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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 21 November-27 November 2012.


















 Activity for the week of 21 November-27 November 2012

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Chirpoi Kuril Islands (Russia) New
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) New
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) New
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) New
Paluweh Indonesia New
Reventador Ecuador New
Ruapehu North Island (New Zealand) New
Stromboli Aeolian Islands (Italy) New
Tolbachik Central Kamchatka (Russia) New
Tongariro North Island (New Zealand) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Etna Sicily (Italy) Ongoing
Kizimen Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Manam Papua New Guinea Ongoing
Pagan Mariana Islands (USA) Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Chirpoi  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 46.532°N, 150.871°E  | Elevation 742 m

SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly was detected over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, on 20, 22, and 25 November, possibly indicating a lava flow on the SE flank.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Cleveland  | Chuginadak Island (USA)  | 52.825°N, 169.944°W  | Elevation 1730 m

On 21 November AVO noted that no explosions at Cleveland had been detected since 10 November, nor evidence of renewed lava-dome growth. The Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. Elevated surface temperatures were detected in satellite imagery during 21-24 November. Clouds obscured satellite and web camera views during 25-27 November.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that moderate seismic activity at Karymsky was detected during 16-23 November. Satellite imagery showed a big thermal anomaly on 20 and 22 November; cloud cover obscured views on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 21-27 November HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, lava circulated within the perched lava lake at the NE part of the crater, and glow emanated from vents at the S edge of the crater floor and from a spatter cone at the N edge. A small lava flow issued from the E vent at the S edge of the crater floor on 24 November.

The easternmost of two lava flows on the coastal plain entered the ocean on 24 November in an area 500 m E of the easternmost border of Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Steam plumes rose from the entry point during 25-26 November, suggesting lava continued to enter the ocean. A plume was absent on the morning of 27 November.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Paluweh  | Indonesia  | 8.32°S, 121.708°E  | Elevation 875 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21 and 23-27 November ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-115 km WNW, W, and SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Reventador  | Ecuador  | 0.077°S, 77.656°W  | Elevation 3562 m

IG reported that scientists aboard an overflight of Reventador on 23 November observed steam-and-gas emissions with slight amounts of ash rising 500 m above the lava dome and drifting WSW. The lava dome had intense fumarolic activity and there was a new crater at the summit of the dome, which was filled with ash and large blocks. A thermal camera measured temperatures in the dome of about 300 degrees Celsius. Lava flows continued to be active on the dome flanks, and elongated block-and-ash deposits were also visible on the flanks.

According to the Washington VAAC, the IG reported that on 24 November an ash plume from Reventador rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not detected in satellite imagery due to cloud cover, but a thermal anomaly was detected.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Ruapehu  | North Island (New Zealand)  | 39.28°S, 175.57°E  | Elevation 2797 m

On 23 November, GeoNet reported that measurements of Ruapehu's crater lake taken on 21 November suggested that conditions had not changed since the previous week and that Ruapehu was in a state of unrest. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 (signs of volcano unrest) and the Aviation Colour Code remained at Yellow.

Source: GeoNet



Volcano index photo  Stromboli  | Aeolian Islands (Italy)  | 38.789°N, 15.213°E  | Elevation 924 m

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that the persistent explosive activity at Stromboli showed a clear increase on 21 November with episodes of spattering and low lava fountaining from two vents located in the N and central portions of the crater terrace.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Volcano index photo  Tolbachik  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.832°N, 160.326°E  | Elevation 3611 m

KVERT reported that episodes of volcanic tremor were detected in the area of Plosky Tolbachik during 7-10, 18, and 26 November. The number of shallow volcanic earthquakes increased to 250 on 26 November. A strong event occurred at 1652 on 27 November. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow. That same day observers from Kozyrevsk (40 km NW) and Lazo (50 km SW) villages reported ash explosions and lava flows at Tolbachinsky Dol, in the same area as the 1975 eruption (northern vents). Ashfall, 4 cm thick, was reported in Krasny Yar (60 km NNW). The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange. Based on information from the Kamchatka Branch of Geophysical Services (KGBS), the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes possibly rose to altitudes of 6.1-10.1 km (20,000-33,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes were not detected in satellite imagery. Plume altitudes were estimated based on seismic data.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Tongariro  | North Island (New Zealand)  | 39.157°S, 175.632°E  | Elevation 1978 m

A small eruption at Tongariro's Te Maari Craters occurred at 1325 on 21 November, without precursory events, prompting GeoNet to raise the Volcanic Alert Level to 2 and the Aviation Colour Code to Red. A report at 1730 noted that the eruption appeared to be over; the Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Orange.

