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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 15 November-21 November 2023
Name Country Eruption Start Date Report Status
Ioto Japan New
Purace Colombia New
Reykjanes Iceland 2023 Dec 18 New
Ulawun Papua New Guinea New
Aira Japan 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Dukono Indonesia 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Ebeko Russia 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Etna Italy Continuing
Great Sitkin United States 2021 May 25 Continuing
Ibu Indonesia 2008 Apr 5 Continuing
Kanlaon Philippines 2024 Jun 3 Continuing
Klyuchevskoy Russia Continuing
Krakatau Indonesia Continuing
Lewotolok Indonesia 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Mayon Philippines 2023 Apr 27 ± 2 days Continuing
Merapi Indonesia 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Nyamulagira DR Congo 2018 Apr 18 Continuing
Semeru Indonesia 2017 Jun 6 Continuing
Sheveluch Russia 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Shishaldin United States Continuing
Suwanosejima Japan 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Taal Philippines 2024 Apr 12 Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 20,183 individual reports over 1,223 weeks (average of 17 per week) on 334 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Poas Sulu Range
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Popocatepetl Sumbing
Aira Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Purace Sundoro
Akan Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suoh
Alaid Davidof Irazu Lopevi Rabaul Suretamatai
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Iya Machin Raikoke Suwanosejima
Ambae Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Ranakah Taal
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Ambrym Dukono Kaba Manam Rasshua Takawangha
Anatahan East Epi Kadovar Manda Hararo Raung Talang
Aniakchak Ebeko Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Redoubt Tambora
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Reventador Tanaga
Antuco Edgecumbe Kambalny Martin Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Apoyeque Egon Kanaga Masaya Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Arenal Ekarma Kanlaon Maule, Laguna del Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Asamayama Eldey Karangetang Mauna Loa Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Askja Erebus Karkar Mayon Rotorua Ta'u
Asosan Erta Ale Karthala McDonald Islands Ruang Taupo
Atka Volcanic Complex Etna Karymsky Melebingoy Ruapehu Telica
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruby Tenerife
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Katla Merapi Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Awu Fagradalsfjall Katmai Midagahara Sabancaya Three Sisters
Axial Seamount Fernandina Kavachi Misti, El Sakar Tinakula
Azul, Cerro Fogo Kelimutu Miyakejima Salak Tofua
Azumayama Fonualei Kelud Momotombo San Cristobal Tokachidake
Bagana Fournaise, Piton de la Kerinci Monowai San Miguel Tolbachik
Balbi Fourpeaked Ketoi Montagu Island San Vicente Toliman
Bamus Fuego Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Sangay Tongariro
Banda Api Fujisan Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky Sangeang Api Trident
Bardarbunga Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kie Besi Myojinsho Santa Ana Tungurahua
Barren Island Galeras Kikai Nabro Santa Maria Turrialba
Batur Galunggung Kilauea Negra, Sierra Sao Jorge Ubinas
Bezymianny Gamalama Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ugashik-Peulik
Bogoslof Gamkonora Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ukinrek Maars
Brava Gareloi Kizimen Nishinoshima Saunders Ulawun
Bristol Island Gaua Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bulusan Gorely Kolokol Group Novarupta Semeru Unnamed
Calbuco Great Sitkin Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Callaqui Grimsvotn Krakatau Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Cameroon Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Sheveluch Vulcano
Campi Flegrei Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Ofu-Olosega Shishaldin West Mata
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Okataina Simbo Westdahl
Cayambe Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okmok Sinabung Whakaari/White Island
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Ontakesan Sinarka Witori
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Oraefajokull Siple Wolf
Chiginagak Hekla La Palma Osorno Sirung Wrangell
Chikurachki Helgrindur Lamington Pacaya Slamet Yakedake
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamongan Pagan Snaefellsjokull Yasur
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Palena Volcanic Group Soputan Yufu-Tsurumi
Chirinkotan Home Reef Lanin Paluweh Sorikmarapi Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirpoi Hood Lascar Panarea Sotara Zavodovski
Ciremai Huaynaputina Late Papandayan Soufriere Hills Zhupanovsky
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent Zubair Group
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Peuet Sague Spurr
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Pinatubo St. Helens
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Ioto
According to a news article the eruption at Ioto (Iwo-jima), from a submarine vent about 1 km off the SE coast at Okinahama, continued 17 November. During an overflight of the volcano passengers observed explosions that ejected material and white steam plumes above the vent every few minutes.
