to 75 and 300 m.
16 Aug 2018 Low white/blue plume dispersed towards the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material low above the crater. 200 m lava flow on the N flank.
17 Aug 2018 Moderate white plume reached ~50 m and dispersed to the S. Two lava flows traveled towards Cerro Chino to ~75 to 300 m.
18 Aug 2018 Faint white/blue plume up to 300-400 m and dispersed to the SW. Strombolian explosions ejected material to a low height. One lava flow to the N to ~300 m.
19 Aug 2018 Moderate white/blue plume up to ~100 and 150 m and dispersed to the NW. Two lava flows active on the NW flank towards Cerro Chino to ~75 and 300 m.
20 Aug 2018 White plume up to 600 m, dispersed to the SW. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 5-25 m. One lava flow to the N to ~300 m.
21 Aug 2018 White plume up to 600 m, dispersed to the W. One lava flow continues towards the N to ~300 m.
22 Aug 2018 Strombolian explosions ejected material to 25-30 m. The lava flow continues to 400 m on the N flank.
23 Aug 2018 White/blue moderate plume towards the S. Two lava flows traveled towards Cerro Chino to the NW.
24 Aug 2018 Strombolian explosions ejected material to a low height. Two lava flows traveled towards Cerro Chino to 200 and 300 m.
25 Aug 2018 Abundant degassing and explosions ejected material up to 30 m and deposited in the same crater. One 400 m lava flow on the N flank.
26 Aug 2018 Low white plume dispersing towards the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material to 5-30 m. One lava flow 350 m to the N.
27 Aug 2018 Slight increase of explosive activity, generating 3-5 explosions per hour.
31 Aug 2018 Degassing plume up to ~200 m, dispersed to the S. Strombolian explosions ejected material to a little above the crater. A lava flow moved towards the N to NW.
01 Sep 2018 White plume up to 800 m, dispersed towards the W. Strombolian explosions continue. A lava flow moved towards the N to 200 m.
02 Sep 2018 A 200-300 m lava flow was observed.
03 Sep 2018 Moderate white/blue plume up to 600 m, dispersed towards the NW. Incandescence was observed. A lava flow moved towards the NW to 200 m.
04 Sep 2018 White/blue plume up to 100 m, dispersed towards the W. Incandescence was observed. Two lava flows moved towards Cerro Chino.
05 Sep 2018 White/blue plume up to 800 m, dispersed towards the SW. Incandescence was observed. Two lava flows moved towards the NW to 100-200 m.
06 Sep 2018 Moderate white/blue plume dispersed towards the SW. Incandescence observed. Two lava flows moved towards the NW to 100-200 m.
07 Sep 2018 Moderate white/blue plume up to 50 m, dispersed towards the S. Incandescence observed. Two lava flows moved towards the NW to 200 m.
08 Sep 2018 Two lava flows observed from San Vicente.
09 Sep 2018 White/blue plume up to ~600 m towards the SW. Three lava flows 50, 150 and 300 m long.
10 Sep 2018 White/blue plume up to ~100 m, towards the N. Lava flow 300 m towards the NW.
11 Sep 2018 White/blue plume up to ~600 m, towards the N. Two lava flows ~150 and 200 m long towards Cerro Chino.
12 Sep 2018 White/blue plume up to ~300 m towards the S. Lava flow ~300 m towards Cerro Chino. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 10-40 m.
13 Sep 2018 White/blue plume up to 50 m towards the N. During night/early morning incandescence was observed. Lava flow 200-300 m towards the NW-W.
14 Sep 2018 Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 5-25 m. Three lava flows to 150, 250, and 300 m towards Cerro Chino.
15 Sep 2018 Fumarole gases up to 500 m due to low winds. Three lava flows to 150, 250, and 300 m on the W flank. Strombolian explosions ejected material to 25 m.
16 Sep 2018 Fumarole degassing up to 300-400 m. Lava flow in the direction of Cerro Chino, 200 m in length.
17 Sep 2018 White/blue fumarole plume towards the S. Incandescence observed at night. Lava flow to 200 m towards the NW.
18 Sep 2018 Moderate blue/white degassing plume to low altitude. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 5-25 m. Lava flow 200 m towards Cerro Chino.
19 Sep 2018 Moderate white/blue plume up to 50 m, dispersed towards the SW. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 10-25 m. A lava flow moved towards the W.
20 Sep 2018 Degassing plume up to 500-600 m towards the W. Two lava flows towards Cerro Chino on NW flank down to 150 and 300 m. Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 15-30 m.
21 Sep 2018 Incandescence observed at the crater at night/early morning. Four lava flows down to 40, 150, and 200 m to the NW.
22 Sep 2018 Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 25-25 m. A lava flow moved towards Cerro Chino.
23 Sep 2018 Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 25-30 m. A lava flow moved towards Cerro Chino to 250-300 m.
24 Sep 2018 White/blue plume up to 100 m, dispersed towards the S. Two lava flows moved towards Cerro Chino to 75 and 150 m.
25 Sep 2018 Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 5-25 m. A lava flow moved 100-200 m to the NW.
26 Sep 2018 White plume dispersed towards the S. Incandescence observed. A lava flow moved towards Cerro Chino.
27 Sep 2018 Strombolian explosions ejected material up to 20 m. Two lava flows moved towards Cerro Chino to 250 and 300 m.
28 Sep 2018 A lava flow continued towards Cerro Chino. Incandescence was observed.
28 Sep 2018 Incandescence was observed. Strombolian activity continued. A lava flow moved towards Cerro Chino.

