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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 26 October-1 November 2022
Name Country Eruption Start Date Report Status
Bezymianny Russia 2016 Dec 5 New
Cotopaxi Ecuador New
Kerinci Indonesia New
Manam Papua New Guinea 2014 Jun 29 New
Taal Philippines 2024 Apr 12 New
Villarrica Chile 2014 Dec 2 ± 7 days New
Aira Japan 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Alaid Russia Continuing
Bagana Papua New Guinea 2000 Feb 28 (in or before) Continuing
Ebeko Russia 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Great Sitkin United States 2021 May 25 Continuing
Kilauea United States Continuing
Krakatau Indonesia Continuing
Maly Semyachik Russia Continuing
Mauna Loa United States Continuing
Mayon Philippines 2023 Apr 27 ± 2 days Continuing
Merapi Indonesia 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Nevado del Ruiz Colombia 2014 Nov 18 Continuing
Pavlof United States Continuing
Sheveluch Russia 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Suwanosejima Japan 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Yasur Vanuatu 1270 ± 110 years Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 20,205 individual reports over 1,224 weeks (average of 17 per week) on 334 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Poas Sulu Range
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Popocatepetl Sumbing
Aira Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Purace Sundoro
Akan Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suoh
Alaid Davidof Irazu Lopevi Rabaul Suretamatai
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Iya Machin Raikoke Suwanosejima
Ambae Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Ranakah Taal
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Ambrym Dukono Kaba Manam Rasshua Takawangha
Anatahan East Epi Kadovar Manda Hararo Raung Talang
Aniakchak Ebeko Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Redoubt Tambora
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Reventador Tanaga
Antuco Edgecumbe Kambalny Martin Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Apoyeque Egon Kanaga Masaya Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Arenal Ekarma Kanlaon Maule, Laguna del Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Asamayama Eldey Karangetang Mauna Loa Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Askja Erebus Karkar Mayon Rotorua Ta'u
Asosan Erta Ale Karthala McDonald Islands Ruang Taupo
Atka Volcanic Complex Etna Karymsky Melebingoy Ruapehu Telica
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruby Tenerife
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Katla Merapi Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Awu Fagradalsfjall Katmai Midagahara Sabancaya Three Sisters
Axial Seamount Fernandina Kavachi Misti, El Sakar Tinakula
Azul, Cerro Fogo Kelimutu Miyakejima Salak Tofua
Azumayama Fonualei Kelud Momotombo San Cristobal Tokachidake
Bagana Fournaise, Piton de la Kerinci Monowai San Miguel Tolbachik
Balbi Fourpeaked Ketoi Montagu Island San Vicente Toliman
Bamus Fuego Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Sangay Tongariro
Banda Api Fujisan Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky Sangeang Api Trident
Bardarbunga Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kie Besi Myojinsho Santa Ana Tungurahua
Barren Island Galeras Kikai Nabro Santa Maria Turrialba
Batur Galunggung Kilauea Negra, Sierra Sao Jorge Ubinas
Bezymianny Gamalama Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ugashik-Peulik
Bogoslof Gamkonora Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ukinrek Maars
Brava Gareloi Kizimen Nishinoshima Saunders Ulawun
Bristol Island Gaua Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bulusan Gorely Kolokol Group Novarupta Semeru Unnamed
Calbuco Great Sitkin Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Callaqui Grimsvotn Krakatau Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Cameroon Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Sheveluch Vulcano
Campi Flegrei Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Ofu-Olosega Shishaldin West Mata
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Okataina Simbo Westdahl
Cayambe Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okmok Sinabung Whakaari/White Island
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Ontakesan Sinarka Witori
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Oraefajokull Siple Wolf
Chiginagak Hekla La Palma Osorno Sirung Wrangell
Chikurachki Helgrindur Lamington Pacaya Slamet Yakedake
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamongan Pagan Snaefellsjokull Yasur
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Palena Volcanic Group Soputan Yufu-Tsurumi
Chirinkotan Home Reef Lanin Paluweh Sorikmarapi Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirpoi Hood Lascar Panarea Sotara Zavodovski
Ciremai Huaynaputina Late Papandayan Soufriere Hills Zhupanovsky
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent Zubair Group
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Peuet Sague Spurr
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Pinatubo St. Helens
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Bezymianny
KVERT reported that notable activity continued after the strong explosive 23-24 October phase at Bezymianny through 27 October. Intense fumarolic activity was visible, the lava dome was incandescent at night, and collapses from the dome produced avalanches of hot material. Ash plumes from the collapses were sometimes large; on 26 October an ash cloud 10x13 km in dimension drifted 70 km E on 26 October, prompting KVERT to raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) the next day. Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Cotopaxi
IG issued a report that included data analysis and additional information about the minor eruptive activity at Cotopaxi recorded during 21-22 October. The eruption began with a high-frequency earthquake recorded at 1944 on 21 October and was followed by an episode of volcanic tremor from 1950 on 21 October to 0040 on 22 October. A diffuse gas-and-ash cloud rose 1.7-2.3 km above the summit and drifted NE. Ashfall was reported in the José Rivas Refuge for climbers on the N flank. Parque Nacional Cotopaxi closed to visitors due to the emissions. A small thermal anomaly in the summit crater was identified in satellite images on 23 October; a small anomaly had been repeatedly visible since the previous eruption during August-November 2015, though it had been absent since 12 November 2020.

