Activity for the week of 8 July-14 July 2009
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
New Activity / Unrest
| 12.17°N, 40.82°E
| Elevation 600 m
A large sulfur dioxide plume and several thermal anomalies from Manda Hararo that were detected in satellite imagery during 28-30 June prompted a science team to visit the area on 4 July. After conducting ground-based and aerial observations for approximately 2 hours, they reported that the eruption occurred near the August 2007 eruption site, and was possibly bigger than that event. No active lava effusion was seen, but steaming was observed from the 4-5 km-long fissure that, because of high temperatures, had to be observed from a distance. They also saw new predominantly 'a'a lava flows that were 2-3 m thick. The fissure was lined with scoria ramparts 30-50 m high. Temperature measurements taken with a FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared Radiometer) indicated that the lava flow had cooled significantly with temperatures between 30 and 120 degrees Celsius at the surface. A maximum temperature of 238 degrees Celsius was measured during aerial observations.
Sources: Gezahegn Yirgu, Department of Earth Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Simon Carn
| Luzon (Philippines)
| 13.257°N, 123.685°E
| Elevation 2462 m
PHIVOLCS reported that a "cone-shaped pile of hot, steaming old rocks," possibly from a previous eruption of Mayon, were seen during an overflight on 8 July and may be the source of recent summit incandescence. On 9 July, a leveling survey revealed that 1 cm of uplift previously measured during 15-22 June had been sustained. Incandescence at the summit crater had also intensified and was visible from the Lignon Hill Observatory (about 11 km SSE) without the aid of telescopes. Steam emissions were also noted. On 10 July, PHIVOLCS raised the Alert Level for Mayon from 1 (low level unrest) to 2 (moderate unrest) on a scale of 0-5.
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
| El Salvador
| 13.434°N, 88.269°W
| Elevation 2130 m
Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (SNET) reported that the amplitude of seismic events from San Miguel had decreased during 9-13 July, but RSAM values remained above the background average. Access to areas within a 2-km-radius was restricted.
Source: Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (SNET)
| Matua Island (Russia)
| 48.092°N, 153.2°E
| Elevation 1496 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery, SVERT reported that diffuse gas-and-steam plumes from Sarychev Peak were seen on satellite imagery during 8-10 and 12 July. Plumes drifted 15 km E on 8 July. The plumes seen on 9 July drifted 50 km E and may have contained some ash. Gas-and-ash plumes drifted 40 km E on 13 July and 25 km W and NW on 14 July.
Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)
| Fox Islands (USA)
| 54.756°N, 163.97°W
| Elevation 2857 m
On 10 July, AVO reported that a distinct thermal anomaly in Shishaldin's summit crater observed intermittently since January 2009 became more intense during the previous month. AVO raised the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory. AVO also noted that seismicity had not increased, deformation was unchanged, and satellite observations showed no significant sulfur dioxide gas emissions. Some reports of steaming from the summit crater were received.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
| Kyushu (Japan)
| 31.593°N, 130.657°E
| Elevation 1117 m
Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 8 and 10-15 July explosions from Sakura-jima sometimes produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.4 km (6,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted NE and E.
Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Komba Island (Indonesia)
| 7.791°S, 123.585°E
| Elevation 633 m
Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 8 July ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km W and NW. During 12-14 July, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-55 km W, NW, and N.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
| 42.833°S, 72.646°W
| Elevation 1122 m
Based on web camera views from the S, SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 3-8 July gas-and-ash plumes rose 1.5 km from Chaitén's growing Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex. Collapses originating from unstable slopes generated block-and-ash flows, particularly in the W area of the complex. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on web camera views and a SIGMET notice, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 10 July ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. A thermal anomaly was also seen in satellite imagery on 11 June.
Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Halmahera (Indonesia)
| 1.693°N, 127.894°E
| Elevation 1229 m
Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 8 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 85 km NE.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
| 14.473°N, 90.88°W
| Elevation 3763 m
On 10 and 14 July, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Fuego produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4.1-4.6 km (13,500-15,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 10-15 km W and SW. Some explosions were accompanied by rumbling noises and shock waves. Incandescent material was ejected 75 m high and incandescent avalanches descended several ravines. Fumarolic plumes rose 100 m and drifted S and SW.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
During 8-14 July, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface flows on the pali and on the TEB flow field. Explosions from both ocean entries were reported on 8 July; strong explosions ejected incandescent tephra up to 20 m high at the Waikupanaha entry.
The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW. No lava or incandescence from the crater had been seen since a "deflation-inflation" event on 4 July. Small amounts of ash-sized tephra were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume during the reporting period. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; measurements were between 300 and 400 tonnes per day during 8-10 and 13 July. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| 14.382°N, 90.601°W
| Elevation 2569 m
On 10 and 14 July, INSIVUMEH reported that fumarolic plumes from Pacaya's MacKenney drifted S and gas plumes rose 300 m. Multiple lava flows 150-600 m long traveled SW.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
| New Britain (Papua New Guinea)
| 4.271°S, 152.203°E
| Elevation 688 m
RVO reported that during 3-9 July incandescence from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone was visible at night. Steam plumes rose 1.5 km above the crater. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 9-10 July ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 20-40 km NW, N, and NE.
Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.653°N, 161.36°E
| Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 3-10 July seismic activity from Shiveluch was above background levels. Based on interpretations of seismic data, ash plumes possibly rose to an altitude of 5.3 km (13,400 ft) a.s.l. on 2 and 4 July, and steam-and-gas plumes with some ash content were emitted during the reporting period. On 3 July, a gas-and-steam plume seen on a video camera rose to an altitude of 3.3 km (10,800 ft) a.s.l. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly over the lava dome. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
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