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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 24 November-30 November 2010.


















 Activity for the week of 24 November-30 November 2010

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Bulusan Luzon (Philippines) New
Erta Ale Ethiopia New
Kizimen Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) New
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) New
Merapi Central Java (Indonesia) New
Tengger Caldera Eastern Java (Indonesia) New
Tungurahua Ecuador New
Ulawun New Britain (Papua New Guinea) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Manam Papua New Guinea Ongoing
Novarupta United States Ongoing
Sarychev Peak Matua Island (Russia) Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Bulusan  | Luzon (Philippines)  | 12.769°N, 124.056°E  | Elevation 1535 m

On 24 November, PHIVOLCS reported that an explosion from Bulusan, recorded for almost six minutes by seismographs, produced an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater, drifted SW, and dissipated. Ashfall was not observed outside of the permanent danger zone, defined as a 4-km radius from the summit, suggesting that ashfall was confined to the upper flanks. On 26 November steam was emitted from known thermal vents and the crater. A steam plume rose 150 m above the NW vent and drifted SW. Later that night an explosion-type earthquake was recorded by the seismic network; cloud cover prevented visual observations of the crater. On 28 November steam rose from the SE and SW vents. During 29 November-1 December steam rose from both the NW vents and thermal vents.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)



Volcano index photo  Erta Ale  | Ethiopia  | 13.6°N, 40.67°E  | Elevation 613 m

Scientists from the Afar Consortium Project observed the lava lake at Erta Ale during 21-23 November. They noted Strombolian activity from the lava lake in the southern pit crater. The lava lake had filled the pit crater and breached the W rim, spilling two lava flows into the main crater. The lava lake was encompassed by a scoria ring that was about 4 m high on the S side. By 23 November, the lake was above the scientist's eye level when they stood W of the southern pit in the main crater.

Source: Afar Rift Consortium



Volcano index photo  Kizimen  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.131°N, 160.32°E  | Elevation 2334 m

KVERT reported that volcanologists flying around Kizimen by helicopter on 20 November observed several new fumaroles at the summit and SW flank. A small amount of "dust" covered the SW flank, possibly from the new fumaroles. Seismic activity was above background levels during 19-26 November. The Level of Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi did not exceed background levels during 19-26 November. Strong fumarolic activity was observed daily and an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. on 24 November. Satellite imagery showed a thermal anomaly over the crater during 19-21 November and a gas-and-steam plume that drifted 111 km NE on 24 November. The Aviation Color Code level was raised to Orange.

Based on information from the Yelizovo Airport (UHPP), the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 25 November an ash plume rose to an altitude of 7.9 km (26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Possible eruptions detected in satellite imagery on 27 and 29 November produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 5.8 km and 6.7 km (19,000 and 22,000 ft) a.s.l., respectively, and drifted NE.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Merapi  | Central Java (Indonesia)  | 7.54°S, 110.446°E  | Elevation 2910 m

CVGHM reported that avalanches on Merapi's flanks were detected by the seismic network during 25-30 November. Although fog often prevented observations, white and brown plumes rising 100 m above the crater drifted SW on 25 November, and brownish plumes rose 300 m above the crater on 27 November. During 27-30 November, white plumes rose 100-800 m above the crater and drifted W, SW, N, and E. Incandescence from the crater was observed through cameras installed at the Merapi museum. According to news articles, a lahar in the Code River that runs through Yogyakarta, 30 km SSW, flooded streets and damaged bridges, and caused about 1,000 residents to evacuate. The Alert Level remained at 4, the highest level, on a scale of 1-4.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), BNO News



Volcano index photo  Tengger Caldera  | Eastern Java (Indonesia)  | 7.942°S, 112.95°E  | Elevation 2329 m

According to the Darwin VAAC, CVGHM stated that an eruption from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone had occurred on 26 November. An ash plume detected in satellite imagery rose to an altitude of 13.7 km (45,000 ft) a.s.l. and dissipated. During 27-29 November satellite imagery showed ash plumes drifting 55-165 km at an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. According to news articles, Malang city's domestic airport, 25 km W, closed on 29 November. Meteorological clouds prevented observations during 29-30 November. The Alert Level remained at 4, the highest level, on a scale of 1-4.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Agence France-Presse (AFP)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

The IG reported that on 22 November an explosion ejected incandescent blocks that fell onto the flanks 1.5 km below the crater rim, and produced an ash plume that rose to altitudes of 11-12 km (36,100-39,400 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported in multiple areas to the W and SW. Smaller explosions produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 7-8 km (23,000-26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and E. Lahars descended a SW drainage and temporarily dammed the Puela river. During 23-25 November, explosions produced ash plumes that rose less than 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported in areas within 8 km N, NNE, W, and SW. Strombolian activity was seen at night.