On 22 October scientists measured sulfur dioxide emissions using a mobile Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument in an area spanning near the W entrance to Parque Nacional Cotopaxi to areas in the park. They measured higher values, 1,580 tons per day, nearer to the volcano. Analysis of ash samples collected by IG scientists at the José Rivas Refuge revealed that about 22 percent was juvenile material, indicating a magmatic component to the eruption.

Parque Nacional Cotopaxi reopened on 26 October. Seismicity was at moderate levels that same day with the number of events per day progressively decreasing according to a news report. During an overflight of the summit crater on 27 October, scientists observed gas-and-steam emissions rising 500 m above the carter rim, obscuring views into the crater.

The amplitude of the tremor signal on 21 October was about half of that recorded during the 2015 eruption and the tremor signal only lasted about four hours whereas in 2015 some periods lasted several days. There was no notable precursory activity including anomalous seismic activity and deformation detected in satellite or GPS data. The Washington VAAC had previously reported ash emissions on 4 July 2016, 23 January 2017, 15 July 2018, and 10 January 2020, though none were associated with increased seismicity or ashfall. Climbers had previously reported ashfall on occasion, with the last report on 27 November 2021. Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE) maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN), Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE), El Comercio
Report for Kerinci
PVMBG reported that on 27 October a somewhat dense, gray-and-black plume rose around 300 m above Kerinci’s summit and drifted E. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Manam
The Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 October an ash plume from Manam rose to 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW based on satellite images. The plume had dissipated within three hours.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Taal
PHIVOLCS reported continuing unrest at Taal during 25-31 October. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 544 tonnes per day on 27 October. There were 2-16 daily counts of small phreatomagmatic bursts during 25-29 October. The Tokyo VAAC noted that three ash plumes rose as high as 600 m (2,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and SW during 26-28 October based on SIGMETS (Significant Meteorological statements) issued by the Ninoy Aquino International Airport. Six volcanic earthquakes and a three-minute-long tremor signal were recorded during 25-26 October, four periods of volcanic tremor were recorded during 28-29 October, and 64 periods were recorded during 31 October-1 November. Upwelling gasses and hot fluids in the lake were visible early in the week; white steam emissions rose as high as 600 m above the lake on most of the days. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5), and PHIVOLCS reminded the public that the entire Taal Volcano Island was a Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).
Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
Report for Villarrica
POVI reported that Strombolian explosions at Villarrica intensified on 31 October and ejected material onto the upper flanks. A lava fountain rising above the crater rim was visible on 1 November. The Alert Level remained at Green, the lowest level on a four-color scale.
