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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 14 February-20 February 2024
Name Country Eruption Start Date Report Status
Gareloi United States New
Reykjanes Iceland 2023 Dec 18 New
Aira Japan 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Dukono Indonesia 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Ebeko Russia 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
El Misti Peru Continuing
Great Sitkin United States 2021 May 25 Continuing
Kavachi Solomon Islands Continuing
Lewotobi Indonesia 2023 Dec 23 Continuing
Lewotolok Indonesia 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Marapi Indonesia 2023 Dec 3 Continuing
Merapi Indonesia 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Nevado del Ruiz Colombia 2014 Nov 18 Continuing
Popocatepetl Mexico 2005 Jan 9 Continuing
Sabancaya Peru 2016 Nov 6 Continuing
Semeru Indonesia 2017 Jun 6 Continuing
Sheveluch Russia 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Shishaldin United States Continuing
Suwanosejima Japan 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Taal Philippines 2024 Apr 12 Continuing
Ubinas Peru 2024 May 6 Continuing
Villarrica Chile 2014 Dec 2 ± 7 days Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 20,183 individual reports over 1,223 weeks (average of 17 per week) on 334 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Poas Sulu Range
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Popocatepetl Sumbing
Aira Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Purace Sundoro
Akan Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suoh
Alaid Davidof Irazu Lopevi Rabaul Suretamatai
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Iya Machin Raikoke Suwanosejima
Ambae Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Ranakah Taal
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Ambrym Dukono Kaba Manam Rasshua Takawangha
Anatahan East Epi Kadovar Manda Hararo Raung Talang
Aniakchak Ebeko Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Redoubt Tambora
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Reventador Tanaga
Antuco Edgecumbe Kambalny Martin Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Apoyeque Egon Kanaga Masaya Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Arenal Ekarma Kanlaon Maule, Laguna del Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Asamayama Eldey Karangetang Mauna Loa Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Askja Erebus Karkar Mayon Rotorua Ta'u
Asosan Erta Ale Karthala McDonald Islands Ruang Taupo
Atka Volcanic Complex Etna Karymsky Melebingoy Ruapehu Telica
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruby Tenerife
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Katla Merapi Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Awu Fagradalsfjall Katmai Midagahara Sabancaya Three Sisters
Axial Seamount Fernandina Kavachi Misti, El Sakar Tinakula
Azul, Cerro Fogo Kelimutu Miyakejima Salak Tofua
Azumayama Fonualei Kelud Momotombo San Cristobal Tokachidake
Bagana Fournaise, Piton de la Kerinci Monowai San Miguel Tolbachik
Balbi Fourpeaked Ketoi Montagu Island San Vicente Toliman
Bamus Fuego Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Sangay Tongariro
Banda Api Fujisan Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky Sangeang Api Trident
Bardarbunga Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kie Besi Myojinsho Santa Ana Tungurahua
Barren Island Galeras Kikai Nabro Santa Maria Turrialba
Batur Galunggung Kilauea Negra, Sierra Sao Jorge Ubinas
Bezymianny Gamalama Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ugashik-Peulik
Bogoslof Gamkonora Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ukinrek Maars
Brava Gareloi Kizimen Nishinoshima Saunders Ulawun
Bristol Island Gaua Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bulusan Gorely Kolokol Group Novarupta Semeru Unnamed
Calbuco Great Sitkin Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Callaqui Grimsvotn Krakatau Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Cameroon Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Sheveluch Vulcano
Campi Flegrei Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Ofu-Olosega Shishaldin West Mata
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Okataina Simbo Westdahl
Cayambe Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okmok Sinabung Whakaari/White Island
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Ontakesan Sinarka Witori
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Oraefajokull Siple Wolf
Chiginagak Hekla La Palma Osorno Sirung Wrangell
Chikurachki Helgrindur Lamington Pacaya Slamet Yakedake
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamongan Pagan Snaefellsjokull Yasur
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Palena Volcanic Group Soputan Yufu-Tsurumi
Chirinkotan Home Reef Lanin Paluweh Sorikmarapi Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirpoi Hood Lascar Panarea Sotara Zavodovski
Ciremai Huaynaputina Late Papandayan Soufriere Hills Zhupanovsky
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent Zubair Group
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Peuet Sague Spurr
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Pinatubo St. Helens
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Gareloi
AVO reported that unrest continued at Gareloi during 14-20 February. Seismicity remained elevated and was characterized by volcanic earthquakes and semi-continuous tremor, though after 16 February levels began to decline and only periods of seismic tremor were reported. Minor steaming was identified in webcam and satellite images on 14 February. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory (the second lowest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second lowest color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Reykjanes
A fissure eruption in the area between Sundhnúkur and Stóra Skógfell on the Reykjanes peninsula began at 0602 on 8 February after around 30 minutes of intense seismic activity, prompting IMO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Red (the highest level on a four-color scale). During a helicopter overflight the location of the fissure was confirmed to be near the 18 December 2023 fissure, less than 1 km NE of Sylingarfell. The fissure lengthened to 3 km N-S, with lava flows moving W and E. Lava fountains along the fissure rose 50-80 m high and a volcanic plume mainly comprised of gas and steam rose to 3 km. IMO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Orange at 0626, noting that ash was not present in the plume. Tephra fall was reported in parts of Grindavík, 3-5 km S of the fissure. Visitors to the Blue Lagoon were evacuated; there were no residents in Grindavík due to previous evacuations.