Geologic Background. Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. This complex basaltic volcano was constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the ancestral Pacaya Viejo and Cerro Grande stratovolcanoes and the currently active Mackenney stratovolcano. Collapse of Pacaya Viejo between 600 and 1500 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (Mackenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of Mackenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the growing young stratovolcano.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hydrologia (INSIVUMEH), Unit of Volcanology, Geologic Department of Investigation and Services, 7a Av. 14-57, Zona 13, Guatemala City, Guatemala (URL: http://www.insivumeh.gob.gt/); Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres (CONRED), Av. Hincapié 21-72, Zona 13, Guatemala City, Guatemala (URL: http://conred.gob.gt/www/index.php); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).


Popocatepetl (Mexico) — November 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Popocatepetl

Mexico

19.023°N, 98.622°W; summit elev. 5393 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Gas, steam, and ash plumes continue through August 2018 with occasional explosions ejecting incandescent blocks onto the slopes

Popocatépetl volcano is one of Mexico's most active volcanoes, located near the capitol Mexico City. It has been persistently active since 2005 and frequently active for centuries before that. Activity frequently consists of gas-and-steam and ash plumes, incandescent blocks that scatter across the flanks, and frequent growth of domes in the summit crater. This report summarizes activity from March through August 2018 using information issued by CENAPRED (Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres) along with various satellite and webcam data.

Throughout the reporting period, typical activity continued, consisting of frequent low-intensity activity and larger explosive events (figure 106), visible incandescence on cloud-free nights, elevated thermal energy in the crater, and sulfur dioxide measurements.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 106. Graph showing the number of low-intensity events (producing gas-and-steam and dilute ash plumes), and explosive events at Popocatépetl from March through August 2018. Data courtesy of CENAPRED.

Activity during March 2018. Activity through March involved intermittent to continuous gas-and-steam emissions. For the entire month, there were 2,812 low-intensity gas-and-steam events reported, sometimes with minor ash content; 36 explosive events also occurred. Explosions produced ash plumes up to a maximum height of 1.5 km above the crater. Incandescence was frequently observed at nighttime and showed greater intensity during periods of increased emissions from the crater. Emissions were directed towards the N, NE, SE, SSW, and NW. Volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes were common, with the largest being a magnitude 3 under the SE flank on 24 March, and a magnitude 3.2 located 18 km NE of the volcano on 31 March. On 16 March an overflight of the summit by CENAPRED and the Federal Police determined that the internal summit crater was 320 m in diameter and about 100 m deep (figure 107). A small 30 x 50 m dome (number 78 since March 1996) was present in the crater and producing gas emissions. On the walls of the crater the remnants of older domes could be seen.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 107. Photos of Popocatépetl volcano showing degassing and a small dome within the summit crater. Photos taken during an overflight on 16 March 2018 courtesy of Luis Felipe Puente at Protección Civil del Estado de México.

Activity during April 2018. Throughout April the frequency of gas-and-steam emissions was variable. Over the month, 1,986 low-intensity plumes and minor ash rose up to 1 km above the crater, and 53 larger explosive events that produced ash plumes up to 1 km (figure 108). On 10 and 11 April explosive events generated ash plumes to 1 km above the crater and ejected incandescent blocks out to 500 m from the crater. Another explosive event on 27 April produced an ash plume to 1 km above the crater. Harmonic tremor and frequent incandescence indicated that dome growth continued. Plumes were largely directed towards the NE, SE, or SSW. On 23 April three events ejected incandescent blocks to the E and SE of the crater. VT events were common with the largest reaching M 3.2 on 11 April.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 108. Gas-and-steam and ash plumes at Popocatépetl in April 2018. Webcam images courtesy of Webcams de Mexico.