Sources: Proyecto Observación Villarrica Internet (POVI), Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)
Report for Aira
JMA reported ongoing eruptive activity at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) and nighttime crater incandescence. Two eruptive events and one explosion were recorded during 24-28 October. Volcanic plumes rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim and large blocks were ejected as far as 1.3 km from the vent. Very small eruptive events were occasionally recorded during 28-31 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Alaid
KVERT reported that the eruption at Alaid was ongoing during 20-27 October. An intense daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. Ash plumes drifted more than 700 m NE and SE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Bagana
The Darwin VAAC reported that during 31 October-1 November ash plumes from Bagana rose to 2.1-2.7 km (7,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, N, and WSW based on satellite data. An intense thermal anomaly was present at the summit.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate activity at Ebeko was ongoing. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E) explosions during 22 and 25-27 October generated ash plumes that rose to 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 26 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that seismicity at Great Sitkin was very low during 25 October-1 November and nothing significant was seen in partly cloudy satellite or web camera views. Lava effusion likely continued. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Kilauea
HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 25 October-1 November entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The active part of the lake remained at a steady level all week. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Krakatau
PVMBG reported that multiple ash plumes were visible in webcam images rising from Anak Krakatau during 26-28 October. Dense gray ash plumes rose as high as 300 m above the summit and drifted NE at 0949 on 26 October, 1205 on 27 October, and 0438 and 1502 on 28 October. Eruptive events were also recorded at 1838 on 26 October, 1955 on 27 October, and 0438 on 28 October, though were not visually confirmed. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Maly Semyachik
Although Maly Semyachik was not erupting, KVERT raised the Aviation Color Code to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) on 28 October, noting that a plume of ash, re-suspended by strong winds, was visible in satellite images drifting 123 km SE. Within three hours the Aviation Color Code was lowered back to Green. Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Mauna Loa
HVO reported continuing unrest at Mauna Loa during 25 October-1 November. The seismic network detected 19-41 daily small-magnitude (below M 3) earthquakes 3-5 km beneath Mokua’weoweo caldera and 1-8 km beneath the upper NW flank of Mauna Loa. Data from Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments at the summit and flanks showed continuing inflation, though data from tiltmeters at the summit did not show significant surface deformation over the past week. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory (the second lowest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Mayon
On 28 October PHIVOLCS warned of potential lahars around Mayon due to intense rains from an impending tropical storm. The rains could generate lahars in several drainages, including in the Miisi, Binaan, Anoling, Quirangay, Maninila, Masarawag, Muladbucad, Nasisi, Mabinit, Matan-ag, and Basud. Communities along the middle and lower flanks and in areas downstream were vulnerable to lahars. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and the public was reminded to stay outside of the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone.
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi continued during 21-27 October and seismicity remained at high levels. The SW lava dome produced as many as 14 minor lava avalanches that traveled as far as 1.5 km down the Bebeng drainage on the SW flank. No significant morphological changes to the central and SW lava domes were evident in drone photographs. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Nevado del Ruiz
On 1 November Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) reported that during the previous week seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz was variable and indicated continuing growth of the lava dome in Arenas Crater. The number and size of seismic signals indicating fluid movement had decreased compared to the week before. Some of the signals were associated with gas-and-ash emissions. Although seismic signals indicating rock fracturing decreased in number, magnitudes were higher previous week. The hypocenters were located 0.2-7 km deep, mainly beneath the NE and SW parts of Arenas Crater, and beneath the E, SE, and NW flanks. The largest event was a local M 1.8 that was recorded at 0518 on 28 October at a depth of 1.8 km below the crater. Several low-to-moderate thermal anomalies in Arenas Crater were identified in satellite images and minor changes to the dome and crater floor were visible. Plumes of steam and gas (mainly sulfur dioxide) continued to be emitted, rising as high as 1.8 km above the summit on 31 October and drifting SE, ESE, and ENE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)
Report for Pavlof
AVO reported that a minor eruption at a vent on Pavlof’s upper E flank was ongoing during 26 October-1 November and nearly continuous seismic tremor was recorded. Multiple explosions, detected almost daily in seismic and infrasound data, had intensified during the previous week. No significant activity was observed in cloudy-to-partly-cloudy satellite and webcam views during most of the week; diffuse steam-and-ash plume rose less than 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. during 31 October-1 November and deposited minor amounts of tephra on the E flank. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that the ongoing eruption at Sheveluch during 20-27 October was generally characterized by explosions, hot avalanches, and lava-dome extrusion. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. Collapses generated hot avalanches and ash plumes that drifted 80 km SE and NW during 24-25 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 24-31 October and crater incandescence was visible nightly. A total of six explosions produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 2.1 km above the crater rim and ejected blocks as far as 300 m from the vent. Occasional rumbling noises and ashfall were reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). The number of volcanic earthquakes increased starting at 0600 on 31 October; a total of about 355 events, located beneath the W flank, were recorded by 1500.The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Yasur
On 27 October Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD) reported that activity at Yasur continued at a high level of “major unrest,” as defined by the Alert Level 2 status (the middle level on a scale of 0-4). Ash-and-gas emissions and low-to-moderate explosions continued to be recorded, with bombs falling in and around the crater. The public was reminded to not enter the restricted area within 600 m around the cone, defined by Danger Zone A on the hazard map.
Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD)