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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail.

This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives on various volcanoes are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 3 March-9 March 2021
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Etna Sicily (Italy) 2013 Sep 3 New
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) New
Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Iceland 2021 Mar 19 New
Pacaya Guatemala 2015 Jun 7 ± 1 days New
Pinatubo Luzon (Philippines) New
Sinabung Indonesia 2020 Aug 8 New
Taal Luzon (Philippines) New
Veniaminof United States New
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) 2016 Oct 20 Continuing
Kikai Japan Continuing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) 2020 Dec 20 Continuing
Lewotolok Lembata Island (Indonesia) 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Merapi Central Java (Indonesia) 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Raung Eastern Java (Indonesia) 2021 Jan 21 Continuing
Sangay Ecuador 2019 Mar 26 Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Soufriere St. Vincent St. Vincent 2020 Dec 27 Continuing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 16,755 individual reports over 1,067 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 312 different volcanoes.

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Agung Copahue Ijen Little Sitkin Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Ahyi Cotopaxi Iliamna Llaima Peuet Sague Spurr
Aira Cuicocha Iliwerung Loihi Pinatubo St. Helens
Akan Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
Alaid Dabbahu Ioto Lopevi Poas Sulu Range
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Irazu Machin Popocatepetl Sumbing
Ambae Descabezado Grande Iya Makian Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Sundoro
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Izu-Torishima Makushin Rabaul Suretamatai
Ambrym Dukono Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raikoke Suwanosejima
Anatahan Ebeko Kaba Manam Ranakah Taal
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kadovar Manda Hararo Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Antuco Egon Kambalny Marapi Rasshua Takawangha
Apoyeque Ekarma Kanaga Maroa Raung Talang
Arenal Epi Kanlaon Martin Redoubt Tambora
Asamayama Erebus Karangetang Masaya Reventador Tanaga
Askja Erta Ale Karkar Maule, Laguna del Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Asosan Etna Karthala Mauna Loa Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Karymsky Mayon Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Kasatochi McDonald Islands Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Awu Fernandina Katla Melimoyu Rotorua Telica
Axial Seamount Fogo Katmai Merapi Ruang Tenerife
Azul, Cerro Fonualei Kavachi Midagahara Ruapehu Tengger Caldera
Azumayama Fournaise, Piton de la Kelimutu Misti, El Ruiz, Nevado del Three Sisters
Bagana Fourpeaked Kelut Miyakejima Sabancaya Tinakula
Balbi Fuego Kerinci Momotombo Sakar Tofua
Bamus Fujisan Ketoi Monowai Salak Tokachidake
Banda Api Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kharimkotan Montagu Island San Cristobal Tolbachik
Bardarbunga Galeras Kick 'em Jenny Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Miguel Toliman
Barren Island Galunggung Kikai Mutnovsky San Vicente Tongariro
Batur Gamalama Kilauea Myojinsho Sangay Tungurahua
Bezymianny Gamkonora Kirishimayama Nabro Sangeang Api Turrialba
Bogoslof Gareloi Kizimen Negra, Sierra Santa Ana Ubinas
Brava Gaua Klyuchevskoy Negro, Cerro Santa Maria Ugashik-Peulik
Bristol Island Gorely Kolokol Group Nightingale Island Sarigan Ukinrek Maars
Bulusan Great Sitkin Korovin Nishinoshima Sarychev Peak Ulawun
Calbuco Grimsvotn Koryaksky Nisyros Saunders Unnamed
Callaqui Guagua Pichincha Krakatau Novarupta Semeru Unnamed
Cameroon Guallatiri Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Cayambe Hachijojima Kuchinoerabujima Nyiragongo Sheveluch West Mata
Cereme Hakoneyama Kurikomayama Okataina Shishaldin Westdahl
Chachadake [Tiatia] Heard Kusatsu-Shiranesan Okmok Simbo Whakaari/White Island
Chaiten Hekla Kverkfjoll Ontakesan Sinabung Witori
Chiginagak Helgrindur Lamington Oraefajokull Sinarka Wolf
Chikurachki Hierro Lamongan Osorno Siple Yasur
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Pacaya Sirung Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chillan, Nevados de Home Reef Lanin Pagan Slamet Zavodovski
Chirinkotan Hood Lascar Palena Volcanic Group Snaefellsjokull Zhupanovsky
Chirpoi Huaynaputina Lateiki Paluweh Soputan Zubair Group
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lengai, Ol Doinyo Panarea Sorikmarapi
Colima Huila, Nevado del Leroboleng Papandayan Sotara
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Lewotobi Parker Soufriere Hills
Concepcion Ibu Lewotolok Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Etna
INGV reported continuing episodes of lava fountaining at Etna’s Southeast Crater (SEC) on 2, 4, and 7 March. Weak Strombolian activity began at SEC at 1145 on 2 March, then intensified at 1234 and produced an ash plume. Lava fountaining began at 1324. Ash plumes rose to 9 km above the summit and drifted S, causing lapilli to fall in Nicolosi (16 km S), Aci San Antonio (18 km SE), Pedara (15 km SSE), and Catania (29 km SSE). Lava fountaining ceased at 1550, ending the eighth episode.

