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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 1 June-7 June 2011.


















 Activity for the week of 1 June-7 June 2011

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Asosan Kyushu (Japan) New
Dieng Volcanic Complex Central Java (Indonesia) New
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) New
Popocatepetl Mexico New
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Chile New
Yasur Vanuatu New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Karangetang Siau Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Kizimen Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Rabaul New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Villarrica Chile Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Asosan  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 32.884°N, 131.104°E  | Elevation 1592 m

Based on notices from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 1-7 June plumes from Aso rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, N, NE, E, and S.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Dieng Volcanic Complex  | Central Java (Indonesia)  | 7.2°S, 109.879°E  | Elevation 2565 m

CVGHM reported that during 29 May-5 June carbon dioxide gas emissions from Timbang, a cone that is part of the Dieng Volcanic Complex, remained elevated. Seismicity for Dieng also remained high. During 4-5 June white plumes from Sileri crater rose 20-60 m high and white plumes from Timbang rose only 2 m and drifted 300 m S. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that during 27 May-3 June seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was detected. Moderate steam-and-gas activity was observed on 30 May and 1 June; cloud cover prevented observations on the other days of the week. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green.

The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 6 June a possible eruption detected in satellite imagery produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. The VAAC stated that the ash could have also originated at Bezymianny.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that during 31 May-1 June steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl occasionally contained small amounts of ash. At 0637 on 3 June an ash plume rose 3 km above the crater following seismic tremor. The lower-altitude portion of the plume drifted W (towards the state of Morelos) and the higher-altitude portion of the plume drifted ENE (over Puebla, 40 km E). Within a few hours ashfall was reported in the Morelos state, municipalities of Tetela del Volcán (20 km SW), Zacualpan (31 km SW), Jonacatepec (43 km SW), and Axochiapan (60 km SSW). At 2112 high-frequency, low-amplitude tremor was detected that was followed by an ash plume at 2116 that rose 1 km above the crater and drifted W. By 2130 activity had returned to normal levels. On 4 June an ash plume rose 1 km above the crater and drifted SSW at lower altitudes and NE at higher altitudes.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Puyehue-Cordon Caulle  | Chile  | 40.59°S, 72.117°W  | Elevation 2236 m

OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that between 2000 on 2 June and 1959 on 3 June about 1,450 earthquakes at Puyehue-Cordón Caulle were detected, or an average of about 60 earthquakes per hour. The earthquakes were mostly hybrid and long-period, and located in the SE sector of the Cordón Caulle rift zone at depths of 2-5 km. SERNAGEOMIN scientists along with regional authorities flew over the volcano, noting no significant changes. The Alert Level remained at 4, Yellow. Area residents reported feeling earthquakes during the evening of 3 June through the morning of 4 June.

For a six-hour period on 4 June, seismicity increased to an average of 230 earthquakes per hour, at depths of 1-4 km. About 12 events were magnitudes greater than 4, and 50 events were magnitudes greater than 3. The Alert Level was raised to 5, Red. ONEMI reported that the border crossing into Argentina was closed and about 700 local people were to start evacuating. Later, an explosion from Cordón Caulle produced a 5-km-wide ash-and-gas plume that rose to an altitude of 12.2 km (40,000 ft) a.s.l. as noted by OVDAS scientists. The plume drifted S at 5 km altitude, and W and E at 10 km altitude. The Alert Level was raised to 6, Red. ONEMI reported the continuation of evacuations and increased the potential number of evacuees to 3,000. ONEMI also reported that the National Director of SERNAGEOMIN noted that lava was not detected, but pyroclastic flow deposits were observed. Residents reported a strong sulfur odor and significant ash and pumice fall. During 4-5 June ashfall several centimeters thick was reported in San Carlos de Bariloche, 100 km SE in Argentina, and surrounding areas.

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, SIGMET notices, and information from the Puerto Montt Flight Information Region (FIR), the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 4 June ash plumes rose to altitudes of 10.7-13.7 km (35,000-45,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 870 km ESE. Diffuse gas-and-steam plumes drifted W. The next day an ash plume continued to rise to altitudes of 10.7-12.2 km (35,000-40,000 ft) a.s.l. and had drifted as far as 1,778 km ESE, over the coast of Argentina, and out into the Atlantic Ocean. A portion of the plume drifted WSW. News outlets reported that flights in southern Argentina were canceled during 4-5 June. On 6 June the continuous ash plume changed direction and was blown ENE as far as 178 km while the previous portion of the plume continued to drift ESE over the ocean. On 7 June the VAAC reported continuous emissions. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 5.5-9.8 km (18,000-32,000 ft) a.s.l. and were 65-95 km wide. A large area of ash continued to drift E over the Atlantic Ocean. News articles noted that some flights in Paraguay and Chile were cancelled and about 4,000 people had evacuated. News photos showed ashfall and people collecting pumice in San Martin de los Andes, Argentina, 80 km NE.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), NASA Earth Observatory, La Tercera News



Volcano index photo  Yasur  | Vanuatu  | 19.532°S, 169.447°E  | Elevation 361 m

On 1 June, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory raised the Alert Level for Yasur to 3 (on a scale of 0-4) following increasing explosive activity during May. Access to the volcano was closed and a 500-m zone around the volcano was restricted. The Geohazards team noted strong explosions from all three active vents along with ash emissions and bomb ejections during 31 May-3 June. Bombs fell around the crater rim and explosions were heard and observed from nearby villages.

Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 2-6 June explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted S on 2 June. On 2 and 4 June, pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.4-3.7 km (8,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Batu Tara  | Komba Island (Indonesia)  | 7.791°S, 123.585°E  | Elevation 633 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1-7 June ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 40-130 km NW, W, and SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 1 June an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110 km NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Karangetang  | Siau Island (Indonesia)  | 2.781°N, 125.407°E  | Elevation 1797 m

CVGHM reported that during 25 March-5 June seismic activity at Karangetang decreased along with the potential threat of avalanches and pyroclastic flows. During 1 May-5 June no pyroclastic flows were observed. Lava flowed 200 m down the flanks and produced incandescent material from the flow fronts that traveled an additional 1.5-1.8 km. Bluish-white emissions rose as high as 500 m from the main crater and incandescence from the crater was observed at night. Lava flow and avalanche activity decreased on 19 May. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 6 June.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported moderate seismic activity at Karymsky during 27 May-3 June. Seismic data indicated that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.1 km (10,200 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery detected a thermal anomaly during 28-30 May and 1-2 June, and an ash plume that drifted 10 km SW on 30 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Based on information from KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 4 June an ash plume rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 1-7 June. The level of the summit lava lake remained mostly stable deep in the vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional increases in the lake level covered a vent on the south side wall; on other days lava from the vent cascaded down into the lake. A gas plume from the vent drifted SW. The (preliminary) sulfur dioxide emission rate from all east rift zone sources was 1,100 tonnes/day on 3 June.

Lava from a vent near the W edge of the perched lava lake in the center of Pu'u 'O'o crater floor continued to fill the lake. The lake level fluctuated and occasionally overflowed the edges or flowed through rim breaches, sending lava onto the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. The rim of the perched lava lake was elevated 2-3 m higher than the surrounding crater floor, which was 39 m below the E crater rim on 1 June.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Kizimen  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.131°N, 160.32°E  | Elevation 2334 m

KVERT reported that during 27 May-3 June seismicity from Kizimen was above background levels and strong tremor continued to be detected. Seismic data indicated that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images showed a large bright thermal anomaly daily on the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Based on information from KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 4 June an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Rabaul  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 4.271°S, 152.203°E  | Elevation 688 m

RVO reported that variable amounts of white vapor plumes rose from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone during 1-31 May and were occasionally tinted brown. During 19-21 May thick white plumes rose 2-3 km above the crater.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 27 May-3 June seismic activity at Shiveluch indicated that possible ash plumes rose to altitudes of 4.7-9 km (15,400-29,500 ft) a.s.l. During 29-30 May satellite imagery showed a thermal anomaly over the lava dome. Those same two days, ground-based observers noted that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S. Clouds prevented observations on the other days. During 30-31 May long ash clouds drifted 1,000 km SW and approached Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Based on information from KVERT and analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 4 June an eruption produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. According to KEMSD, eruptions during 5-6 June produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 6.1-9.1 km (20,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted E on 5 June.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Villarrica  | Chile  | 39.42°S, 71.93°W  | Elevation 2847 m

On 31 May brief emissions of gas and steam with possible light ash from Villarrica was observed through the OVDAS web camera.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Bezymianny Iliwerung Myojinsho St. Helens
Bogoslof Inielika Nabro Stromboli
Brava Ioto Negra, Sierra Sulu Range
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Calbuco Jackson Segment Nishinoshima Suretamatai
Callaqui Kaba Nisyros Suwanosejima
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Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kambalny NW Rota-1 Tair, Jebel at
Cayambe Kanaga Nyamuragira Takawangha
Cereme Kanlaon Nyiragongo Talang
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karangetang Okataina Tambora
Chaiten Karkar Okmok Tanaga
Chiginagak Karthala Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chikurachki Karymsky Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chiles-Cerro Negro Kasatochi Osorno Tangkuban Parahu
Chillan, Nevados de Katla Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chirinkotan Kavachi Pagan Telica
Chirpoi Kelimutu Paluweh Tenerife
Cleveland Kelut Panarea Tengger Caldera
Colima Kerinci Papandayan Three Sisters
Colo Ketoi Parker Tinakula
Concepcion Kharimkotan Pavlof Tofua
Copahue Kick 'em Jenny Peuet Sague Tokachidake
Cotopaxi Kikai Pinatubo Tolbachik
Cuicocha Kilauea Planchon-Peteroa Toliman
Cumbal Kirishimayama Poas Tongariro
Dabbahu Kizimen Popocatepetl Tungurahua
Dempo Klyuchevskoy Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Turrialba
Descabezado Grande Kolokol Group Rabaul Ubinas
Dieng Volcanic Complex Korovin Raikoke Ulawun
Dukono Koryaksky Ranakah Unknown Source
Ebeko Krakatau Raoul Island Unnamed
Ebulobo Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Rasshua Unnamed
Egon Kuchinoerabujima Raung Veniaminof
Ekarma Kurikomayama Redoubt Villarrica
Epi Kusatsu-Shiranesan Reventador West Mata
Erebus Kverkfjoll Reykjanes Whakaari/White Island
Erta Ale Lamington Rincon de la Vieja Witori
Etna Lamongan Rinjani Wolf
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Langila Ritter Island Yasur
Eyjafjallajokull Lanin Rotorua Zaozan [Zaosan]
Fernandina Lascar Ruang Zavodovski
Fogo Lateiki Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
Fonualei Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
Fournaise, Piton de la Leroboleng Sabancaya
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)