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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 15 February-21 February 2023
Name Country Volcanic Province Eruption Start Date Report Status
Aira Japan Ryukyu Volcanic Arc 2017 Mar 25 New
Ambae Vanuatu Vanuatu Volcanic Arc New
Chikurachki Russia Kuril Volcanic Arc New
Karangetang Indonesia Sangihe Volcanic Arc New
Lascar Chile Andean Central Volcanic Arc New
Cotopaxi Ecuador Andean Northern Volcanic Arc Continuing
Ebeko Russia Kuril Volcanic Arc 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Etna Italy Sicily Volcanic Province Continuing
Great Sitkin United States Aleutian Ridge Volcanic Arc 2021 May 25 Continuing
Kerinci Indonesia Sunda Volcanic Arc Continuing
Kilauea United States Hawaiian-Emperor Hotspot Volcano Group Continuing
Lewotolok Indonesia Sunda Volcanic Arc 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Marapi Indonesia Sunda Volcanic Arc 2023 Dec 3 Continuing
Merapi Indonesia Sunda Volcanic Arc 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Popocatepetl Mexico Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt 2005 Jan 9 Continuing
Reventador Ecuador Andean Northern Volcanic Arc 2008 Jul 27 Continuing
Sabancaya Peru Andean Central Volcanic Arc 2016 Nov 6 Continuing
Sangay Ecuador Andean Northern Volcanic Arc 2019 Mar 26 Continuing
Semisopochnoi United States Aleutian Ridge Volcanic Arc Continuing
Sheveluch Russia Eastern Kamchatka Volcanic Arc 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Suwanosejima Japan Ryukyu Volcanic Arc 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Villarrica Chile Andean Southern Volcanic Arc 2014 Dec 2 ± 7 days Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 20,299 individual reports over 1,228 weeks (average of 17 per week) on 335 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Poas Sulu Range
Aira Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Popocatepetl Sumbing
Akan Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Purace Sundoro
Alaid Davidof Irazu Lopevi Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suoh
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Iya Machin Rabaul Suretamatai
Ambae Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Raikoke Suwanosejima
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Ranakah Taal
Ambrym Dukono Kaba Manam Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Anatahan East Epi Kadovar Manda Hararo Rasshua Takawangha
Aniakchak Ebeko Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Raung Talang
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Redoubt Tambora
Antuco Edgecumbe Kambalny Martin Reventador Tanaga
Apoyeque Egon Kanaga Masaya Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Arenal Ekarma Kanlaon Matthew Island Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Asamayama Eldey Karangetang Maule, Laguna del Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Askja Erebus Karkar Mauna Loa Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Asosan Erta Ale Karthala Mayon Rotorua Ta'u
Atka Volcanic Complex Etna Karymsky McDonald Islands Ruang Taupo
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melebingoy Ruapehu Telica
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Katla Melimoyu Ruby Tenerife
Awu Fagradalsfjall Katmai Merapi Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Axial Seamount Fernandina Kavachi Midagahara Sabancaya Three Sisters
Azul, Cerro Fogo Kelimutu Misti, El Sakar Tinakula
Azumayama Fonualei Kelud Miyakejima Salak Tofua
Bagana Fournaise, Piton de la Kerinci Momotombo San Cristobal Tokachidake
Balbi Fourpeaked Ketoi Monowai San Miguel Tolbachik
Bamus Fuego Kharimkotan Montagu Island San Vicente Toliman
Banda Api Fujisan Kick 'em Jenny Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Sangay Tongariro
Bardarbunga Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kie Besi Mutnovsky Sangeang Api Trident
Barren Island Galeras Kikai Myojinsho Santa Ana Tungurahua
Batur Galunggung Kilauea Nabro Santa Maria Turrialba
Bezymianny Gamalama Kirishimayama Negra, Sierra Sao Jorge Ubinas
Bogoslof Gamkonora Kita-Ioto Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ugashik-Peulik
Brava Gareloi Kizimen Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ukinrek Maars
Bristol Island Gaua Klyuchevskoy Nishinoshima Saunders Ulawun
Bulusan Gorely Kolokol Group Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Calbuco Great Sitkin Koryaksky Novarupta Semeru Unnamed
Callaqui Grimsvotn Krakatau NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Cameroon Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Campi Flegrei Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Nyiragongo Sheveluch Vulcano
