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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 31 December-6 January 2015.


















 Activity for the week of 31 December-6 January 2015

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Chirpoi Kuril Islands (Russia) New
Etna Sicily (Italy) New
Fogo Cape Verde New
Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Tonga Islands New
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) New
Soputan Sulawesi (Indonesia) New
Tangkubanparahu Western Java (Indonesia) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Bardarbunga Iceland Ongoing
Chirinkotan Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Shishaldin Fox Islands (USA) Ongoing
Sinabung Indonesia Ongoing
Slamet Central Java (Indonesia) Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing
Zhupanovsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Chirpoi  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 46.532°N, 150.871°E  | Elevation 742 m

SVERT reported that satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, showed a thermal anomaly on 4 January. Cloud cover obscured views on other days during 30 December-5 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3295 m

INGV reported that on 29 December, a day after a short but intense eruption, cameras viewing Etna recorded small ash emissions from New Southeast Crater (NSEC) and persistent glow from the saddle between the old and new SEC cones at dusk. During the night on 1 and 2 January cameras recorded intermittent flashes from Voragine Crater (one of four summit craters), indicating Strombolian activity there for the first time in nearly two years. At 0530 on 2 January explosions at NSEC generated ash plumes that drifted SW. On the evening of 3 January explosions ejected incandescent material 150 m above the crater rim.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Volcano index photo  Fogo  | Cape Verde  | 14.95°N, 24.35°W  | Elevation 2829 m

Based on gas-monitoring efforts of the Instituto Vulcanológico de Canárias (INVOLCAN) and data from the Toulouse VAAC, the Observatório Vulcanológico de Cabo Verde (OVCV) reported that sulfur dioxide emission rates at Fogo were 1,201-1,368 tons per day during 30-31 December and 1-2 January. A gas plume rose 700-900 m above the cone during 30-31 December and drifted N; on 31 December tephra was ejected 30-40 m away and ash was present on the plume. A lava front near S Ilhéu de Losna had been stagnant for a few days while one near the N part of the town advanced at a reduced speed, overtaking a road and parts of some housing. Temperatures of the lava fronts continued to gradually decrease. During 1-2 January a gas plume rose 400-600 m above the cone and tephra was occasionally ejected 20-25 m away.

Source: Universidade of Cabo Verde



Volcano index photo  Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai  | Tonga Islands  | 20.536°S, 175.382°W  | Elevation 114 m

Based on a pilot observation, the Wellington VAAC reported that an ash plume from Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 6 January.

Source: Wellington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

Based on seismic data from KB GS RAS, KVERT reported that seismic activity at Klyuchevskoy began to increase during 19-20 December and then increased again on 31 December. Although cloud cover prevented views of the volcano during 31 December-1 January, a thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images on 1 January, possibly indicating that a Strombolian eruption had begun. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow on 2 January.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Soputan  | Sulawesi (Indonesia)  | 1.112°N, 124.737°E  | Elevation 1785 m

BNPB reported that an eruption at Soputan began at 1447 on 6 January. Observers at a nearby post reported a dense gray-to-black ash plume rising about 6.5 km above the summit and drifting ESE. Lava flows traveled 2 km down the WSW flank. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Based on ground reports from that same day, the Darwin VAAC reported that a significant eruption generated a plume that rose to an altitude of 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. No ash was observed in satellite images due to weather clouds in the area.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB)



Volcano index photo  Tangkubanparahu  | Western Java (Indonesia)  | 6.77°S, 107.6°E  | Elevation 2084 m

PVMBG reported that white plumes rose at most 50 m above Tangkubanparahu's Ratu Crater during November-December 2013. Deformation data showed changes and seismicity increased. On 31 December the Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were warned not approach the crater within a radius of 1.5 km.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 1-6 January plumes from Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and S. During 3-5 January pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-4 km (6,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. On 6 January JMA reported that inflation at Sakurajima had been detected during the previous few days. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Bardarbunga  | Iceland  | 64.633°N, 17.516°W  | Elevation 2000 m

During 31 December-6 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bárdarbunga’s Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava was flowing through a closed channel to the E edge of the lava field, about 15 km from the crater. Lava was also flowing N. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. Subsidence continued at a rate of 25 cm/day. The lava field covered 83.4 square kilometers on 6 January.

Preliminary analysis of radar measurements taken during an overflight on 30 December showed that the lava is on average 10 m thick in the E part, 12 m thick at the center, and about 14 m in the W part. The maximum thickness, near the craters, was about 40 m at the E margin of the lava lake. A preliminary estimate for the volume of the lava was 1.1 cubic kilometers. Total subsidence of the Bárdarbunga surface since mid-August was 59 m.

Source: Icelandic Met Office (IMO)



Volcano index photo  Chirinkotan  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 48.98°N, 153.48°E  | Elevation 724 m

SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Chirinkotan was detected in satellite images on 30 December. Cloud cover obscured views on the other days during 29 December-5 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 30 December-6 January HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with breakout lava flows upslope of the leading front. A narrow lobe of lava that had broken away from the W edge of the flow field below the crack system stalled and by 30 December the front was about 800 m above the intersection of Pahoa Village Road and Highway 130, and 530 m from the Pahoa Marketplace.

The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of tephra onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that during 31 December-6 January seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing emissions of water vapor and gas, which occasionally contained ash. Cloud cover sometimes prevented views of the crater. Incandescence from the crater was visible on a few nights. Explosions on 1 January at 1948 and on 3 January at 1228 produced ash plumes that rose 600 m and drifted NE. An explosion at 0714 on 4 January generated an ash plume that rose 1.3 km and drifted E. An ash plume later that day rose 1.5 km and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 27 December-2 January lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. Strong explosions on 26 and 29 December generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 6-9 km (19,700-29,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 60 km W and 370 km ENE respectively. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the dome during 27-30 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Shishaldin  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 54.756°N, 163.97°W  | Elevation 2857 m

AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin continued to be slightly elevated over background levels during 31 December-6 January. Nothing significant was observed in partly-to-mostly cloudy satellite and web camera images. Minor steam emissions were occasionally recorded by the webcam. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Sinabung  | Indonesia  | 3.17°N, 98.392°E  | Elevation 2460 m

BNPB reported that an eruption at Sinabung occurred during 0833-0919 on 3 January; this event was larger than the events that had been occurring almost daily. Pyroclastic flows traveled 2-4 km down the flanks and ash plumes rose as high as 3 km. Ashfall was reported in Payung (5 km SSW), Tiganderket (7 km W), Selandi (5 km SSW), Juhar (20 km SW), and Laubaleng (35 km WSW). Since the September 2013 onset of activity, 2,443 people (795 families) still remained displaced.

Source: Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB)



Volcano index photo  Slamet  | Central Java (Indonesia)  | 7.242°S, 109.208°E  | Elevation 3428 m

PVMBG reported that during 1 November-5 January white plumes rose at most 1.5 km above Slamet's crater. RSAM values fluctuated but decreased overall in December through 5 January. Deformation and geochemical data showed no significant changes. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 5 January. Residents and tourists were warned to not approach the crater within a radius of 2 km.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

Based on a pilot observations and JMA notices, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 5 January ash plumes from Suwanosejima rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Zhupanovsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 53.589°N, 159.15°E  | Elevation 2899 m

KVERT reported that an eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 27 December-4 January. Local airline pilots observed explosions and ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 6-9 km (19,700-29,500 ft) a.s.l. on 29 December. That same day ash plumes were observed in satellite images drifting 75 km ENE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)