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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 8 June-14 June 2011.


















 Activity for the week of 8 June-14 June 2011

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Asosan Kyushu (Japan) New
Dieng Volcanic Complex Central Java (Indonesia) New
Kizimen Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) New
Nabro Eritrea New
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Chile New
Yasur Vanuatu New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Mayon Luzon (Philippines) Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing
Tengger Caldera Eastern Java (Indonesia) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Asosan  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 32.884°N, 131.104°E  | Elevation 1592 m

Based on notices from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 7-9 June plumes from Aso rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, N, NE, and E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Dieng Volcanic Complex  | Central Java (Indonesia)  | 7.2°S, 109.879°E  | Elevation 2565 m

CVGHM reported that during 31 May-10 June carbon dioxide gas emissions declined from Timbang, a cone that is part of the Dieng Volcanic Complex. Seismicity decreased during 5-7 June and was not detected during 8-10 June. White plumes were not observed. On 10 June the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Kizimen  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.131°N, 160.32°E  | Elevation 2334 m

KVERT reported that during 3-10 June seismicity from Kizimen was above background levels and strong tremor continued to be detected. Seismic data indicated that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 6.6 km (21,700 ft) a.s.l. during 5-8 June. Satellite images showed a large bright thermal anomaly on the volcano during 3-5, 7, and 9 June, and an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. on 9 June.

During 11-12 June seismicity significantly increased. Seismic data indicated 10 strong explosions and ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4-5.9 km (13,120-19,350 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery showed a wide ash plume that drifted 135 km SE and a large bright thermal anomaly. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Red. On 12 June volcanic tremor magnitude decreased, then sharply decreased about 4 hours later. The next day ash plumes observed in satellite imagery drifted 760 km E at altitudes that did not exceed 5.9 km (19,350) a.s.l. A large bright thermal anomaly continued to be detected. Volcanic-tremor magnitude again increased for about a three-hour period, then decreased and remained low on 14 June. Satellite imagery from that day showed a large pyroclastic flow deposit on the NE flank from 11-13 June activity. An ash plume drifted 26 km S on 15 June.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Nabro  | Eritrea  | 13.37°N, 41.7°E  | Elevation 2218 m

According to the USGS Earthquake Hazards Program, an earthquake swarm was detected during the evening of 12 June on the border of Ethiopia and Eritrea, in the vicinity of Nabro, the most prominent of three volcanoes with large summit calderas aligned in a NE-SW direction SW of Dubbi volcano. The swarm began at 1837 with an M 5.1 earthquake. Several more were detected between M 4.3 and 5.1 over the next few hours. Two M 5.7 earthquakes at depths of 10.1 km and 9.9 km were detected at 2332 on 12 June and 0003 on 13 June, respectively.

The Toulouse VAAC reported that an eruption from Nabro (originally attributed to Dubbi) started between 0000 and 0200 on 13 June. An eruption plume initially rose to altitudes of 9.1-13.7 km (30,000-45,000 ft) a.s.l. then was later detected at altitudes of 6.1-10.7 km (20,000-35,000 ft) a.s.l. during 13-14 June. According to the Eritrean Ministry of Information, ashfall covered hundreds of kilometers and the government evacuated area residents. Witnesses noted that the eruption had started at about 2100 on 13 June. Satellite images that same day showed the plume drifting more than 1,000 km NW, over parts of Sudan. On 14 June a detached ash cloud was detected over southern Israel according to news articles. A plume from Nabro was not obvious on satellite imagery.

Sources: US Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program, Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), NASA MODIS Rapid Response System, Eritrean Ministry of Information, The Jerusalem Post



Volcano index photo  Puyehue-Cordon Caulle  | Chile  | 40.59°S, 72.117°W  | Elevation 2236 m

OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that the eruption from the Cordón Caulle rift zone, part of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex, that began on 4 June continued on 5 June. At least five pyroclastic flows were generated from partial collapses of the eruptive column and traveled N in the Nilahue River drainage. The pyroclastic flows were possibly 10 km long. On 6 June the continuous ash plume changed direction and was blown ENE as far as 178 km while the previous portion of the plume continued to drift ESE over the ocean. On 7 June the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 5.5-9.8 km (18,000-32,000 ft) a.s.l. and were 65-95 km wide.

OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 8 June satellite imagery showed a 1,200-km-long eruption plume drifting NE, then SE over the Atlantic Ocean. Personnel working in the area reported that the ash plume rose 7.5 km above the crater. On 9 June climatologic conditions prevented ground-based observations of the plume, however satellite imagery showed a 200-km-long plume drifting NE. Pumice and vitreous tephra had accumulated in many area lakes and rivers, and ash had turned many rivers darker. Despite poor visibility due to meteorological conditions on 10 June, the plume was observed to have risen 3.7 km above the crater and drifted SE. News articles stated that flight disruptions continued in Argentina and Uruguay, and flights from airports in Brazil had been cancelled. On 11 June the plume was whiter than previous days and rose to heights 4-4.5 km above the crater and drifted 350 km E. A dispersed plume was detected as far as 600 km ENE. Some flights resumed in affected parts of Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay.