Activity during May 2018. Throughout May, intermittent to continuous gas-and-steam emissions continued with the plumes reaching 1.2 km above the crater (figure 109). A total of 2,029 low-intensity events and 19 explosive events were produced. An explosive event on 3 May generated an ash plume up to 2 km above the crater, dispersing towards the NNE, and was followed by continuous emissions of gas-and-steam up to 1.2 km. On 17 and 18 May three explosions produced ash plumes up to 2.5 km above the crater. On 25 May an explosion launched incandescent blocks up to 400 m above the crater, most of which landed back into the crater, and produced an ash plume up to 3 km that then drifted towards the S. Wind directions largely directed plumes towards the S, SE, and SW. A second explosion that day ejected incandescent blocks up to 300 m above the crater. Incandescence was frequently noted above the crater at nighttime throughout the month. VT events were common, with the largest event being a M 3.4 on 24 May.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 109. Ash plumes (upper images), an explosive event producing an ash plume and ejecting incandescent blocks onto the slopes (lower left), and a gas-and-steam plume (lower right) at Popocatépetl in May 2018. Webcam images courtesy of Webcams de Mexico.

Activity during June 2018. During the month of June a total of 1,425 low-intensity and 45 explosive events occurred (figure 110). Gas-and-steam emissions were variable, reaching less than 1 km above the crater. Explosive events generated ash plumes up to 2 km on 1-2 June (figure 111), 2.5 km on 15 June, 2 km on 16 June, and 1 km on 23 June. Ash plumes were largely directed towards the SSW, NE, and W. Volcano-tectonic (VT) events were common, with the largest event being a M 3.4 on 24 June. Incandescence was common at nighttime when clouds did not obscure the summit.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 110. Gas-and-steam and ash plumes at Popocatépetl through the month of June 2018. Webcam images courtesy of Webcams de Mexico.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 111. Ash emission from the Popocatépetl summit crater on 1 June 2018. Top: Thermal image showing the elevated temperature of the crater. Bottom: Natural color image showing the brown ash plume. Thermal (urban) satellite image (bands 12, 11, 4) and natural color satellite image (bands 4, 3, 2) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Activity during July 2018. Through the month of July, Popocatépetl produced 959 low-intensity events, sometimes with dilute ash, and 55 larger explosive events (figure 112). A series of events on 19-20 June produced a small amount of ashfall on the town of Amecameca to the west and explosive events ejected incandescent blocks out to 600 m from the crater. An increase in activity on 31 July ejected incandescent material onto the flanks and a 2-km-high ash plume that resulted in ashfall in the municipalities of Tetela del Volcán, Yecapixtla, Tlalnepantla, Totolapan, Cuernavaca, Tepoztlan, Huitzilac, and Tlayacapan in the state of Morelos, as well as in Amecameca, Acuautla, Ecatzingo , Ozumba, and Tepetlixpa, in the state of Mexico. VT events were common, with the largest being a M 3 event on 4 July. Incandescence was commonly visible above the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 112. Webcam images showing activity at Popocatépetl during July 2018. Top left: a gas-and-steam plume with incandescence from the crater visible at the base of the plume. Top right: a nighttime explosion producing incandescence in the plume above the crater and incandescent blocks that have landed on the flanks of the volcano. Bottom left and right: dilute ash plumes. Webcam images courtesy of Webcams de Mexico.

Activity during August 2018. Throughout August there was a total of 2,262 low-intensity events and 70 larger explosive events at Popocatépetl. Gas-and-steam and some ash emissions reached 1 km above the crater (figure 113). Incandescence was common throughout the month when the crater was visible at night. VT events continued with the largest on 14 August with a magnitude of 3.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 113. Examples of gas-and-steam plumes, nighttime incandescence (upper right), and an ash plume (lower left) at Popocatépetl through August 2018. Webcam images courtesy of Webcams de Mexico.

Satellite data. In agreement with frequent visible incandescence at the summit, elevated thermal energy was detected by satellites (figure 114). The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) algorithm also detected frequent elevated thermal activity at the summit. Sulfur dioxide emissions were sporadically large enough throughout the reporting period to be measured by the satellite Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) (figure 115).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 114. The Popocatépetl crater had persistently elevated temperatures (bright yellow-orange) in the crater from March through August 2018. Bright blue colors are snow on the volcano. Thermal (urban) satellite images (bands 12, 11, 4) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 115. Sulfur dioxide measurements in Dobson Units (DU) by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the AURA spacecraft over Mexico with Popocatépetl indicated in the upper left image. Sulfur dioxide is commonly detected over Popocatépetl and these images show some examples of the higher SO2 days on 24 March 2018 (upper left), 15 April 2018 (upper right), 11 May 2018 (bottom left), and 30 July 2018 (lower right). Date, time, and measurements are given at the top of each image. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Flight Center.

