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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 15 October-21 October 2014
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Chiles-Cerro Negro Colombia-Ecuador New
Copahue Central Chile-Argentina New
Etna Sicily (Italy) 2022 Nov 27 New
Karangetang Sangihe Islands 2018 Nov 25 New
Mayon Luzon (Philippines) 2023 Apr 27 ± 2 days New
Ontakesan Honshu (Japan) New
Poas Costa Rica 2023 Aug 2 New
Popocatepetl Mexico 2005 Jan 9 New
Sinabung Northwestern Sumatra New
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Bardarbunga Iceland Continuing
Chirpoi Kuril Islands (Russia) Continuing
Dukono Halmahera 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Shishaldin Fox Islands (USA) 2023 Jul 12 Continuing
Stromboli Aeolian Islands (Italy) 1934 Feb 2 Continuing
Zhupanovsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 19,386 individual reports over 1,186 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 331 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cotopaxi Ijen Lewotobi Peuet Sague South Sarigan Seamount
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliamna Lewotolok Pinatubo Spurr
Aira Cumbal Iliwerung Little Sitkin Planchon-Peteroa St. Helens
Akan Dabbahu Inielika Llaima Poas Stromboli
Alaid Davidof Ioto Lokon-Empung Popocatepetl Sulu Range
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Irazu Lonquimay Purace Sumbing
Ambae Descabezado Grande Iya Lopevi Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Sundoro
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Izu-Torishima Machin Rabaul Suretamatai
Ambrym Dukono Jackson Segment Makushin Raikoke Suwanosejima
Anatahan Ebeko Kaba Maly Semyachik Ranakah Taal
Aniakchak Ebulobo Kadovar Manam Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Edgecumbe Kaitoku Seamount Manda Hararo Rasshua Takawangha
Antuco Egon Kama'ehuakanaloa Marapi Raung Talang
Apoyeque Ekarma Kambalny Maroa Redoubt Tambora
Arenal Eldey Kanaga Martin Reventador Tanaga
Asamayama Epi Kanlaon Masaya Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Askja Erebus Karangetang Maule, Laguna del Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Asosan Erta Ale Karkar Mauna Loa Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Atka Volcanic Complex Etna Karthala Mayon Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Karymsky McDonald Islands Rotorua Ta'u
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruang Taupo
Awu Fagradalsfjall Katla Merapi Ruapehu Telica
Axial Seamount Fernandina Katmai Midagahara Ruby Tenerife
Azul, Cerro Fogo Kavachi Misti, El Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Azumayama Fonualei Kelimutu Miyakejima Sabancaya Three Sisters
Bagana Fournaise, Piton de la Kelud Momotombo Sakar Tinakula
Balbi Fourpeaked Kerinci Monowai Salak Tofua
Bamus Fuego Ketoi Montagu Island San Cristobal Tokachidake
Banda Api Fujisan Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Miguel Tolbachik
Bardarbunga Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky San Vicente Toliman
Barren Island Galeras Kie Besi Myojinsho Sangay Tongariro
Batur Galunggung Kikai Nabro Sangeang Api Trident
Bezymianny Gamalama Kilauea Negra, Sierra Santa Ana Tungurahua
Bogoslof Gamkonora Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Santa Maria Turrialba
Brava Gareloi Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sao Jorge Ubinas
Bristol Island Gaua Kizimen Nishinoshima Sarigan Ugashik-Peulik
Bulusan Gorely Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Sarychev Peak Ukinrek Maars
Calbuco Great Sitkin Kolokol Group Novarupta Saunders Ulawun
Callaqui Grimsvotn Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Savo Unnamed
Cameroon Guagua Pichincha Krakatau Nyamulagira Semeru Unnamed
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guallatiri Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Cayambe Guntur Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Ofu-Olosega Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hachijojima Kuchinoerabujima Okataina Sheveluch Vulcano
Chaiten Hakoneyama Kurikomayama Okmok Shishaldin West Mata
Chiginagak Heard Kusatsu-Shiranesan Ontakesan Simbo Westdahl
Chikurachki Hekla Kverkfjoll Oraefajokull Sinabung Whakaari/White Island
Chiles-Cerro Negro Helgrindur La Palma Osorno Sinarka Witori
Chillan, Nevados de Hierro Lamington Pacaya Siple Wolf
Chirinkotan Hokkaido-Komagatake Lamongan Pagan Sirung Yakedake
Chirpoi Home Reef Langila Palena Volcanic Group Slamet Yasur
Ciremai Hood Lanin Paluweh Snaefellsjokull Yufu-Tsurumi
Cleveland Huaynaputina Lascar Panarea Soputan Zaozan [Zaosan]
Colima Hudson, Cerro Late Papandayan Sorikmarapi Zavodovski
Colo Huila, Nevado del Lateiki Parker Sotara Zhupanovsky
Concepcion Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pavlof Soufriere Hills Zubair Group
Copahue Ibu Leroboleng Pelee Soufriere St. Vincent
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Chiles-Cerro Negro
On 20 October Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC) reported that a M 5.8 earthquake, the largest to date, occurred in the vicinity of the Cerro Negro de Mayasquer and Chiles volcanoes at a depth of less than 10 km. The event was felt to the N in Pasto (Colombia) and to the S in Quito (Ecuador). On 21 October SGC raised the Alert Level for the volcanic complex to Orange (level 3 of 4) noting that a seismic swarm characterized by 4,300 earthquakes was detected in an 18-hour period. Hypocenters were located 1-4 km SW of Chiles volcano at depths of 3-5 km and local magnitudes between M 0.2 and 4.5. Inhabitants felt 11 of the events. On 22 October a report noted that the total number of earthquakes recorded on 21 October reached 7,717, which was the largest number of earthquakes recorded on one day since the installation of a local seismic network in November 2013. Several swarms have occurred in the area since February 2013.
Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)
Report for Copahue
SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 15 October gray ash plumes rose 300 m above Copahue’s El Agrio Crater and four explosions were recorded. Plumes on 17 October were generally white and rose 100 m; no explosions were detected. Seismicity was low on 18 October. Plumes on 19 October rose 300 m. Six explosions associated with ash emissions were recorded. Incandescence from the crater was detected in the evening. On 20 October the network recorded 12 explosions with associated ash emissions. During 20-21 October plumes rose 200 m, and crater incandescence at night was noted. SERNAGEOMIN maintained the Alert Level at Orange, and ONEMI maintained Level Yellow for Alto Biobío (40 km W) in the Biobío region (since 3 June 2013).
Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)
Report for Etna
INGV reported that from the afternoon of 7 October through 16 October Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) produced weak and intermittent explosive activity; small ash puffs were rapidly dispersed by the wind. During some nights small Strombolian explosions ejected incandescent material a few tens of meters above the crater rim.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Karangetang
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 20 October ash plumes from Karangetang rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km NW.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Mayon
PHIVOLCS reported that during 14-21 October white plumes rose from Mayon's crater and drifted NW, W, WSW, SW, and SE. On 14 October a seismic signal indicating a rockfall was recorded and a brief period of incandescence from the crater was observed. A few volcanic earthquakes were recorded during 18-21 October. On 19 October weak incandescence from the crater was noted. A new lava flow first observed that same day was 300-400 m long on 20 October based on an aerial survey. Weak crater incandescence from the lava dome was again seen on 21 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale).
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Report for Ontakesan
JMA reported that cloud cover often prevented visual observations of Ontakesan during 15-21 October; white plumes rose 100-200 m above the crater rim and drifted NE and SE during 16-18 October. White plumes rose 600 m on 19 October. A news article from 17 October noted that the search for the seven people still missing from the 27 September eruption was stopped due to wintery conditions; the search was expected to resume in the springtime. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).
Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Agence France-Presse (AFP)
Report for Poas
OVSICORI-UNA reported that a 1.5-minute-long phreatic eruption from the hot lake at Poás was recorded on 13 October starting at 0858. The event ejected material over 250 m from the crater lake, causing ashfall on the lookout area and visitor’s center. The phreatic eruptions in August and October were the most energetic events of the year.
Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)
Report for Popocatepetl
CENAPRED reported that during an overflight of Popocatépetl on 14 October volcanologists observed that the diameter of the inner crater (formed in July 2013) had increased to 350 m. The bottom of the inner crater floor was 100 m below the floor of the main crater, cup-shaped, and covered with tephra. No sign of the 52nd lava dome, emplaced in early August 2014, was visible. Steam emissions originated from a crack in the N wall of the inner crater and ash emission came from the bottom of the crater. During 15-21 October seismicity indicated continuing emissions of water vapor, gas, and occasional small amounts of ash. Cloud cover sometimes prevented visual observations. Incandescence from the crater was observed most nights. Low-intensity explosions were detected on 17 and 19 October. The Alert Level remained at to Yellow, Phase Two.
Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)
Report for Sinabung
Based on webcam views and wind data models, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 15-20 October daily small eruptions from Sinabung generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted 55 km NW during 15-17 October and ESE on 19 October.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Aira
JMA reported that three explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m during 14-17 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 16, 18, and 21 October ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, and NE.
Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
Report for Bardarbunga
During 15-21 October, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bárdarbunga’s Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bárdarbunga Caldera continued at a rate of 30-40 cm per day, concentrated in the NE part of the caldera, and on 15 October was an estimated 0.75 cubic kilometers. On 18 October a M 5.4 earthquake was detected at 0940 in N Bárdarbunga making it one of the biggest earthquakes since the start of the eruption. The lava field continued to grow and the lava production continued at the same rate; the lava field was 60.7 square kilometers on 19 October.
Source: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO)
Report for Chirpoi
SVERT reported that satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, showed a thermal anomaly during 15-16 October. Cloud cover obscured views on other days during 14-20 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.
Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)
Report for Dukono
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 15-19 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.7 km (7,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-110 km NE, E, and NW.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Kilauea
During 15-21 October HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts tephra onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor.

The 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active, with several breakouts about 1.3 km upslope of the front, although it stopped advancing on 17 October. Along the S side of the main flow a narrow breakout flow traveled at a rate of 80 m/day. The leading edge of the flow remained 1.4 km upslope from Apa’a Street. Vegetation along the flow margins was burning. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that during 10-17 October lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by ash explosions, incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the dome during 10-11 and 15 October; cloud cover prevented views of the volcano on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Shishaldin
AVO reported that, although cloud cover often obscured views of Shishaldin during 15-21 October, seismicity indicated that a low-level eruption was likely continuing. Elevated surface temperatures at the summit were periodically detected in cloud-free satellite images. Tremor and ground-coupled airwaves from small explosions were occasionally detected in seismic data. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Stromboli
On 16 October INGV reported that during the previous two months effusive activity continued at Stromboli from a vent at 650 m elevation. Lava flows traveled as far as the lower part of the Sciara del Fuoco. During the previous few weeks there were sporadic ash emissions from summit vents that were sometimes accompanied by ejected incandescent pyroclastic material.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Zhupanovsky
KVERT reported that an explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 10-17 October. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly on the volcano during 10-12 October, and ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 9 km (29,500 ft) a.s.l. on 11 October and drifted 411 km NE during 11-12 October. Cloud cover prevented satellite views of the volcano on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)