The eruption occurred in the same area as the previous eruption on 6 August and lasted less than five minutes, although local seismic activity lasted about 15 minutes. GNS staff and hikers saw the eruption. An ash plume rose 3-4 km above the Upper Te Maari crater and produced ashfall across part of State Highway 46 and NE towards Turangi (21 km NE). Two small pyroclastic density currents were produced at the base of the column, to the W and N of the crater, and traveled a limited distance of a few hundred meters downslope. Later that afternoon gas-and-steam plumes drifted SE. On 22 November a sulfur gas odor was reported in Manawatu (S) and Hawke's Bay (115 km ESE), downwind of Tongariro. A substantial amount of gas was emitted during 22-23 November. The Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Yellow on 23 November due to the absence of emitted ash. On 26 November GeoNet noted that no further volcanic activity had occurred since the eruption, gas flux had decreased, and seismic activity remained low.

Source: GeoNet



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that during 19-22 November explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1.3 km from the crater. Very small eruptions at Minami-dake Crater occurred during 19-20 November. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 21-23, 25, and 27 November often produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.7 km (5,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, E, and SE.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3295 m

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that on the evening of 21 November, weak glow was observed coming from within Etna's New Southeast Crater, caused either by the emission of high-temperature gas and/or Strombolian activity. Incandescence was also visible during the following nights, but was weak and intermittent.

A seismic swarm, consisting of around seventy events, occurred below the NW flank on 22 November, with epicenters located in the area of Monte Maletto. During a field visit to the summit area on the morning of 23 November, scientists did not hear sounds typically associated with Strombolian activity. In addition, volcanic-tremor amplitude did not show any significant variations.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Volcano index photo  Kizimen  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.131°N, 160.32°E  | Elevation 2334 m

KVERT reported that during 16-23 November moderate seismic activity at Kizimen was detected. Video and satellite images showed lava flows effusing from the summit and the E flank, summit incandescence, strong gas-and-steam activity, and hot avalanches on the S flank. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images on 17, 20, and 22 November; cloud cover obscured views on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Manam  | Papua New Guinea  | 4.08°S, 145.037°E  | Elevation 1807 m

RVO reported that during 19-20 November white and blue vapor rose from Manam. Activity increased at 1200 on 20 November characterized by occasional emissions of dark grey ash. Ejected incandescent tephra was observed at night. At 1700 on 21 November a small pyroclastic flow traveled down the upper part of the SW valley. Stronger activity was detected two hours later which lasted until the next morning; incandescent tephra was ejected several hundred meters above the crater, roaring was heard in Bogia (23 km SSW), and a lava flow was extruded into the SE valley from a new vent beneath Southern Crater. The activity slightly decreased at 1700 on 22 November and diffuse ash plumes occasionally rose from the crater. Activity increased again on 24 November. Ash fell on the NW side of the island.

Based on observations of satellite imagery and reports from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.3 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. on 26 November and drifted 110 km E.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Pagan  | Mariana Islands (USA)  | 18.13°N, 145.8°E  | Elevation 570 m

Clear satellite views showed steam-and-gas emissions drifting from Pagan during 17-24 November. According to the Washington VAAC, ash from an unknown volcano was reported by a pilot in the vicinity of Pagan on 25 November. Satellite imagery suggested continuing degassing, but it was possible that ash was present in a 30-km-wide plume that was drifting almost 90 km S. Mostly gas was seen drifting S in an image later that day.

Sources: Emergency Management Office of the Commonwealth of the Mariana Islands and United States Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

INSIVUMEH reported in a special bulletin on 21 November that collapses of the fronts of lava flows on the NE, SE, S, and SW flanks of Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated pyroclastic flows and ash plumes that rose 1 km. Ash plumes drifted 15 km S and SE, producing ashfall in Las Marías, Calaguache (9 km S), and Nuevo Palmar (12 km S). During 24-27 November incandescence was observed, lava flows were active on the SW and SE flanks, and ash plumes rose 500 m and drifted 15 km SW. On 27 November pyroclastic flows traveled short distances, and generated ash plumes that rose 500 m and drifted 10 km S and SE.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

Based on visual observations and analyses of satellite data, KVERT reported that during 16-23 November a viscous lava flow continued to effuse on the NW flank of Shiveluch's lava dome, accompanied by hot avalanches, incandescence, and fumarolic activity. Satellite imagery showed a thermal anomaly on the lava dome during 17-18 and 20-22 November; cloud cover obscured views on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Cayambe Kanlaon Nyiragongo Talang
Cereme Karangetang Okataina Tambora
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karkar Okmok Tanaga
Chaiten Karthala Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karymsky Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Kasatochi Osorno Tangkuban Parahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Katla Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Kavachi Pagan Telica
Chirinkotan Kelimutu Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Chirpoi Kelut Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kerinci Panarea Three Sisters
Colima Ketoi Papandayan Tinakula
Colo Kharimkotan Parker Tofua
Concepcion Kick 'em Jenny Pavlof Tokachidake
Copahue Kikai Peuet Sague Tolbachik
Cotopaxi Kilauea Pinatubo Toliman
Cuicocha Kirishimayama Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Cumbal Kizimen Poas Tungurahua
Dabbahu Klyuchevskoy Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Kolokol Group Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
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Dieng Volcanic Complex Koryaksky Raikoke Unknown Source
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Fernandina Lateiki Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
Fogo Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
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Fourpeaked Lewotolo Salak
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)