Geologic Background. Volcán Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, rises 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 400 x 600 m wide crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas to the south. The modern volcano was constructed south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major Plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 CE, have occurred since the mid-Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since Pre-Columbian time.

Information Contacts: Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres (CENAPRED), Av. Delfín Madrigal No.665. Coyoacan, México D.F. 04360, México (URL: http://www.cenapred.unam.mx/), Daily Report Archive http://www.cenapred.unam.mx:8080/reportesVolcanGobMX/BuscarReportesVolcan); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Webcams de Mexico (URL: http://www.webcamsdemexico.com/); Luis Felipe Puente, Protección Civil del Estado de México, Lic. Adolfo López Mateos s/n, Primer Piso, Las Culturas, 51355 San Miguel Zinacantepec, Méx., Mexico (URL: http://cgproteccioncivil.edomex.gob.mx/, Twitter: https://twitter.com/LUISFELIPE_P, Twitter: @LUISFELIPE_P).


Reventador (Ecuador) — November 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Reventador

Ecuador

0.077°S, 77.656°W; summit elev. 3562 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash plumes and explosions with ballistic ejecta continue during April-September 2018 with several lava flows and pyroclastic flows; five new vents after partial flank collapse

Reventador is one of the most active volcanoes in Ecuador. The active cone is situated in a horseshoe-shaped collapse crater that opens to the E. Typical activity consists of explosions that eject blocks onto the slopes and ash plumes, as well as occasional lava flows and pyroclastic flows. Activity has been elevated since 2002, with several breaks between eruptions during this time. Since 2002 there have been 637 volcanic ash activity reports indicating ash plumes, and 36 ash plumes have exceeded 3.1 km above the crater. This report summarizes eruptive activity for April through September 2018 and is based on Instituto Geofisico (IG-EPN) reports, Washington Volcano Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) reports, and various satellite data.

The activity at Reventador has had several broad levels of activity during this time: 'very explosive' during January to 21 April with up to 45 explosions per day; a period of reduced explosive activity from 22 April to 16 August with fewer than five explosive events per day; and 'very explosive' activity continued after 17 August. The activity produced frequent plumes, several lava flows out to 3 km from the vent, and pyroclastic flows. Incandescence was frequently observed at the crater throughout this period. A partial flank collapse occurred in April, resulting in five new vents within the new scarp on the W side. Incandescent blocks were frequently observed on the flanks, reaching down to 1 km from the crater and ash plumes were frequently observed with maximum heights of 1-3 km (table 10). The area was often concealed by cloud cover but incandescence was frequently noted when the summit was visible. Near-continuous activity was reported when the volcano was visible (figure 89).

Table 10. High levels of activity at Reventador during April-September 2018 were evident from the numbers of MODVOLC thermal alerts, days with reported ash emissions, and block avalanches. Clouds covering the volcano impacted observations of activity during most months. Compiled from IG-EPN daily reports, VAAC reports, and MODVOLC data.

Date MODVOLC alerts Cloudy days Days with ash emissions Plume heights above summit (m) Days with block avalanches Block avalanche runout distances (m)
Apr 2018 0 14 18 Less than 200 - over 1,000 10 200 - 800
May 2018 4 21 22 300 - 3,100 1 800
Jun 2018 0 21 22 300 - over 1,000 5 300 - 800
Jul 2018 0 30 20 200 - 2,500 7 100 - 1,000
Aug 2018 2 28 14 100 - over 1,000 4 600 - 1,000
Sep 2018 1 26 27 400 - over 1,000 4 300 - 600
Figure (see Caption) Figure 89. Chart summarizing monthly activity at Reventador during January 2017-September 2018 showing MODVOLC alerts (red), ash emissions (gray), and block avalanches (blue). The number of cloudy days (yellow) reduced the number of observed events during most months. Data courtesy of IG-EPN, compiled from daily reports and MODVOLC.

