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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 4 April-10 April 2007.


















 Activity for the week of 4 April-10 April 2007

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) New
Chikurachki Paramushir Island (Russia) New
Etna Sicily (Italy) New
Piton de la Fournaise Reunion Island (France) New
Reventador Ecuador New
Tungurahua Ecuador New

Bulusan Luzon (Philippines) Ongoing
Karangetang Siau Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Pacaya Guatemala Ongoing
Rabaul New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing
St. Helens United States Ongoing
Ubinas Peru Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Batu Tara  | Komba Island (Indonesia)  | 7.791°S, 123.585°E  | Elevation 633 m

CVGHM reported that observations of Batu Tara from 30 March indicated that the E side of the volcano was most impacted by recent activity. Plant life on the E side was affected by hot ashfall and incandescent rockslides and cooled lava flows were observed at the E foot of the volcano. Steam and occasional ash plumes rose from the area where hot material interacted with the sea. White plumes rose from the summit to an altitude of approximately 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Based on satellite imagery and information from CVGHM, the Darwin VAAC reported that diffuse plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW during 4-10 April. On 5 April, plumes rose to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Chikurachki  | Paramushir Island (Russia)  | 50.324°N, 155.461°E  | Elevation 1781 m

Based on satellite imagery, KVERT reported that an ash plume from Chikurachki drifted 200 km NE on 4 April. On 5 April, the Tokyo VAAC reported that a possible eruption plume to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. was seen on satellite imagery drifting N. Explosive activity continued on 9 April. On 10 April, KVERT set the Level of Concern Color Code to Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3320 m

In the morning of 29 March, an increase in volcanic tremor at Etna was accompanied by lava fountaining and an ash plume that drifted NE. Three fissures opened and produced lava flows. The first two fissures produced lava flows from vents located on the SE flank of Bocca Nuova and in the saddle between Bocca Nuova and Southeast Crater (SEC), in the same location of the October-November 2006 events. The two flows merged down slope and traveled less than 1 km S, halting at the rim of Cratere del Piano. The third fissure opened at the E base of SEC, and the lava flow spread within the upper Valle del Bove. The flows stopped by early afternoon. Ash and lapilli fallout occurred in a narrow zone between SEC, Rifugio Citelli and Giardini Naxos, on the NE flank of the volcano.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Volcano index photo  Piton de la Fournaise  | Reunion Island (France)  | 21.244°S, 55.708°E  | Elevation 2632 m

OVPDLF reported that on 30 March at 2300, a 9-hour eruption from the SE flank of Piton de la Fournaise produced a small lava flow. On 2 April, a fissure that opened on the S-part of Grand Brûlé also produced a lava flow that reached the sea later that day. The flow velocity was estimated at 100 cubic meters per second, a value not seen at Réunion Island within the last 20 or 30 years. Lava fountaining to 100 m was observed at the point of emission during 4-6 April. On 6 April, very liquid and fast-moving lava reached a higher velocity than on 2 April in the main channel and a'a' flows covered a broad area. Explosions and fragmentation of rock were observed at the point were the lava flows met the sea. Fine-grained particles and Pele's Hair were observed 10-20 km away and millimeter-sized grains of basalt were found within 5 km. Intense seismic activity was observed beneath the summit.

Based on aerial photographs on 7 April, an area of 1000 x 700 m of Dolomieu crater collapsed to an estimated depth of 300 m on the N side and 10 m on the NW edge; the estimated collapse volume was 50 million cubic meters. On 7 and 8 April, seismicity and the intensity of lava fountaining decreased. On 10 April, tremor decreased in frequency and two lava flows were observed, one reaching the sea.

Sources: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF), Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF)



Volcano index photo  Reventador  | Ecuador  | 0.077°S, 77.656°W  | Elevation 3562 m

Incandescent blocks ejected from the summit of Reventador that subsequently rolled down the S flanks were observed at night during 3-4 April. Satellite imagery revealed ash plumes drifting W and a large thermal anomaly over the crater. On 4 April, a plume rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,100 ft) a.s.l. Crater incandescence was observed on 4 and 6 April and "cannon shots" were heard on 6 April. Ash-and-steam emissions were observed during 8-9 April. Steam emissions from the flanks on 8 April possibly originated from a lava flow.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