During 25-26 and 29 November incandescent blocks were observed rolling down the flanks. During 26-30 November, steam-and-ash plumes rose to altitudes of 5.5-9 km (18,000-29,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and W. Plumes also drifted NW on 28 November. Ashfall was reported in areas within 8 km downwind, and roaring was occasionally reported. At night during 28-29 November Strombolian activity ejected blocks that rolled 400 m down the flanks. Satellite imagery on 29 November showed an increase in sulfur dioxide concentrations.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Ulawun  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 5.05°S, 151.33°E  | Elevation 2334 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 26 November an ash plume from Ulawun rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 24 November-1 December explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-1.8 km (4,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, and S. During 24 and 28-29 November, pilots reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-27 November ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75-130 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity from Karymsky was above background levels during 19-26 November, suggesting that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. during 20-24 November. On 20 November, volcanologists surveying the volcano by helicopter observed gas-and-steam activity and noted that the upper flanks were covered with ash. Satellite imagery showed a daily thermal anomaly over the volcano and a gas-and-steam plume drifting 15 km SE on 22 November. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 24-30 November, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable between approximately 140 and 145 m below the crater floor, periodically rising about 20 m above that level. Nighttime incandescence has been visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim since early 2010. A plume from the vent mostly drifted SW and deposited ash nearby.

At the east rift zone, lava continued to flow through the TEB lava-tube system and fed surface flows on the coastal plain, breakout flows W and N of a county viewing area (located along Highway 130), and one or more ocean entries on the Puhi-o-Kalaikini delta W of Kalapana Gardens subdivision. A lava flow that broke out of the tube on 24 November advanced towards an abandoned house in Kalapana Gardens, and on 27 November, set fire to and destroyed the structure. Incandescence was visible from vents on the N part of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor on 23 November before it started to spatter and feed a small lava flow. The lava flow continued to advance E during 24 November-1 December.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Manam  | Papua New Guinea  | 4.08°S, 145.037°E  | Elevation 1807 m

RVO reported that during 19-25 November light brown to dark gray ash plumes were seen rising 400-500 m above Manam's South Crater. People living on the island reported occasional roaring and rumbling noises. Incandescent material ejected from the crater mainly fell back in and around the crater, but occasionally spilled into the SE and SW valleys. White vapor rose from Main Crater and incandescence from the crater was visible on most nights from 21 November onward.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Novarupta  | United States  | 58.27°N, 155.157°W  | Elevation 841 m

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from AVO, the Anchorage VAAC reported that on 29 November strong winds in the Katmai area picked up loose ash deposited during the 1912 eruption and carried it SE over Kodiak Island. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Normal and the Aviation Color Code remained at Green.

Source: Anchorage Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sarychev Peak  | Matua Island (Russia)  | 48.092°N, 153.2°E  | Elevation 1496 m

Based on satellite image observations, SVERT reported that steam-and-gas emissions rose from Sarychev Peak on 28 November. Sarychev Peak does not have a seismic network; satellite imagery is the primary tool for monitoring many of the Kurile Islands volcanoes.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that moderate seismic activity from Shiveluch was detected during 19-26 November, suggesting that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.8 km (12,500 ft) a.s.l. A bright thermal anomaly over the volcano was observed in satellite imagery. Ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l. and strong gas-and-steam activity were observed on 19, 20, 22, and 24 November. Ash plumes observed in satellite imagery drifted 408 km E and S during 19-20 and 23-24 November. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 30 November an eruption produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 27 November-1 December. Plumes rose to a maximum altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) on 29 November.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)