Near-continuous activity continued through April, with ash or gas-and-steam plumes observed on most days when weather permitted (figure 90). On 6 April a 600-m-high ash plume was accompanied by pyroclastic flows that traveled down multiple flanks (figure 91). Light ashfall was reported to the NE of Reventador on the night of 9 April after a 600-m-high ash plume and incandescent blocks were ejected. An overflight on 12 April observed short ash plumes up to 1.5 km above the crater accompanied by "cannon-shot" booms (figure 92), a pyroclastic flow, and hot avalanche deposits radiating from the crater out to 1.6 km (figures 93 and 94). Temperatures in the vent reached 355°C and the maximum detected pyroclastic flow deposit temperature was 150°C.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 90. Examples of plumes at Reventador with various concentrations of ash, and explosions ejecting incandescent blocks onto the flanks during April 2018. Webcam images courtesy of IG-EPN (April 2018 daily reports).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 91. Pyroclastic flows traveling down multiple flanks during an explosive event at Reventador on 6 April 2018. Courtesy if IG-EPN (6 April 2018 daily report).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 92. An ash plume at Reventador on 12 April 2018. Multiple Vulcanian ash plumes were observed during the monitoring overflight on this day. Courtesy of F. Naranjo, IG-EPN (10 May 2018 report).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 93. An aerial photograph of Reventador on 12 April 2018 showing fresh lighter-gray pyroclastic flow and ballistic-projectile deposits on most sides of the volcano. The deposits extended down to 800 m from the crater. Courtesy of F. Naranjo, IG-EPN (10 May 2018 report).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 94. Photographs and thermal images of hot pyroclastic flow deposits on Reventador. When these images were taken on 26 April 2018, temperatures of the deposits were up to 150°C. Beyond the pyroclastic flow deposits hot ballistic blocks are visible in the thermal images, and the 2017 lava flow is visible in the top photograph. Courtesy of S Vallejo, P Ramón, IR Image: M Almeida, IG-EPN (10 May 2018 report).

Continuous explosive activity in the second and third weeks of April caused a partial collapse of the western flank, including part of the summit (figure 95). The length and width of the resulting scarp was 400 x 200 m, and the maximum depth was 200 m. Within this collapse scarp, five vents had formed that were producing both effusive and explosive activity. A lava flow and pyroclastic flow deposits were observed below the collapse area. On 26 April an active lava flow was observed descending the W flank that was redirected towards the E once it reached the older collapse scarp wall (figure 96). The lava flow was active for around one month and had ceased by the time the flow was observed again during an overflight on 20 June. A thermal survey on 20 June detected temperatures within the vents ranging from 60-155°C. At the time of the survey, three out of five vents were active with either effusive or explosive activity.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 95. Photograph and thermal images of the western flank of the Reventador cone on 12 April 2018 (left images) and 20 June 2018 (right images). These images show the cone before and after the sector collapse that occurred mid-April as a result of continuous explosive activity. Five vents formed within this scarp, indicated in the 20 June images, which went on to produce explosive and effusive activity. Pyroclastic flow deposits and a lava flow are visible below the scarp in the 20 June images. Courtesy of M.F. Naranjo, S. Vallejo; thermal images: M. Almeida, S. Vallejo, IG-EPN (2018 Reventador annual report).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 96. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of Reventador showing the distribution of the lava flows generated during April and May 2018. The northern flow (purple) has three dates showing the progress of the flow that correspond to the colored thermal images below. The NE-directed flow (orange) was generated in June 2017. Translated captions for the thermal images are as follows. 2018 04 26: The lava flow descended to the NW then it was directed towards the E by the crater wall. The maximum recorded temperature was 470°; thermal image by M. Almedia, IG-EPN. 2018 05 21: The lava flow front was advancing with four lobes; thermal image by S. Vallejo, IG-EPN. 2018 06 20: An aerial view of the NE flank with the flow inactive at the time of observation. The flow had bifurcated into two flow fronts; image by S. Vallejo Vargas, IG-EPN. Image courtesy of IG-EPN (2018 Reventador annual report).

Ash and gas-and-steam plumes continued through May with plumes reaching 3.1 km above the crater, accompanied by ballistic projectiles and hot avalanches that reached 800 m away from the crater on the flanks of the volcano. There were 12 reports of ashfall on 27 May in the provinces of Imbabura, Napo and Pichincha. On 27 May there were 12 reports of ashfall in the provinces of Imbabura (Antonio Ante, Otavalo), Napo (Quijos), and Pichincha (Cayambe, Pedro Moncayo, Quito), originating from a 3.1-km-high ash plume (figure 97).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 97. Volcanic ash samples from the 27 May 2018 Reventador ashfall event in Cayambe and Pomasqui. Top: Binocular microscope images of the ash samples showing finer ash in the Cayambe sample. The scales for these two images are 0.2 mm. Bottom: Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images of ash particles from the Pomasqui sample above. The images show crystals (cristal), vesicular scoria clasts (escoria), dense lava clasts (lava densa), glass (vidrio), and aggregates of fine ash that clumped together because of the humidity in the atmosphere (agregado). The scales for these four images are 50 microns. Courtesy of E. Gaunt, IG-EPN.

