Activity for the week of 22 November-28 November 2017
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
New Activity / Unrest
| Bali (Indonesia)
| 8.343°S, 115.508°E
| Elevation 2997 m
PVMBG reported that at 1730 on 25 November, after the number of volcanic earthquakes significantly increased, ash plumes rose 1.5 km above Agung’s crater rim and drifted 12 km WSW. Ashfall was reported in areas SW including Besakih (7 km SW), hamlets in the upper part of Pempatan (7.5 km W), and Temukus, prompting remaining residents to evacuate to the S. Eight inbound and 13 outbound international flights were cancelled, affecting 2,087 passengers. Crater incandescence was observed at 2100, signifying the presence of lava in the crater. BNPB noted that the number of evacuees was 25,016 (spread out in 224 shelters)
On 26 November dark gray ash plumes rose 2 km at 0505, 3 km at 0545, and 4 km at 0620, and drifted E and SE. Ash emissions continued throughout the day; a few explosions were heard within a 12-km radius. PVMBG issued a Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation (VONA) elevating the Aviation Color Code from Orange to Red. Satellite data recorded sulfur dioxide gas concentrations ranging from 1,000 to 2,000 tons/day. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including North Duda (9 km S), Duda Timur (12 km S), Pempetan, Besakih, Sideman (15 km SSW), Tirta Abang, Sebudi (6 km SW), Amerta Bhuana (10 km SSW) in Klungkung, and some villages in Gianyar (20 km WSW). Ashfall was the thickest (5 mm) in Sibetan (11.5 km S). News sources noted that Lombok International Airport closed during 26-27 November.
PVMBG raised the Alert Level to 4 (the highest level on a scale of 1-4) on 27 November, and the exclusion zones were expanded to a general 8-km radius and to 10 km in the NNE, SE, S, and SW directions. Dense ash plumes continued to rise 2-4 km above the crater rim. Based on satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes rose as high as 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l., or just over 6 km above the crater rim. Pictures and video showed a white steam plume adjacent to a gray ash plume rising form the crater, signifying two distinct active vents. According to news articles the Ngurah Rai International Airport in Bali closed due to the airborne ash. On 28 November BNPB noted that the number of evacuees had increased to 38,678, and were distributed in 225 evacuation centers. The Ngurah Rai International Airport reopened on 29 November, after the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), CNN, The Sun
| Andreanof Islands (USA)
| 52.076°N, 176.13°W
| Elevation 1740 m
Recent observations of a robust steam plume and a period of gradually increasing seismicity over several months at Great Sitkin prompted AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory on 22 November. On 19 November local observers photographed a light-colored vapor plume rising about 300 m above the vent and drifting 15-20 km S. A satellite image acquired on 21 November showed steam continuously jetting from a small fumarole on the W side of the 1974 lava flow within the summit crater, and at least one area where snow and ice had been melted.
Seismicity had fluctuated but increased overall since July 2016, most notably in June 2017. The seismic activity was characterized by earthquakes less than M 1, and occurred either just below the summit or just offshore the NW cost of the island, 30 km below sea level. Possible explosion signals were recorded in seismic data on 10 January and 21 July 2017, but there were no confirmed emissions.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
| Kyushu (Japan)
| 31.593°N, 130.657°E
| Elevation 1117 m
JMA reported that events at Minamidake summit crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) were occasionally detected during 20-27 November. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
| 15.389°S, 167.835°E
| Elevation 1496 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery, webcam views, and model data, the Wellington VAAC reported that during 22-24 November steam plumes from Aoba with possible ash content rose 1.8-3.7 km (6,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, S, W, and N.
Source: Wellington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Chuginadak Island (USA)
| 52.825°N, 169.944°W
| Elevation 1730 m
AVO reported that during 22-28 November no significant activity at Cleveland was visible in cloudy to partly cloudy satellite images, and no activity was detected by seismic or infrasound sensors. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
| Central Chile-Argentina border
| 37.856°S, 71.183°W
| Elevation 2953 m
Based on satellite and webcam views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 21 and 24-27 November thin and diffuse steam plumes containing minor amounts of ash rose from Copahue and drifted E and NE. The plumes rose to altitudes of 3.3-3.6 km (11,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. during 25-26 November.
Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Halmahera (Indonesia)
| 1.693°N, 127.894°E
| Elevation 1229 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 22-28 November ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.3 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
| Paramushir Island (Russia)
| 50.686°N, 156.014°E
| Elevation 1103 m
Based on observations by volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, explosions during 17-18 and 20-21 November generated ash plumes that rose as high as 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk on 22 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
During 22-28 November HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| 19.023°N, 98.622°W
| Elevation 5393 m
Each day during 22-28 November CENAPRED reported 188-725 emissions from Popocatépetl, and as many as five explosions. Two explosions on 23 November produced minor ashfall in the municipalities of Huaquechula (30 km SSW), Tepeojuma (39 km SE), Atlixco (23 km SE), and Izúcar de Matamoros (50 km SSE), in the state of Puebla. After one explosion (at 1413) there was a 90-minute period of emissions. After an explosion at 0512 on 24 November (the second of five recorded that day) a 108-minute-period of emissions was recorded. Minor amounts of ash fell in Atlixco. Almost two hours of continuous emissions of gas, steam, and ash began at 1711, producing a plume that rose as high as 4 km above the crater rim and drifted SSE. Ashfall was reported in San Pedro Benito Juárez (10-12 km SE) and Atlixco, in the state of Puebla. An explosion at 2252 ejected incandescent fragments as far as 1 km from the crater. An ash plume rose 2.5 km and drifted SSE. Two periods of emissions were recorded on 25 November, at 1110 (lasting 132 minutes) and 1929 (lasting 35 minutes). During an overflight that day observers noted that recent explosive activity had increased the dimensions of the internal crater (the crater on the main crater floor) to 370 m in diameter and 110 m deep. A 121-minute-long period of emissions began at 1529 on 27 November, with plumes rising at least 3 km and drifting SSE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.
Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)
| 0.077°S, 77.656°W
| Elevation 3562 m
During 22-28 November IG reported a high level of seismic activity including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions at Reventador. Steam and ash plumes rose at least 600 m above the crater rim and drifted NW and W. Incandescent blocks rolled as far as 800 m down the flanks. Weather clouds sometimes prevented visual observations.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
| 15.787°S, 71.857°W
| Elevation 5960 m
Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosive activity at Sabancaya slightly decreased compared to the previous week; there was an average of 78 explosions recorded per day during 20-26 November. Seismicity was dominated by long-period events, with signals indicating emissions. Gas-and-ash plumes rose 4.2 km above the crater rim and drifted 50 km NE, N, and NW. The MIROVA system detected 11 thermal anomalies. The sulfur dioxide flux was high, at 2,944 tons per day on 23 November. The report noted that the public should not to approach the crater within a 12-km radius.
Sources: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET), Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.653°N, 161.36°E
| Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 17-18, 20, and 22 November; weather clouds prevented observations on the other days during 19-24 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| 3.17°N, 98.392°E
| Elevation 2460 m
Based on observations by PVMBG, satellite and webcam images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-25 November ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.4-6.7 km (11,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, WSW, ESE, and E. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4).
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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