The ninth episode began at the SEC as weak Strombolian at 0120 on 4 March. Ash emissions were visible at 0200 but dispersed quickly. Strombolian activity at Voragine (VOR) was also visible with ejected material rising above the crater rim. Lava fountaining began at SEC at 0320, but by 0515 the activity had decreased. Lava flows that advanced towards the Valle de Bove were fed by spattering and a new vent that opened at the E base of the SEC. Strombolian activity at VOR changed to 300-m-tall lava fountaining at 0850. Ash plumes rose 11 km above the summit and caused lapilli to fall in Fiumefreddo (19 km ENE), Linguaglossa (17 km NE), and the area of Reggio Calabria.

The tenth episode began with Strombolian explosions at SEC and minor lava effusion at the new vent at the E base of SEC during the first hour on 7 March. Strombolian activity intensified at 0430; an eruption plume rose 5 km above the summit and drifted E. Lava overflowed the SEC onto the E flank and expanded into the Valle de Bove, reaching an elevation of 2,800 m by 0450. Strombolian activity again intensified beginning at 0520 and the lava flow advanced to 2,700 m elevation. Lava fountaining started at 0720 and ended at 0810. An eruption plume rose 10 km and drifted E. Ash and lapilli fell in Milo (11 km ESE), Fornazzo (10 km ESE), Trepunti (17 km ESE), Giarre (17 km ESE), Macchia di Giarre (16 km ESE), Mascali (18 km E), Riposto (19 km ESE), and Torre Archirafi (20 km ESE). Strombolian activity resumed at 1050 and was over by 1500.

Strombolian activity at SEC returned at 1914 on 9 March. Lava overflowed the crater at 2013 and advanced towards the Valle de Bove. Strombolian activity increased at 2100 and ash emissions drifted NE. The lava flow reached 2,900 m elevation.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Klyuchevskoy
KVERT reported that the eruption from vents on Klyuchevskoy’s lower NW flank continued during 26 February-5 March. A large, bright thermal anomaly over the vents was identified daily in satellite images. IVS FEB RAS volcanologists visited the field site on 2 March during good weather conditions. They estimated that the cinder cone was 54 m high and 101 m wide at the base. Lava effused from the cone and traveled downslope, melting ice and snow that formed muddy streams. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Kamchatka Volcanological Station
Report for Krysuvik-Trolladyngja
IMO reported that seismicity in the area between the Krýsuvík and Reykjanes-Svartsengi volcanic systems remained elevated during 4-10 March. GPS and InSAR data indicated that the intrusion was ongoing, with magma moving slowly SW along a fault between Keilir and Fagradalsfjall at depths of 2-6 km. Seismicity fluctuated during 6-7 March but continued to be elevated; the largest event was a M 5.1 on 7 March. The geophysical and satellite data on 8 March suggested that magma movement had decelerated over the past week, and was possibly as shallow as 1 km. A burst of seismicity was recorded around 0520 on 9 March, concentrated at the S end of the intrusion in an area that was most likely source of the magma. On 10 March IMO stated that more than 34,000 earthquakes had been detected during the past two weeks, a total larger than all of 2020 which was characterized as an unusually high year for seismicity. The Aviation Color Code for Krýsuvík remained at Orange.
Source: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO)
Report for Pacaya
INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that during 2-6 March strong Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted W, SW, and S. Tephra fell in areas downwind including El Patrocinio (5 km W), El Rodeo (4 km WSW), San Francisco de Sales (5 km N), El Cedro (9 km NNW), Calderas (3 km N), and Las Jazmines (5 km W), and in the municipalities of Palín (10 km WNW) and Escuintla (22 km SW). Periods of lava fountaining were visible, and incandescent material was ejected 300-1,000 m high. Three lava flows were active and all had several branches; one traveled SSW, one traveled S, and one on the SE flank was 800-1,200 m long. During 6-8 March strong explosions ejected material as high as 500 m and produced dense ash plumes that rose up to 1 km. Lava flows continued to be active, sometimes producing block avalanches from the ends. On 8 March the S-flank flow was about 850 m long and continued to generated block avalanches. Strong explosions during 8-9 March ejected ballistics 300-500 m away from the crater. Dense ash plumes rose up to 1.5 km and drifted 30 km SW and S. The lava flow on the S flank was 900 m long and shed blocks from the end.
Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres (CONRED)
Report for Pinatubo
PHIVOLCS raised the Alert Level for Pinatubo to 1 (on a scale of 0-5) on 4 March noting elevated seismicity with a total of 1,722 earthquakes recorded in two swarms since 20 January. The first swarm was recorded during 20-26 January and was comprised of local M 1-2.5 events that occurred along the Sacobia Lineament fault at depths of 15-28 km. A more persistent swarm followed; it was comprised of local M 0.5-2.8 events at depths of 10-35 km along another fault system, with a few shallower earthquakes occurring at both ends of the swarm. Carbon dioxide flux at Pinatubo Crater lake was 378 tonnes per day in February, within background ranges that topped 1,000 tonnes per day during the last decade. Minor temperature increases were recorded at fumarolic vents.
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Report for Sinabung
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Sinabung continued during 3-9 March. According to the Darwin VAAC an ash plume was identified in satellite images rising to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. (or 600 m above the summit) and drifting NW on 5 March. The observatory noted that avalanches of material traveled 500 m down the SE flank during 6-7 March, and an ash plume rose 1 km and drifted NW at 1910 on 7 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km in the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Taal
PHIVOLCS raised the Alert Level for Taal to 2 (on a scale of 0-5) on 9 March based on increased activity recorded since 13 February. During 8-9 March the seismic network recorded a total of 28 volcanic tremor events, four low-frequency volcanic earthquakes, and one hybrid event at depths of less than 1.5 km. These events added to the totals of 866 volcanic tremor events and 141 low-frequency volcanic earthquakes recorded during 13 February-9 March. Overall, seismicity over the past month indicated increased magmatic and hydrothermal activity at shallow depths beneath Taal Volcano Island (TVI).