Detected thermal anomalies were less frequent from June through September (figure 98). Ash and gas-and-steam plumes continued through June, reaching over 1 km above the crater (figure 99). Light ashfall was reported in Azcásubi on 28 June. Five avalanches of incandescent blocks were recorded, extending 800 m from the crater. Through July, ash and gas-and-steam plumes reached a maximum height above the crater of 2.5 km. Four incandescent block avalanches were observed down to 1 km below the crater. Ashfall was reported on 2 July in the Cayambe sector and in the town of Juan Montalvo (figure 100). Light ashfall was also reported in Tababela and Puembo on 19 July.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 98. Log radiative power MIROVA plot of MODIS infrared data for the year ending 1 October 2018 showing a decrease in energy and frequency of anomalies detected at Reventador after June 2018. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 99. Examples of ash plumes and explosions ejecting incandescent blocks on to the flanks of Reventador during June 2018. Courtesy of IG-EPN (June 2018 daily activity reports).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 100. An ash plume at Reventador reached 3 km above the crater at 1130 local time on 2 July 2018. Ashfall from this plume was reported in the Cayambe sector and in the town of Juan Montalvo. Courtesy of ECU 911 Nueva Loja via IG-EPN (2 July 2018 report).

Similar activity continued through August and September, with ash and gas-and-steam plumes reaching over 1 km from the crater (figures 101 and 102). Four avalanches were noted in both August and September, with material reaching 1 km and 600 m, respectively. A Sentinel-2 thermal satellite image acquired on 25 August showed the new morphology of the crater after the April collapse, with two active vents at that time (figure 103).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 101. Examples of ash plumes and incandescent ballistic blocks on the flanks at Reventador during August 2018. Courtesy of IG-EPN (August 2018 daily activity reports).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 102. Examples of ash plumes with varying ash content and incandescent ballistic blocks on the flanks at Reventador during September 2018. Courtesy of IG-EPN (September 2018 daily activity reports).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 103. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images of Reventador comparing the thermal signatures before and after the formation of the collapse scarp in April. These images show the central summit crater in April and August 2018 with two of the recently-formed vents. Courtesy of Sentinel-Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well east of the principal volcanic axis. The forested, dominantly andesitic Volcán El Reventador stratovolcano rises to 3562 m above the jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 4-km-wide caldera widely breached to the east was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1300 m above the caldera floor to a height comparable to the caldera rim. It has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. The largest historical eruption took place in 2002, producing a 17-km-high eruption column, pyroclastic flows that traveled up to 8 km, and lava flows from summit and flank vents.

Information Contacts: Instituto Geofísico (IG-EPN), Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Casilla 17-01-2759, Quito, Ecuador (URL: http://www.igepn.edu.ec ); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Sangeang Api (Indonesia) — November 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Sangeang Api

Indonesia

8.2°S, 119.07°E; summit elev. 1912 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ongoing crater activity and thermal anomalies during September 2017-October 2018

A significant increase in the number of thermal anomalies at Sangeang Api was recorded during February and June through mid-August 2017, along with a small Strombolian eruption in mid-July that generated an ash plume (BGVN 42:09). The high number of thermal anomalies continued through at least 20 October 2018. The current report summarizes activity between 1 September 2017 and 20 October 2018. The volcano is monitored by the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) and Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC).

Based on a Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation (VONA) from PVMBG, on 9 May 2018 a gas emission was observed at 1807 that rose to an altitude of 4,150 m and drifted W. Consequently, the Aviation Color Code was raised from unassigned to Yellow. Clear thermal satellite imagery the next day showed hot material traveling about 500 m SE out of the summit crater and continuing another 500 m down the E flank (figure 18).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Sentinel-2 satellite image of Sangeang Api on 10 May 2018. This "Atmospheric penetration" view (bands 12, 11, and 8A) highlights hot material extending more than a kilometer from the vent in the summit crater to the SE and onto the E flank. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub.

Based on another VONA from PVMBG, an ash emission at 1338 on 15 October 2018 rose 250 m above the summit and drifted SW, W, and NW. The VONA noted that the ash emission possibly rose higher than what a ground observer had estimated. Seismic data was dominated by signals indicating emissions as well as local tectonic earthquakes. The Aviation Color Code was raised from Yellow to Orange.

During the reporting period, MODIS satellite instruments using the MODVOLC algorithm recorded thermal anomalies between 3 and 12 days per month, many of which had multiple pixels. October 2017 had the greatest number of days with hotspots (12), while the lowest number was recorded during December 2017 through February 2018 (3-4 days per month). The vast majority of anomalies issued from the summit; a few were along the E flanks. The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) volcano hotspot detection system, also based on analysis of MODIS data, recorded numerous hotspots during the previous 12 months through mid-October 2018, except for the second half of January 2018 (figure 19). Almost all recorded MIROVA anomalies were within 5 km of the volcano and of low to moderate radiative power.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. Thermal anomalies identified by the MIROVA system (Log Radiative Power) at Sangeang Api for the year ending 19 October 2018. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. Sangeang Api volcano, one of the most active in the Lesser Sunda Islands, forms a small 13-km-wide island off the NE coast of Sumbawa Island. Two large trachybasaltic-to-tranchyandesitic volcanic cones, Doro Api and Doro Mantoi, were constructed in the center and on the eastern rim, respectively, of an older, largely obscured caldera. Flank vents occur on the south side of Doro Mantoi and near the northern coast. Intermittent eruptions have been recorded since 1512, most of them during in the 20th century.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Sarychev Peak (Russia) — November 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Sarychev Peak