Source: Daily Yomiuri News
Report for Purace
Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Popayán, Servicio Geologico Colombiano (SGC) reported that at 1929 on 16 November the seismic network recorded a signal at Puracé possibly associated with an ash-and-gas emission. An emission was not confirmed in webcam images due to darkness. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest on a four-color scale).
Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)
Report for Reykjanes
Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) reported that intense seismicity and deformation at the Reykjanes volcanic system, caused by a magmatic dike intrusion with no surface eruption, was ongoing during 15-21 November. Seismicity during the week was relatively stable with 1,500-2,000 daily earthquakes; the number of events decreased during 20-21 November with only 165 recorded during 0000-1530. Earthquakes were mostly located at depths averaging 4 km.

Most of the earthquakes were located near the middle of the dike, near Hagafell, 3.5 km NNE of Grindavík, and near Sundhnúk, about 1 km NE of Hagafell and about 2 km ENE of Mt. Thorbjorn. Most earthquakes were less than M 2 during 15-16 November and less than M 1 during 16-17 November; the largest event during the week was an M 3 recorded on 17 November. On 16 November sulfur dioxide gas was measured from a borehole located at Svartsengi, N of Mt. Thorbjorn, and extended E to a notable depth. The presence of sulfur dioxide was another indication of the magma intrusion N of Hagafell. In addition to earthquake detected by the seismic network, new technology using the high-sensitivity fiber optic cable that runs from Svartsengi, W of Mt. Thorbjorn, to Arfadalsvík was also collecting seismic data.

Deformation data was consistent with magma flowing into the dyke at depths greater than 5 km. On 17 November GPS data from instruments in and around Grindavík, near the center of the subsidence zone, indicated about 3-4 cm of subsidence per day. Analysis of COSMO-SkyMed radar interferogram data from 18-19 November showed that 30 mm of uplift was centered in the vicinity of Svartsengi, about 2 km N of Hagafell. Uplift was recorded in that same area before the 10 November magmatic intrusion, thought the rate had accelerated. The uplift aligned with the margins of the intrusion, whereas subsidence was located above the intrusion itself. The deformation and seismic data indicated that Hagafell, where the intrusion was modeled to be the widest, was the most likely location for an eruption.

The Blue Lagoon geothermal pool was closed on 9 November and planned to remain closed at least until 30 November. Residents of Grindavík evacuated on 10 November, due to the uncertainty of an eruption and the onset of ground cracking and damaged infrastructure; access to the town continued to be restricted with only periodic entry allowed for residents to collect belongings. During the week ground cracks and sinkholes opened in and around Grindavík, affecting streets and buildings. Construction of earthen barriers began by 15 November to protect the Svartsengi power station, which supplies tens of thousands of people with electricity and hot water; new wells were being drilled to produce a back-up water supply. An 18 November news report indicated that most of the houses in Grindavík were undamaged, but some had been damaged along a big crack that goes through the town; a few homes were destroyed.
Sources: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), Icelandic National Broadcasting Service (RUV), Almannavarnadeild ríkislögreglustjóra (National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police and Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management), mbl.is
Report for Ulawun
Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) reported that the eruption at Ulawun continued to intensify in November and culminated in a larger event during 20-21 November. During 3-18 November white gas-and-steam plumes of variable densities rose from the summit crater. Low-level booming noises were reported on 9 November. Crater incandescence was observed nightly and fluctuated between dull and moderately bright; the most intense incandescence was observed during 10-11 November. Seismicity was at low-to-moderate levels and characterized by continuous, low-level volcanic tremors often punctuated by periods of small-to moderate discrete low-frequency volcanic earthquakes that evolved into sub-continuous volcanic tremors.

Small ash emissions were observed on 19 November. Seismicity began to intensify at around 0200 on 20 November and then again at 0930. The ash emissions increased to moderate levels and eruption noises were heard between 1430-1500. The Alert Level was raised to Stage 3 (on the four-level scale). The ash plumes drifted W and NW, causing ashfall in Navo. The eruption significantly intensified during 1530-1600 and continued at high levels. According to the Darwin VAAC ash plumes rose as high as 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. at 1600 and drifted SW. Ash plumes had risen to 15 km (50,000 ft) a.s.l. by 1630 and spread almost 65 km W by 1720.

The Alert Level was raised to Stage 4. Continuous ash plumes obscured the summit area and by 1800 ashfall was reported in the Ulamona Mission area. A photo taken at 1807 showed incandescent material being ejected above the summit and a dark, dense ash plume rising from the crater. Ashfall was significant in areas to the N and NW and absent in areas to the N and E. Roaring and booming noises continued. Residents of Ubili and Ulamona Mission Station moved to Kabaya and Koasa, and Noau and Voluvolu residents moved to Bakada. Video and photos posted on social media showed tall lava fountaining at the summit and a pyroclastic flow descending the NW flank.

Ash plumes continued to obscure the summit along with darkness from 2200 on 20 November to 0200 on 21 November, though the intensity of the eruption had declined. The VAAC continued to report a sustained ash plume rising to 15 km; by 0320 on 21 November ash had drifted as far as 520 km W. By 0450 the VAAC noted that ash had reached the stratosphere, rising to 18.2 km (60,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting 75 km SE; ash at 15 km continued to drift W. Dark, dense ash emissions rose from the summit crater during 0200-1300 but were less intense. The Alert Level was lowered to Stage 3, but RVO also noted that at 0700 one of the two seismic stations had stopped working, making monitoring even more difficult. Low roaring and booming continued, and ash continued to fall mainly to the W and NW, affecting infrastructure and crops. By sunrise the view from the observation post to the summit was blanketed by ash; dense ash obscured views of the summit and flanks. RVO also noted that pyroclastic flows had likely descended the N, and possibly the SE, flanks during the early part of the eruption the day before. The VAAC reported that sustained ash plumes continued, though by 1630 they were rising to 12.2 km (40,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting W while the ash at 18.2 km continued to drift E.

During 1300-1400 ash emissions significantly decreased, allowing confirmation of a fissure vent on the SW flank at around 1,000-1,400 m elevation about 1 km SE of the 2019 fissure vent. Webcam images suggested that the lava effusion rate from the fissure was high, and that flows had descended possibly to 400 m elevation. Minor incandescent at the summit was visible as well as on the NW flank, possibly from a pyroclastic flow. Several centimeters of ash and scoria had accumulated on rooftops in areas to the N and NW. Minor ashfall was reported in Kimbe. By 2240 the VAAC stated that the ash at 18.2 km was no longer discernable in satellite images.

RVO reported that during 2100 on 21 November to 0600 on 22 November the eruption was at low levels with only minor amounts of ash being emitted, though lava continued to effuse from the fissure. Summit incandescence was no longer visible by 0319. A few ash puffs were visible during 0600-0800 and then the summit was obscured by weather clouds. The Alert Level was lowered to Stage 2.
Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Reuters, Lekei Kilala
Report for Aira
JMA reported ongoing activity at Minamidake Crater (Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 13-20 November, with incandescence at the crater observed nightly. An explosion at 2053 on 13 November produced an ash plume that rose 400 m above the crater rim. Sulfur dioxide emissions were very high, averaging 3,000 tons per day on 13 November. An explosion at 0629 on 17 November generated an ash plume that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted SE to SW and ejected large blocks 500-700 m from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from both craters.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Dukono
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Dukono was ongoing during 15-21 November. Seismicity was high during most of the week but began to decline on 19 November, though eruptive activity remained elevated. Daily dense white-and-gray or gray-to-black ash plumes rose as high as 1.2 km above the summit during 15-16 November, up to 2.6 km on 17 November, 3 km on 18 November, 2.6 km on 19 November, and 2.3 km on 20 November. The plumes mainly drifted E and NE each day, though on 17 November they also drifted SE. Thumping noises were reported on 17 November. The Alert Level remained at Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate explosive activity at Ebeko was ongoing during 10-16 November. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E), explosions on 13 November generated ash plumes that rose as high as 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l and drifted E. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are UTC; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Etna
INGV reported that Strombolian activity resumed at Etna’s SE Crater (SEC) on 22 October and became more continuous and intense through early November. An increase in the frequency of explosions occurred on 4 November, with one occurring about every three minutes. A small new cone formed on the NW flank, near the saddle, that effused lava for a few hours and produced two lava flows that traveled a maximum of 10 m. Strombolian activity at SEC was recorded during 10-12 November, and at 1000 on the 12th a small lava flow was produced. The activity intensified during the afternoon and lava fountaining commenced at around 1730, though weather clouds hindered views. Two main explosive vents were discernable and produced an ash plume that rose almost 1.2 km above the summit and drifted ESE. Ash and lapilli fell in areas from Milo to Zafferana and from Torre Archirafi to Pozzillo. Starting at around 2040 several pyroclastic flows descended the SSE flank and reached the W part of the Valle del Bove. Eruptive activity decreased at around 2100. Minor Strombolian activity continued, and several lava flows traveled S, SE, SSW, and SW.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that slow lava effusion continued at Great Sitkin during 15-21 November, confirmed at least through 16 November by a radar image. The thick flow in the summit crater mainly expanded E. Seismicity was low. Steam emissions were visible in satellite and webcam images during 18-19 November. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Ibu
PVMBG reported that Ibu continued to erupt during 15-21 November. White-and-gray ash emissions that were sometimes dense rose 200-1,000 m above the summit and drifted E, SE, and S during 15-17 and 21 November. The Alert Level remained at a 2 (the second highest level on a four-level scale), with the public advised to stay outside of the 2 km hazard zone and 3.5 km away from the N area of the active crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Kanlaon
In a special notice for Kanlaon, PHIVOLCS stated that the seismic network detected 15 volcano-tectonic earthquakes during 0358-0500 on 22 November with local magnitudes of 1.4-4.2 and depths of 0-2 km beneath the N flank. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions from the summit crater were elevated since 1 May, averaging 570 tonnes/day (t/d); the most recent measurement was 1,017 t/d, recorded on 14 November. Ground deformation data from continuous GPS and electronic tilt data had been recording inflation at the volcano since March 2022, and inflation of the mid-SW flank since October. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5) and PHIVOLCS reminded the public to remain outside of the 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone.
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Report for Klyuchevskoy
KVERT issued a Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation (VONA) for Klyuchevskoy on 12 November, noting that a plume of resuspended ash rose as high as 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted more than 60 km E. A thermal anomaly detected in satellite images 14 November was 27 degrees Celsius, cooler than to the 115-degree anomaly detected on 1 November. Fumarolic activity persisted. On 15 November the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green. On 16 November collapses of hot material in the Apakhonchichsky drainage on the SE flank. Ash plumes from the collapses rose to 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 140 km E based on webcam images.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Krakatau
PVMBG reported that white gas-and-steam plumes rose as high as 100 m above Krakatau’s summit on most days during 15-21 September and drifted NW, N, and NE. White-and-gray plumes rose as high as 100 m and drifted NW on 21 November. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 15-21 November. Daily white steam-and-gas plumes rose 50-800 m above the summit and drifted W, NW, NE, and E. White-and-gray ash plumes rose as high as 300 m and drifted NW, N, and E on 17 and 19 November. Incandescent material being ejected above the summit was occasionally visible. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the summit crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Mayon
PHIVOLCS reported that slow lava effusion at Mayon’s summit crater continued during 13-21 November. The lengths of the lava flow in the Mi-Isi (S), Bonga (SE), and Basud (E) drainages remained at 2.8 km, 3.4 km, and 1.1 km, respectively. Collapses at the lava dome produced rockfalls and occasional pyroclastic density currents (PDCs, or pyroclastic flows) that descended the flanks as far as 4 km. Seismic stations recorded 37-166 rockfall events each day. During 14-15 and 20-21 November there were 8-9 daily volcanic earthquakes, including 2-5 volcanic tremors, each lasting 1-4 minutes; three volcanic earthquakes were recorded during 17-18 November, and one was recorded during 19-20 November. There were 1-2 daily PDC events detected during 14-15 November and 17-21 November. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 1,408 and 1,709 tonnes per day on 14 and 16 November, respectively. One ash emission was recorded during 20-21 November. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale) and residents were reminded to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). PHIVOLCS recommended that civil aviation authorities advise pilots to avoid flying close to the summit.
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi (on Java) continued during 10-16 November. The SW lava dome produced a total of 69 lava avalanches that descended the flanks; 10 traveled as far as 1.5 km down the upper part of the Boyong drainage and 59 traveled as far as 1.7 km down the upper Bebeng drainage. Minor morphological changes to the SW lava dome detected in webcam images and during a 16 November drone survey were due to continuing lava effusion and collapses of material. The highest temperature measured at the SW dome during the drone overflight was 292 degrees Celsius, lower than previous measurements. The volume of the SW dome was an estimated 3,348,600 cubic meters and the dome in the main crater was an estimated 2,358,000 cubic meters. Seismicity remained at elevated levels. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit, based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Nyamulagira
An 18 November satellite image of Nyamulagira showed a thermal anomaly in the NE part of the summit crater, likely indicating an active lava lake.
Source: Sentinel Hub
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity continued at Semeru during 15-21 November. White-and-gray ash plumes that were often dense rose 300-800 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions during 16-18 and 20-21 November. The Alert Level remained at 3 (third highest on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit in all directions, 13 km from the summit to the SE, 500 m from the banks of the Kobokan drainage as far as 17 km from the summit, and to avoid other drainages including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that the eruption at Sheveluch continued during 10-16 November. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. During 9-10 November plumes of resuspended ash drifted about 275 km SE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Shishaldin
AVO reported that unrest continued at Shishaldin during 15-21 November. Seismicity remained elevated with ongoing seismic tremor and small, low-frequency earthquakes. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 15-16 and 19-20 November. Robust steam emissions were visible in satellite and webcam images during 17-20 November. Small explosions were observed in infrasound data during 18-21 November, consistent with weak Strombolian activity. Sulfur dioxide emissions were also identified in satellite images. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 13-20 November and crater incandescence was visible nightly. No explosions were detected, though ash plumes rose at least 1 km above the crater rim and drifted mainly SE on 14, 16, and 20 November. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW); dates were not specified. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale) and the public was warned to stay at least 1 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Taal
In a special report for Taal issued on 15 November, PHIVOLCS noted that sulfur dioxide emissions were as high as 11,695 tonnes per day (t/d) and gas-and-steam plumes rose up to 1.2 km. A minor sulfur odor was reported in Banyaga, Agoncillo. High concentrations of gas had been continually emitted since March 2021; emissions averaged 6,267 t/d since September. Seismicity was at moderate levels; of the 686 earthquakes recorded during 1 September-15 November 629 were volcanic tremors associated with gas emissions. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 8,024 t/d on 16 November. During 16-21 November pronounced upwelling of gasses and hot fluids in the lake produced plumes that rose 500-1,200 m and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5), and PHIVOLCS reminded the public that the entire Taal Volcano Island was a Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)