Over the past month minor deformation centered at a source beneath the SE part of TVI was evident in monitoring data, including integrated real-time ground tilt and continuous GPS, daily Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) monitoring, and InSAR. The data also showed slow and steady inflation across the Taal region after the 2020 eruption. Geochemical data collected from Taal’s Main Crater lake indicated a continuous acidification of the water from pH 2.79 to 1.59 between January 2020 and mid-February 2021. Microgravity data was consistent with magma migration. PHIVOLCS strongly recommended no entry onto the island, and access to the Main Crater and Daang Kastila fissure (along the walking trail) was strictly prohibited.
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Report for Veniaminof
AVO reported that elevated sulfur dioxide gas emissions at Veniaminof were first detected on 1 March and elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images sometime during 2-3 March. At 0513 on 4 March infrasound sensors recorded a small explosion, prompting AVO to raise the Volcano Alert Level to Watch and the Aviation Color Code to Orange. A low-level ash plume, to less than 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l., was visible in satellite and webcam images drifting SSE and minor ash deposits around the volcano were visible. Small emissions continued at least through 1048 that day. Sulfur dioxide emissions were visible in a webcam image on 5 March. Numerous small explosions were recorded during 6-7 March; some of them were heard and felt by residents in Perryville (35 km SE). Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images, suggesting lava near or at the surface. During times of clear weather low-level gas-and-ash plumes were visible in satellite and webcam data and observed by pilots. The plumes mainly stayed below 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l., but at times went as high as 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l., and drifted 150 km NE.

On 7 March satellite images revealed that the emissions originated from a small cone in the summit caldera. Additionally, lava was likely effusing under the intra-caldera glacier in an area on the flank about 1 km E of the cone’s summit. This area produced incandescence and strongly elevated surface temperatures, as well as a small steam plume and meltwater. During 8-9 March satellite images showed a small, steam-rich plume drifting about 10 km NE at 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Aira
JMA reported that during 1-8 March incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. An explosion at 1810 on 1 March ejected bombs 600-900 m away from the crater; an eruption plume was not confirmed. That same day the sulfur dioxide emission rate was high, at 2,900 tons per day. An explosion on 5 March produced an eruption plume that rose 2.7 km above the summit and ejected bombs 800-1,100 m away. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Dukono
Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 7-9 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, and SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Ebeko
Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 26-28 February and 1-2 March that sent ash plumes to 3.6 km (11,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk on 26 February and 2 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Kikai
In response to an eruption at Satsuma Iwo-jima, a subaerial part of Kikai’s NW caldera rim, on 2 November 2019 JMA had raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a 5-level scale). Since then, surveillance cameras sometimes recorded minor incandescence reflected in emitted plumes. On 8 March JMA revised the Alert Level guidelines, keeping the level at 2, but reducing the exclusion zone around the crater from 1 km to 500 m.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Kilauea
HVO reported that a vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 2-8 March through a submerged inlet. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,000 tons/day during 2-3 March, and 800 tons/day on 7 March. The depth of the western part of the lake fluctuated around 219-220 m. The E half of the lake remained solidified and lower that the W half, with the crusted E half expanding towards the W. Rangefinder measurements and visual observations indicated that the eastern and western portions of the lake were rising at the same rate, suggesting that lava was accumulating under the crusted eastern portion.