IG reported that during 3-5 April, ash plumes from Tungurahua rose to altitudes of 8-9 km (26,200-29,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and W. Ashfall was reported at areas to the SW on 4 April. On 3 April, blocks rolled 800 m down the W flank; noises indicating rolling blocks were heard on 5 and 6 April. Lahars descended the W flank on 6 April. During 6-8 April, ash plumes, occasionally accompanied by roaring noises and "cannon shots", rose to altitudes of 7-10.5 km (23,000-34,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted mainly W and NW. Ashfall was reported from areas about 8 km NW and SW from the summit on 6 April. On 9 April, ashfall was reported from areas 8 km W. On 10 April an explosion occurred. Incandescence was seen at the summit and blocks rolled about 100 m down the flanks. Clouds occasionally inhibited visual observations during the reporting period.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Bulusan  | Luzon (Philippines)  | 12.769°N, 124.056°E  | Elevation 1535 m

According to news articles, eruptions from Bulusan on 8 April produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 3.1-6.6 km (10,200-21,700 ft) a.s.l.

Source: GMA News



Volcano index photo  Karangetang  | Siau Island (Indonesia)  | 2.781°N, 125.407°E  | Elevation 1797 m

CVGHM reported that sometime between mid-March and 6 April, the lava dome in the northern of three craters at Karangetang collapsed and was replaced by a new dome.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

Seismic activity at Karymsky was above background levels during 4-10 April, with 100-250 shallow earthquakes occurring daily. Ash plumes may have reached altitudes of 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. during the reporting period. Based on satellite imagery and information from the Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky Flight Information Region (FIR), AVO, pilot reports, and KEMSD, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruption plumes rose to altitudes of 3.4-7.6 km (11,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. on 5, 9, and 10 April. Plumes drifted SE and E on 9 and 10 April, respectively. A thermal anomaly in the crater was detected on satellite imagery during 4-5 and 7-10 April. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 4-10 April, lava from Kilauea continued to flow across a lava delta into the ocean at the Kamokuna entry. Lava was not seen entering the ocean at the East Lae'apuki entry. Incandescence was intermittently visible from several breakouts on the Pulama pali and from several vents in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. Earthquake activity was scattered at the summit and S-flank areas.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

Seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi continued at above background levels during 4-10 April. A gas-and-steam plume with a small amount of ash rose to an altitude of 5.3 km (17,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and SW during 4-8 April. Strombolian activity was seen at the crater during 4-9 April. Based on observations and video data, lava was observed flowing down the NW flank on 9 April. A thermal anomaly in the crater was detected on satellite imagery during 2-10 April. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Pacaya  | Guatemala  | 14.382°N, 90.601°W  | Elevation 2569 m

The Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume from Pacaya was visible on satellite imagery drifting SSE on 6 April.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Rabaul  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 4.271°S, 152.203°E  | Elevation 688 m

RVO reported that during 3-10 April, Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone emitted steam and steam-and-ash plumes that rose to 0.8-2.7 km (2,600-8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, NW, N, NE, and E. Weak roaring noises occasionally accompanied the emissions. On 3 April, explosions shook buildings in Rabaul town. Based on reports from RVO and satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. during 8-9 April. Incandescent material was ejected from the crater during 9-10 April.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

Seismic activity at Shiveluch continued above background levels during 4-10 April. Based on seismic interpretation, observation, and video data, ash-and-steam plumes rose to altitudes of 4.5-5 km (14,800-16,400 ft) a.s.l. throughout the reporting period. Plumes drifted N on 6 April. A large thermal anomaly was visible on satellite imagery during 1-10 April. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

During 30 March-9 April, lava-dome growth at Soufrière Hills remained reduced or had possibly ceased. Small, intermittent pyroclastic flows originating from the E-facing shear lobe occurred in the Tar River Valley. Fumarolic activity was observed around the SE and NW regions of a collapse scar at the head of Tyres Ghaut, and to the W, above Gages Valley. Incandescent rockfalls from the E side of the dome were seen at night during 5-9 April.

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)



Volcano index photo  St. Helens  | United States  | 46.2°N, 122.18°W  | Elevation 2549 m

Data from deformation-monitoring instruments and observations from a remote camera showed that during 4-10 April lava-dome growth at Mount St. Helens continued. Seismicity persisted at low levels, punctuated by M 1.5-2.5 and occasionally larger earthquakes. The clear weather allowed for views of the sometimes steaming dome from remote cameras.

