Activity for the week of 12 March-18 March 2014
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
New Activity / Unrest
| 16.355°S, 70.903°W
| Elevation 5672 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that diffuse plumes from Ubinas, possibly containing ash, drifted WNW on 13 March and SW on 15 March. Satellite images on 16 March showed a diffuse gas plume containing some ash drifting WSW.
Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Kyushu (Japan)
| 31.593°N, 130.657°E
| Elevation 1117 m
JMA reported that during 10-14 March two explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m. Incandescence from the crater was detected at night. Volcanologists conducting a field survey on 10 March noted that sulfur dioxide emissions were 190 tons per day, lower than the 1,900 tons per day they measured on 4 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).
The Tokyo VAAC reported explosions during 12 and 15-17 March. On 12 March pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-1.8 km (4,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. During 15-18 March plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, and S. Pilots observed ash plumes drifting SE at an altitude of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. on 16 March, and drifting SE at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 18 March.
Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Kuril Islands (Russia)
| 48.98°N, 153.48°E
| Elevation 724 m
SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Chirinkotan was observed in satellite images on 10 and 13 March. Steam-and-gas emissions were observed on 10 March and drifted more than 40 km SW on 12 March. Cloud cover obscured views on the other days during 11-17 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.
Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)
| Kuril Islands (Russia)
| 46.532°N, 150.871°E
| Elevation 742 m
SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, was detected in satellite images during 10-12 March. Diffuse steam-and-gas emissions were observed on 15 March. Cloud cover obscured views during 13-14 and 16-17 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.
Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)
| 19.514°N, 103.62°W
| Elevation 3850 m
Based on observations of satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 12 March an ash plume from Colima drifted 25 km NNE and dissipated.
Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Halmahera (Indonesia)
| 1.693°N, 127.894°E
| Elevation 1229 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 14 March an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 90-160 km NW. During 16-17 March ash plumes drifted 130-150 km SW at an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
| Sicily (Italy)
| 37.748°N, 14.999°E
| Elevation 3320 m
INGV reported on 17 March that during the previous week Strombolian activity with occasional diffuse ash emissions continued from one or two vents at the base of Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone. Lava flows originating from a vent on the upper wall traveled towards the upper part of the W wall of the Valle del Bove. During 14-15 March lava also flowed NE in the direction of Monte Simone.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
| Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
| 54.049°N, 159.443°E
| Elevation 1513 m
KVERT reported that Vulcanian and Strombolian activity at Karymsky continued during 7-14 March. Satellite images detected a bright thermal anomaly on the volcano daily. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-2 km (3,300-6,600 ft) a.s.l., and drifted 120 km SW on 12 March and 300 km SE on 13 March. Satellite images detected an ash plume that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2 km (3,300-6,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 100 km SE on 17 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
During 12-18 March HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and from the lava pond in the NE spatter cone. On 12 March lava flowed S from the S cone. Once on 14 March and twice on 17 March lava from the pond rose and spilled over the rim.
Breakouts from the stalled main lobe of the Kahauale’a 2 lava flow continued to advance and burned adjoining forest. A satellite image from 11 March showed that the edge of the most distant breakout flow was 8 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| 14.757°N, 91.552°W
| Elevation 3745 m
INSIVUMEH reported that during 13-14 March an explosion from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated an ash plume that rose 700 m and drifted SW, causing ashfall in areas within 3 km including La Florida and Monte Claro. During 15-18 March gas plumes rose as high as 150 m and small avalanches from lava flows descended the E and SE flanks.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.653°N, 161.36°E
| Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 7-14 March lava-dome extrusion at Shiveluch was accompanied by ash explosions, incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. A bright thermal anomaly was detected daily in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| 3.17°N, 98.392°E
| Elevation 2460 m
PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 8-15 March based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Dense white plumes rose from the lava dome daily, as high as 1 km on most days; plumes rose 2 km on 12 March. Incandescent material originating from various parts of the lava dome traveled up to 2 km S and SE. Tremor and volcanic earthquakes were detected, and signals representing avalanches from the unstable and still-growing dome increased. Sulfur dioxide emissions varied between 300 and 598 tons per day. Observations on 13 March showed that lava from the dome had flowed 2.4 km downslope. The report also noted that three people burned during a pyroclastic flow on 1 February later died in the hospital bringing the total number of casualties from that day to 17. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
| 1.467°S, 78.442°W
| Elevation 5023 m
IG reported that activity at Tungurahua was at moderate levels during 11-16 March, but then declined during 17-18 March; cloud cover occasionally prevented observations. On 11 March rain caused major lahars in the Achupashal drainage which led to traffic disruption on the Baños- Penipe highway. Ash plumes on 12 March rose 1 km above the crater. On 14 March ash plumes rose 3 km and drifted W and SE. Sounds resembling blocks rolling down the flanks were reported by residents in Runtún (6 km NNE).
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.