In recent weeks a part of the cone, several meters NE of the main vent, occasionally fed short (less than 100 m) lava flows that entered the lake at the crusted margins. During 5-7 March flows from this vent poured lava into the lake at several shifting inlets, though lava also accumulated on the lake margin within 50 m of the vent. By midday on 7 March the flows had built a perched lava pond on the NW lake margin, but it abruptly collapsed just after 1300. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 3-9 March; weather conditions sometimes hindered visual observations. Gray-and-white ash plumes rose 100-1,000 m above the summit and drifted E, SE, SW, and W. Incandescent material was ejected 300-800 m SE from the crater during 3-6 March. Rumbling and occasional thumping sounds were reported. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the summer crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the 2021 lava dome just below Merapi’s SW rim and the new lava dome in the summit crater both continued to grow during 19-25 February. The 2021 lava-dome volume was an estimated 618,700 cubic meters on 25 February, with a growth rate of about 13,600 cubic meters per day. A total of three pyroclastic flows traveled 1.9 km down the SW flank. One of the three, recorded at 1652 on 25 February, was followed by minor ashfall in Kali Tengah Lor, Kali Tengah Kidul, Deles, and Tlukan. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public were warned to stay 5 km away from the summit.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Raung
PVMBG reported that daily gray ash plumes rose 200-1,200 m above Raung’s summit during 2-9 March. Ash plumes drifted mainly E and S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sangay
IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 3-9 March. Seismicity was characterized by daily explosions, long-period earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions. Weather clouds often prevented visual observations of the volcano, but satellite and webcam images recorded daily ash plumes.

Ash plumes were notable during 5-6 March and impacted communities downwind with ashfall. According to the Washington VAAC ash plumes rose 5.8-12.2 km (19,000-40,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 170-370 km SW, W, and NW; ash at altitudes of 5.8-8.2 km (19,000-27,000 ft) a.s.l. drifted 185 km E. During 5-6 March ashfall was reported in Alfredo Baquerizo Moreno (132 km W), but fell more significantly in Alausí (61 km WSW), Chunchi (73 km SW), Cumandá (90 km WSW), Guamote (42 km WNW), Pallatanga (70 km W), Milagro (140 km W), San Jacinto de Yaguachi (150 km W), Samborondon (170 km W), Daule (180 km W), and Durán (168 km W). SNGRE reported that the ashfall affected a total of 108,457 people (23,750 families) as well as numerous crops and animals; they distributed volcano-related aid kits to impacted populations.

Ashfall continued to impact multiple communities during 6-7 March. Ash fell in Guayaquil (175 km W), General Antonio Elizalde (97 km WSW), Simón Bolívar, Milagro (140 km W), San Jacinto de Yaguachi (150 km W), El Triunfo (125 km WSW), Daule, Samboróndon (170 km W), Coronel Marceliño Maridueña (120 km WSW), Durán, Naranjito, Alfredo Baquerizo Moreno, Playas (240 km WSW), Guamote (40 km WNW), Alausí (60 km SW), Pallatanga (70 km W), Chunchí (72 km SW), and Colta (55 km NW).
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 26 February-5 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Soufriere St. Vincent
University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre (UWI-SRC) and National Emergency Management Organisation (NEMO) reported that the lava dome in Soufrière St. Vincent’s main crater continued to slowly grow during 2-8 March. The SE part of the dome was in line with the pre-existing fumarolic area on the 1979 dome. Gas plumes continued to damage vegetation in the summit area as well as on the SW flank. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre (UWI-SRC), National Emergency Management Organisation (NEMO), Government of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported intermittent eruptive events at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater during 26 February-2 March. Bombs were ejected as far as 600 m away from the crater and ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). The number of explosions began increasing on 2 March; the total recorded through 1500 on 7 March was 139, but by 1500 on 8 March there was only one additional explosion. The Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes rose 0.9-2.1 km (3,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. during 3-7 March. An explosion at 0317 on 6 March ejected tephra as high as 500 m above the crater rim and bombs 900 m away. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).
Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)