Source: US Geological Survey Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO)



Volcano index photo  Ubinas  | Peru  | 16.355°S, 70.903°W  | Elevation 5672 m

Based on pilot reports and a significant meteorological notice (SIGMET), the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to 5.5-7 km (18,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l. during 5 and 7-9 April. Plumes drifted E, SE, S, and SW.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



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Agung Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Lewotobi Papandayan Sotara
Ahyi Concepcion Ibu Lewotolo Parker Soufriere Hills
Aira Copahue Ijen Little Sitkin Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
Akan Cotopaxi Iliamna Llaima Peuet Sague South Sarigan Seamount
Alaid Cuicocha Iliwerung Loihi Pinatubo Spurr
Alu-Dalafilla Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Planchon-Peteroa St. Helens
Ambae Dabbahu Ioto Lopevi Poas Stromboli
Ambang Dempo Irazu Machin Popocatepetl Sulu Range
Ambrym Descabezado Grande Iya Makian Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Sumbing
Anatahan Dieng Volcanic Complex Izu-Torishima Makushin Rabaul Sundoro
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Dukono Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raikoke Suretamatai
Antuco Ebeko Kaba Manam Ranakah Suwanosejima
Apoyeque Ebulobo Kadovar Manda Hararo Raoul Island Taal
Arenal Egon Kambalny Marapi Rasshua Tair, Jebel at
Asamayama Ekarma Kanaga Maroa Raung Takawangha
Askja Epi Kanlaon Martin Redoubt Talang
Asosan Erebus Karangetang Masaya Reventador Tambora
Augustine Erta Ale Karkar Maule, Laguna del Reykjanes Tanaga
Avachinsky Etna Karthala Mauna Loa Rincon de la Vieja Tandikat-Singgalang
Awu Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Karymsky Mayon Rinjani Tangkoko-Duasudara
Axial Seamount Eyjafjallajokull Kasatochi McDonald Islands Ritter Island Tangkuban Parahu
Azul, Cerro Fernandina Katla Melimoyu Rotorua Tara, Batu
Azumayama Fogo Kavachi Merapi Ruang Telica
Bagana Fonualei Kelimutu Midagahara Ruapehu Tenerife
Balbi Fournaise, Piton de la Kelut Misti, El Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Bamus Fourpeaked Kerinci Miyakejima Sabancaya Three Sisters
Banda Api Fuego Ketoi Momotombo Sakar Tinakula
Bardarbunga Fujisan Kharimkotan Monowai Salak Tofua
Barren Island Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kick 'em Jenny Montagu Island San Cristobal Tokachidake
Batur Galeras Kikai Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Miguel Tolbachik
Bezymianny Galunggung Kilauea Mutnovsky San Vicente Toliman
Bogoslof Gamalama Kirishimayama Myojinsho Sangay Tongariro
Brava Gamkonora Kizimen Nabro Sangeang Api Tungurahua
Bristol Island Gaua Klyuchevskoy Negra, Sierra Santa Ana Turrialba
Bulusan Gorely Kolokol Group Negro, Cerro Santa Maria Ubinas
Calbuco Great Sitkin Korovin Nightingale Island Sarigan Ulawun
Callaqui Grimsvotn Koryaksky Nishinoshima Sarychev Peak Unnamed
Cameroon Guagua Pichincha Krakatau Nisyros Saunders Unnamed
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guallatiri Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Novarupta Semeru Veniaminof
Cayambe Guntur Kuchinoerabujima NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Villarrica
Cereme Hachijojima Kurikomayama Nyamuragira Seulawah Agam West Mata
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Nyiragongo Sheveluch Whakaari/White Island
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Okataina Shishaldin Witori
Chiginagak Hekla Lamington Okmok Simbo Wolf
Chikurachki Hierro Lamongan Ontakesan Sinabung Yasur
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Oraefajokull Sinarka Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chillan, Nevados de Home Reef Lanin Osorno Siple Zavodovski
Chirinkotan Hood Lascar Pacaya Sirung Zhupanovsky
Chirpoi Huaynaputina Lateiki Pagan Slamet Zubair Group
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lengai, Ol Doinyo Paluweh Soputan
Colima Huila, Nevado del Leroboleng Panarea Sorikmarapi
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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)