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Ofu-Olosega Shishaldin West Mata
Cayambe Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okataina Simbo Westdahl
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Okmok Sinabung Whakaari/White Island
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Ontakesan Sinarka Witori
Chiginagak Hekla La Palma Oraefajokull Siple Wolf
Chikurachki Helgrindur Lamington Osorno Sirung Wrangell
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamongan Pacaya Slamet Yakedake
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Pagan Snaefellsjokull Yasur
Chirinkotan Home Reef Lanin Palena Volcanic Group Soputan Yufu-Tsurumi
Chirpoi Hood Lascar Paluweh Sorikmarapi Zaozan [Zaosan]
Ciremai Huaynaputina Late Panarea Sotara Zavodovski
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Papandayan Soufriere Hills Zhupanovsky
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent Zubair Group
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Peuet Sague Spurr
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Pinatubo St. Helens
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Aira
JMA reported ongoing eruptive activity at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 13-20 February and crater incandescence was visible nightly. Five explosions and five eruptive events were recorded during the week. One of the explosions, at 1448 on 14 February, produced an ash plume that rose 2.4 km above the crater rim and ejected large blocks 1.1 km from the vent. Blocks 3 cm in diameter fell near the Arimura Lava Observatory in Arimura-cho, Kagoshima City, about 3 km SE. An explosion on 19 February produced an eruption plume that rose 1.2 km and ejected blocks that fell 1.1 km away. A very small eruptive event occurred at Showa Crater on 20 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Ambae
Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) reported that on 20 February a steam-and-ash plume rose from the active vent at Ambae and drifted SSW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5) and the public was warned to stay outside of the Danger Zone, defined as a 2-km radius around the active vents in Lake Voui, and away from drainages during heavy rains.
Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD)
Report for Chikurachki
KVERT reported that moderate eruptive activity at Chikurachki had ended, with explosions and ash plumes last recorded on 8 February. Steam-and-gas emissions persisted. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow and then Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale) on 18 February. Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Karangetang
According to PVMBG the eruption at Karangetang’s Main Crater (S crater) continued during 14-21 February. Multiple nighttime webcam images posted with daily reports showed three main incandescent lava flows of different lengths descending the S, SW, and W flanks; a webcam image from 2156 on 17 February possibly showed incandescent material descending the SE flank. Incandescent rocks dotted the upper flanks, possibly from ejected or collapsed material from the crater; the incandescence was often most intense at the summit. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16-20 February daily ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNE, E, and SE. BNPB reported that as of 16 February there were as many as 77 people that had been displaced by the eruption and were in the East Siau Museum which was designated as a temporary evacuation shelter. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public were advised to stay 2.5 km away from Main Crater with an extension to 3.5 km on the S and SE flanks.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Lascar
SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 15-21 February seismicity at Láscar continued to be dominated by volcano-tectonic signals with smaller numbers of both long-period and tornillo-type events. Daily whitish gas emissions were mostly diffuse, rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim, and drifted mainly E, SE, and W. Sulfur dioxide emissions were low, no notable deformation was detected, and no thermal anomalies were identified in satellite images. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and SENAPRED warned the public to stay at least 10 km away from the crater. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for San Pedro de Atacama (70 km NW).
Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI)
Report for Cotopaxi
IG reported that the eruption at Cotopaxi continued during 14-21 February, characterized by almost daily emissions of gas, steam, and ash; inclement weather conditions occasionally prevented views. Gas emissions with some ash rose as high as 600 m above the crater rim and drifted E, SE, and SW during 14-15 February. Minor ashfall was noted in San Ramón (17 km SW), Ticatilín (15 km WSW), San Agustín del Callo (18 km WSW), Mulaló (19 km SW), and Lasso (20 km WSW). Daily ash-and-gas plumes rose as high as 1.1 km during 16-19 February and drifted mainly E, SE, S, and SW. Minor amounts of ash occasionally fell on the downwind flanks. During 20-21 February steam-and-gas plumes rose as high as 1.3 km and drifted E and SW. Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE) maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN), Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate activity at Ebeko was ongoing during 9-16 February. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E) explosions during 9 and 12-13 February generated ash plumes that rose as high as 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and E. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 9 and 13 February, and an ash cloud drifted 45 km E on 12 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Etna
INGV reported that lava effusion had ended on 6 February from the vents at the NE base of Etna’s SE Crater, in the Valle del Leone at about 2,800 m elevation. The total area covered by the lava flows was an estimated 0.96 square kilometers and the estimated volume was 4,800,000-6,100,000 cubic meters. In a Volcano Observatory Notices for Aviation (VONA) posted on 7 February, the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow (the second lowest level om a four-color scale) and INGV noted that although effusion had stopped unrest was ongoing. In a second VONA, posted on 14 February, the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green as activity had decreased to background levels.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that a 15 February satellite image confirmed continuing lava effusion at Great Sitkin and growth of the flow field to the E, though effusion likely continued through 20 February. Weather clouds often obscured satellite and webcam views; steam emissions were observed during 17-18 February and weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 19-20 February. Seismicity was very low during 21-22 February with one small local earthquake detected. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Kerinci
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Kerinci was ongoing during 15-20 February. Ash plumes of variable densities were visible during 15-16 and 18 February rising as high as 250 m above the summit and drifting mainly NE, E, and W. White steam-and-gas plumes were visible on the other days. At 1207 on 15 February a dense brown ash plume rose 200 m and drifted E. At 0908 on 16 February a dense brown ash plume rose 250 m and drifted E, and at 1937 a gray-to-brown ash plume rose 150 m that drifted E and SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was reminded to stay 3 km away from the crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Kilauea
HVO reported that the eruption on the floor of Kilauea’s Halema’uma’u Crater continued during 15-21 February but at a decreased rate during the last half of the week. Lava erupted from three locations during 15-17 February. The lava lake in E half of the crater was active, had a small lava fountain, and remained at about 10 hectares in size; the smaller western lake in the basin of the 2021-2022 lava lake was also active. The smaller lava pond in the central portion of the crater floor had a small lava fountain, produced nearly continuous overflows, and channeled lava to the E lake. Activity in the E and central lakes diminished in the late afternoon on 17 February, and by 18 February both had stopped erupting. The western lake was active but at a greatly reduced level and lava only minimally circulated; the lake was mostly crusted over and about 10 m lower by 19 February. The lake produced small lava flows and intermittent crustal overturns during 19-20 February. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok was ongoing during 15-21 February. Minor crater incandescence at the summit was visible in most of the nighttime webcam images posted with the daily PVMBG reports. A webcam image captured at 0210 on 18 February showed Strombolian activity and incandescent material on the flank. White-and-gray plumes rose as high as 400 m above the summit and drifted E and SE during 16-17 February. A white-and-gray plume rose 700 m and drifted E on 19 February. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the summit crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Marapi
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Marapi (on Sumatra) continued during 15-21 February. White steam-and-gas plumes were visible almost daily rising as high as 100 m from the summit; weather clouds prevented visual observations on 16 February. White-and-gray ash plume rose around 500 m from the summit and drifted E, SE, and SW on 20 February. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 3 km away from the crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi (on Java) continued during 10-16 February and seismicity remained at high levels. The SW lava dome produced two lava avalanches that traveled as far as 1.7 km down the SW flank (upstream in the Kali Sat drainage). No significant morphological changes to the central and SW lava domes were evident in webcam images. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Popocatepetl
CENAPRED reported that there were 102-215 steam-and-gas emissions, often containing ash, rising from Popocatépetl each day during 14-21 February; minor explosions also occurred almost daily. Minor explosions were recorded at 1334, 1456, and 1822 on 14 February and at 0253 on 15 February based on data from the seismic network. On 17 February minor explosions occurred at 0210, 1827, 2210, 2252, and 2325. Additional minor explosions were recorded at 0235, 0252, and 0614 on 18 February; a webcam image from 0236 showed ejected incandescent material on the flanks. The lava dome on the crater floor was visible in satellite images and hadn’t significantly changed since the 27 January overflight. On 20 February a minor explosion was recorded at 1805, and a moderate explosion at 2331 ejected incandescent material onto the upper flanks. A series of five minor explosions were recorded at 0027, 0052, 0252, 0401, and 0529 on 21 February. Ash fell in Amecameca (19 km NW), in the State of Mexico, during 20-21 February. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (the middle level on a three-color scale).
Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)
Report for Reventador
IG described the ongoing eruption at Reventador as moderate during 14-21 February. Seismicity was characterized by explosions, long-period earthquakes, periods of harmonic tremor, and signals that indicated emissions. Steam, gas, and ash plumes were observed in IG webcam images and described in Washington VAAC volcanic activity notifications during 14-19 February; weather conditions occasionally prevented views. The plumes rose as high as 1.6 km above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. A lava flow on the NE flank was visibly active during 14-15 February. Crater incandescence was visible almost nightly and incandescent blocks were seen rolling as far as 800 m down the flanks in all directions during the beginning of the week. Weather clouds prevented visual observations of the volcano during 20-21 February. Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE) maintained the Alert Level at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN), Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE)
Report for Sabancaya
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported moderate levels of activity at Sabancaya during 13-19 February with a daily average of 51 explosions. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.6 km above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. Four thermal anomalies originating from the lava dome in the summit crater were identified in satellite data. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.
Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)
Report for Sangay
IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 14-21 February, which included daily explosions, long-period earthquakes, periods of tremor, and gas, steam, and ash emissions. The daily count of explosions ranged from 30-56, though the daily seismic data transmission was sometimes interrupted. Almost daily gas, steam, and ash plumes were either observed in IG webcam images or described in Washington VAAC volcanic activity notifications; weather clouds often prevented observations of the summit. The plumes rose as high as 1.8 km above the volcano and drifted mainly E, SE, and W. Multiple thermal anomalies were identified in satellite images on most days. Incandescence from the crater, a 500-m-long lava flow on the SE flank, and rolling blocks were visible during the nights of 14-15 and 18-19 February. Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE) maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN), Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE)
Report for Semisopochnoi
AVO reported that seismicity at Semisopochnoi’s Mount Young was low during 14-21 February, and steam emissions were visible in webcam images almost daily. On 22 February the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory (the second highest level on a four-level scale). AVO noted that no significant tremor, ash emissions, or explosive activity had been recorded since late January.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that the ongoing eruption at Sheveluch during 9-16 February was generally characterized by explosions, hot avalanches, lava-dome extrusion, and strong fumarolic activity. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 13-20 February. Occasional ashfall and rumbling noises were reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). The number of explosions per day increased on 13 February and then gradually decreased beginning on 16 February; a total of about 24 explosions occurred during the week. At 2131 on 15 February an explosion produced an ash plume that rose 1.3 km above the crater rim and ejected large blocks as far as 900 m SE. An explosion around an hour later, at 2237, ejected large blocks as far as 700 m SE. During 18-20 February explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim and ejected large blocks as far as 400 m from the vent. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale) and residents were warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Villarrica
The eruption at Villarrica was ongoing during 15-21 February. POVI reported that on 17 February Strombolian explosions ejected material 100 m above the crater rim and onto the upper SW flank. Webcam images on 20 February showed two separate fountains of incandescent material, suggesting that a second vent had opened to the E of the first vent. Spatter was ejected as high as 80 m above the crater rim and onto the upper NE flank. A sequence of Strombolian explosions were visible from 2030 on 20 February to 0630 on 21 February. Material was ejected as high as 80 m above the crater rim and onto the upper E flank. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) according to SERNAGEOMIN. ONEMI maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, and the commune of Panguipulli.
Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Proyecto Observación Villarrica Internet (POVI)