Russia

48.092°N, 153.2°E; summit elev. 1496 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Thermal anomalies, surface activity, and ash explosions during October-November 2017 and September-October 2018

Located on Matua Island in the central Kurile Islands, Russia, Sarychev Peak (figures 19 and 20) had a significant eruption in June-July 2009 (BGVN 34:06, 35:09). Prior to this, a 1946 eruption resulted in the crater with a diameter and depth of approximately 250 m, with steep, sometimes overhanging crater walls. The N crater wall may have collapsed after a 1960 eruption, based on eyewitness accounts. A 1976 eruption included strong emissions and lava flows which resulted in a crater diameter of approximately 200 m and a floor 50-70 m below the rim. The eruption on 11-16 June 2009 encompassed more than ten large explosions, resulting in pyroclastic flows and ash plumes. The area of island covered by the June 2009 pyroclastic flows was more than 8 km2 (BGVN 34:06). Monitoring reports come from the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) and the Sakhalin Island Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. Photo looking into the crater of Sarychev Peak from the crater rim on 27 June 2017. Courtesy of V. Gurianov, Institute of Volcanology and Seismology FEB, RAS, KVERT.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. Sentinel-2 satellite image (natural color, bands 4, 3, 2) of Sarychev Peak on 8 September 2017. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Thermal anomalies were noted by the NOAA Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies over a period of five hours on 14 October 2017 in satellite data from Terra MODIS, S-NPP VIIRS, and Himawari-8; a plume of unknown composition accompanied the anomaly. A smaller thermal anomaly was present on 12 October, but not seen the following day during favorable viewing conditions. Another thermal anomaly was reported by SVERT on 21 October; views on other days that week of 17-23 October were obscured by clouds. On 7 November gas emissions and an elongated area of snow melt and potential thermal signature was visible on the N flank of the volcano (figure 21). On 8 and 13 November steam emissions were reported by SVERT and cloud cover prevented additional observations.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. Sentinel-2 satellite images of Sarychev Peak on 7 November 2017. Top image (natural color, bands 4, 3, 2) shows a white plume rising from the summit crater and a dark area extending about 1.25 km NW on the snow-covered slopes. Bottom image (atmospheric penetration, bands 12, 11, 8A) shows hot areas (in orange) of volcano material near the summit within the dark area seen in visible imagery. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The volcano was usually cloud-covered after mid-November 2017 through mid-February 2018. A small white plume seen in Sentinel-2 imagery on 20 February 2018 was not accompanied by a noticeable thermal anomaly, and the island appeared completely snow-covered. No activity of any kind was seen on the next cloud-free images taken on 4 and 11 May 2018, when the summit crater was filled with snow.

KVERT noted in a September report that there had been a thermal anomaly periodically observed after 7 May 2018. Fumarolic plumes were visible on 5 and 18 June 2018 (figure 22). Thermal anomalies were present on 8 and 11-12 September. Moderate explosions were reported during 11-15 September 2018, with ash emissions rising 3-4 km. On 14 September ash plumes drifted as far as 120 km NNE and the Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange. Explosions on 17 September generated ash plumes that rose as high as 4.5 km and drifted 21 km NE. Additional ash plumes identified in satellite images drifted 265 km E during 17-18 September. The eruption continued through 21 September, and a thermal anomaly was again visible on 22 September.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 22. Fumarolic activity at Sarychev Peak on 18 June 2018. Courtesy of FEC SRC Planeta, Institute of Volcanology and Seismology FEB RAS, KVERT.

Based on Tokyo VAAC data and satellite images, KVERT reported that at 1330 on 10 October 2018 an ash plume reached 1.7-2 km altitude and drifted 95 km E. SVERT reported that on 15 October an ash plume rose to 2.1 km altitude and drifted 65-70 km E. KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly was also identified in satellite images on 15 October. No further activity was seen through the end of October.

Thermal anomalies identified in MODIS data by the MIROVA system during October 2016-October 2018 occurred intermittently during the summer months each year (figure 23). However, most of those events were low-power and located several kilometers from the crater, so the heat source is unclear.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 23. Thermal anomalies detected by the MIROVA system using MODIS data at Sarychev Peak for the year ending 18 October 2017 (top) and ending 24 October 2018 (bottom), plotted as log radiative power. Most of the events shown were located several kilometers from the summit crater. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. Sarychev Peak, one of the most active volcanoes of the Kuril Islands, occupies the NW end of Matua Island in the central Kuriles. The andesitic central cone was constructed within a 3-3.5-km-wide caldera, whose rim is exposed only on the SW side. A dramatic 250-m-wide, very steep-walled crater with a jagged rim caps the volcano. The substantially higher SE rim forms the 1496 m high point of the island. Fresh-looking lava flows, prior to activity in 2009, had descended in all directions, often forming capes along the coast. Much of the lower-angle outer flanks of the volcano are overlain by pyroclastic-flow deposits. Eruptions have been recorded since the 1760s and include both quiet lava effusion and violent explosions. Large eruptions in 1946 and 2009 produced pyroclastic flows that reached the sea.

Information Contacts: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (SVERT), Institute of Marine Geology and Geophysics (IMG&G) Far East Division Russian Academy of Sciences (FED RAS), 1B Science St., Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, 693022, Russia (URL: http://www.imgg.ru/); Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); NOAA, Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS), Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC), University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1225 W. Dayton St. Madison, WI 53706, (URL: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Sheveluch (Russia) — November 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Sheveluch

Russia

56.653°N, 161.36°E; summit elev. 3283 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Thermal anomalies along with minor gas and steam emissions continue through October 2018

Volcanic activity at Sheveluch declined during the period of May through October 2018. This decline followed a lengthy cycle of eruptive activities which began in 1999, including pyroclastic flows, explosions, and lava dome growth, as previously reported through April 2018 (BGVN 43:05). According to the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), during this time a thermal anomaly was detected in satellite imagery and two gas-and-steam events were reported in July and October 2018. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

KVERT reported that satellite data showed a plume of re-suspended ash up to 62 km to the SE of the volcano on 18 July 2018. Moderate gas and steam emissions rose from the volcano on 19-26 October 2018. Thermal anomalies were frequently reported by KVERT during May through October 2018. The MIROVA system detected intermittent low-power thermal anomalies during this time.

Geologic Background. The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 km3 volcano is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).


Ulawun (Papua New Guinea) — November 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Ulawun

Papua New Guinea

5.05°S, 151.33°E; summit elev. 2334 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash plumes on 8 June, 21 September, and 5 October 2018

Typical activity at Ulawun consists of sporadic explosions with weak ash plumes. During 2017, sporadic explosions occurred between late June through early November with ash plumes rising no more than 3 km in altitude (BGVN 42:12). This report describes activity between January and September 2018.

According to the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), a NOTAM (Notice to Airmen) stated that on 8 June 2018 an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.1 km and drifted W. The Darwin VAAC also reported that a pilot observed an ash plume on 21 September 2018 rising to an altitude of 3.7 km and drifting W. Ash was not confirmed in satellite images, though weather clouds obscured views.

On 5 October 2018 the Darwin VAAC identified a steam-and-ash emission in satellite images rising to an altitude of 4.6 km and drifting WSW. It was also reported by ground observers. The Rabaul Volcano Observatory reported that during 1-12 October white, and sometimes light gray, emissions rose from the summit crater; seismicity was low.

Geologic Background. The symmetrical basaltic-to-andesitic Ulawun stratovolcano is the highest volcano of the Bismarck arc, and one of Papua New Guinea's most frequently active. The volcano, also known as the Father, rises above the N coast of the island of New Britain across a low saddle NE of Bamus volcano, the South Son. The upper 1,000 m is unvegetated. A prominent E-W escarpment on the south may be the result of large-scale slumping. Satellitic cones occupy the NW and E flanks. A steep-walled valley cuts the NW side, and a flank lava-flow complex lies to the south of this valley. Historical eruptions date back to the beginning of the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions were mildly explosive until 1967, but after 1970 several larger eruptions produced lava flows and basaltic pyroclastic flows, greatly modifying the summit crater.

Information Contacts: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Geohazards Management Division, Department of Mineral Policy and Geohazards Management (DMPGM), PO Box 3386, Kokopo, East New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea.

Atmospheric Effects

The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found in this section.

Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989)  Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001)

Special Announcements

Special announcements of various kinds and obituaries.

Special Announcements  Obituaries

Misc Reports

Reports are sometimes published that are not related to a Holocene volcano. These might include observations of a Pleistocene volcano, earthquake swarms, or floating pumice. Reports are also sometimes published in which the source of the activity is unknown or the report is determined to be false. All of these types of additional reports are listed below by subject.

Additional Reports  False Reports