An overflight on 11 June revealed that the vent was located at the head of the Nilahue River's basin, immediately to the N of the 1960 eruption fissure location. Abundant amounts of ash had accumulated around the vent as well as to the E and SW. Ash plumes rose 4-4.5 km above the crater; an explosion that day caused an ash plume to rise 8 km above the crater. On 12 June seismicity was relatively stable except for four hybrid earthquakes and a pulse of tremor that lasted about 2 hours and 40 minutes. A series of explosions (up to 8 events per minute) were also registered. Very dense, dark gray ash plumes rose 8 km above the crater. Satellite imagery showed a distinct eruption plume drifting 300 km E, with a diffuse plume reaching 1,000 km ENE. According to news articles, the ash plume that had been drifting mostly E since the beginning of the eruption had reached Australia and beyond, causing flight cancellations in southern Australia and New Zealand.

Scientists aboard an overflight on 13 June observed the plume height oscillating and noted that the eruptive vent diameter was 300-400 m. Gas-and-steam plumes rose from two or three locations along the same fissure as the eruptive vent. Pulses of tremor were associated with dark gray ash plumes that rose 9 km above the crater. Ashfall and column collapses were noted. At night incandescence from the base of the plume reached 1.5-2 km high. Satellite imagery showed the plume drifting 250 km SE. On 14 June explosions generated pyroclastic flows (that traveled N), with associated ash-and-gas plumes. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the VAAC stated that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 5.5-7.6 km (18,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. while previously emitted ash plumes drifted NE, E, and SE at altitudes of 0.9-3 km (3,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. SERNAGEOMIN reiterated that the Alert Level remained at 6, Red.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), BBC News, Australian Associated Press, Associated Press



Volcano index photo  Yasur  | Vanuatu  | 19.532°S, 169.447°E  | Elevation 361 m

On 13 June, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that activity from Yasur decreased during the previous week after a brief period of high activity with significant explosions and ashfall. Even though Strombolian activity occasionally ejected bombs that fell around the crater, explosions had become slightly weaker and less frequent. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 0-4).

Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 8-9 and 14 June explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. During 8-9 and 13-14 June, pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.4-3.7 km (8,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Batu Tara  | Komba Island (Indonesia)  | 7.791°S, 123.585°E  | Elevation 633 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-13 June ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-75 km NW, N, and E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported moderate seismic activity at Karymsky during 3-10 June and that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 6 km (15,100 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery showed a thermal anomaly during 3-4 June and an ash plume that drifted 254 km SE on 4 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

HVO reported that two lava lakes at Kilauea were active during 8-14 June. The level of the summit lava lake remained mostly stable deep in the vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional increases in the lake level covered a vent on the south side wall; on other days lava from the vent cascaded down into the lake. A gas plume from the vent drifted SW. At Pu'u 'O'o, lava from vents near the W and NE edges of the perched lava lake in the center of the crater floor continued to fill the lake. The lake level fluctuated and infrequently overflowed the edges or flowed through a rim breach, sending lava onto the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor. There was also minor lava activity from at least one source at the base of the SW crater wall.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Mayon  | Luzon (Philippines)  | 13.257°N, 123.685°E  | Elevation 2462 m

PHIVOLCS reported that a deformation survey of Mayon conducted during 31 May-4 June showed slight inflation since a 6-10 March survey. White steam emitted from the summit crater during 8-13 June crept down the NW and WNW flanks. Incandescence from the crater was also observed. The Alert Level remained at 1 and the public was reminded not to enter the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 3-10 June seismic activity at Shiveluch indicated that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 9 km (29,500 ft) a.s.l. on 5 June and to altitudes of 5-7 km (16,400-22,960 ft) a.s.l. during 4-6 and 8 June. Satellite imagery showed a thermal anomaly on the lava dome during 3-4 June, and ash plumes that drifted 734 km SE on 4 June and 377 km NE during 5-6 June. Based on information from Yelizovo Airport (UHPP), the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 10 June an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

MVO reported that during 3-10 June activity at the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a low level. Unusual wind directions caused a sulfur odor in inhabited areas multiple times during the reporting period. On 9 June a pyroclastic flow traveled down the S flank, the first to go S in more than a year. The pyroclastic flow generated an ash cloud that drifted N and caused light ashfall in NW Montserrat. The Hazard Level remained at 3.

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)



Volcano index photo  Tengger Caldera  | Eastern Java (Indonesia)  | 7.942°S, 112.95°E  | Elevation 2329 m

CVGHM reported that during 1-10 May white-to-gray ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose 400-600 m above the crater and drifted ENE, and incandescence emanated from the crater. During 11-20 May white-to-gray ash plumes rose 200-400 m above the crater and drifted E. Ash plumes continued to rise from the crater during 1-13 June to heights of 100-200 m above the crater and drifted E. Ash continued to fall in areas within 2 km E and NE during May and June. On 13 June the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)