Deformation in the dike area had significantly decreased by noon, and the intensity of the eruption had also declined, with only three active craters along the fissure. Emissions from the fissure drifted SW. Lava advanced N, curving around the Stóra Skógfell cones and branching to the SW. The SW branch advanced at a rate of about 500 m per hour, according to a news article, and flowed over both Grindavíkurvegur (Road 43) and Bláalóns-road, at the exit for the Blue Lagoon, at around noon. Lava also advanced over the pipeline that supplied hot water to Svartsengi. Power lines were also affected by the flows, though electricity was restored later that day.

Minor explosive activity generated from the interaction of magma and ground water began during 1300-1400 on 8 February and produced dark plumes rising as high as 2.5 km from the middle of the fissure and drifting S. The explosive activity was mainly over by 1715 and the intensity of the eruption continued to decrease. Deformation was no longer being detected, suggesting that magma was no longer ascending at the same pressure as at the beginning of the eruption. Seismic activity significantly decreased after the onset of the eruption and remained at low levels with only about 20 small earthquakes recorded during 0800-1715. Lava flowed as far as 4.5 km W of the fissure. Activity and tremor levels fluctuated at low levels during the evening of the 8th and further decreased during 0700-0800 on 9 February, with only two craters active. No fountains were visible mid-morning; a drone overflight at around noon confirmed that activity had ceased. IMO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow at 1713.

Deformation data suggested that inflation began again after the eruption had ended; model calculations showed that during 9-14 February an estimated two million cubic meters of magma had accumulated beneath the Svartsengi area, or about 20% of the volume of magma that had accumulated before the 8 February eruption. The hot water pipeline was restored by 12 February and the Blue Lagoon reopened to visitors on 16 February.
Sources: Icelandic National Broadcasting Service (RUV), Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), Icelandic National Broadcasting Service (RUV)
Report for Aira
JMA reported ongoing eruptive activity at Minamidake Crater (Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 12-19 February with nighttime crater incandescence. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 1,400 tons per day on 20 December. An explosion at 0659 on 14 February generated an ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater rim and drifted N, and ejected blocks 300-500 m away from the vent. A larger explosion at 1833 on 14 February produced an ash plume that rose as high as 5 km above the summit that drifted E and NE and ejected large blocks as far as 1.3 km from the vent. Ash plumes had not risen that high since an explosion at 0538 on 9 August 2020. A large amount of ashfall completely covered roadways in some parts of the N part of the island based on 15 February field observations. Residents reported ashfall in Kagoshima, Aira, Kirishima, Kanoya, Soo, and parts of Miyazaki Prefecture. Eruptive events at 2220 on 16 February, and 1523, 1556, 1631, and 2359 on 17 February, generated ash plumes that rose 1-1.3 km above the summit and drifted E and SE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from both craters.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Dukono
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Dukono was ongoing during 14-20 February. Gray-and-white ash plumes rose 150-750 m above the summit and drifted S, W, and NW on most days; emissions were not observed on 16 February. The Alert Level remained at Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate explosive activity was ongoing at Ebeko during 8-15 February. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E), explosions during 8 and 11-15 February generated ash plumes that rose as high as 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l and drifted E. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 15 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are UTC; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for El Misti
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that a lahar descended the SE flank of El Misti at 1905 on 20 February. The public was warned to stay away from drainages and roads on that flank.
Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that slow lava effusion likely continued at Great Sitkin during 13-20 February with growth concentrated at the center of the flow in the summit crater. Steam emissions were visible in satellite and webcam images during 14-15 February. A 15 February radar image showed inflation near the summit crater vent and a new lobe of lava advancing NW. A few small volcanic earthquakes were recorded by the seismic network on most days. Weather clouds obscured satellite and webcam views during most of the week. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Kavachi
Satellite data showed distinct yellow-green discolored water in the vicinity of the submarine Kavachi volcano on 14 and 19 February. The discolored water extended 15-20 km SE and E.
Source: Copernicus
Report for Lewotobi
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotobi’s Laki-laki volcano was ongoing during 13-20 February. The lava flow on the NE flank continued to be active, advancing 100 m during 3-20 February to a total length of 4.2 km. A drone overflight on 20 February confirmed the position of the end of the lava flow. White steam-and-gas plumes were visible during 13, 15, 17, and 19-20 February rising as high as 100 m above the summit and drifting N, NE, and W; no emissions were observed on 14 February. White-and-gray ash plumes rose as high as 600 m above the summit on 16 and 18 February and drifted N and NE. According to a news article, all evacuees had returned to their homes. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the second highest level on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay outside of the exclusion zone, defined as a 3-km radius around Laki-laki crater, 4 km to the NNE, and 5 km on the NE flanks.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Antara News, Antara News
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 31 January-6 February. White gas-and-steam plumes rose as high as 700 m above the summit and drifted NW, E, and SE during 14-19 February. A dense white-and-gray ash plume rose 1 km above the summit and drifted SE at 1639 on 19 February according to a news report. Emissions were not visible on 20 February. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the summit crater.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Antara News
Report for Marapi
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity at Marapi (on Sumatra) was ongoing during 14-20 February. White-and-gray ash plumes rose 200-900 m above them summit and drifted in multiple directions during 14-15, 18, and 20 February. White steam-and-gas plumes rose 400 m and drifted SW, W, and NE on 17 February; no emissions were observed on 16 and 19 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 4.5 km away from the active crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi (on Java) continued during 9-15 February. Seismicity remained at high levels. The SW lava dome produced 189 lava avalanches, three times the number from the previous week, that descended the S and SW flanks; two traveled S as far as 1.4 km down the upper part of the Boyong drainage and 187 traveled SW as far as 1.7 km down the upper part of the Bebeng drainage. Two pyroclastic flows descended the Bebeng drainage, traveling as far as 1.5 km. Morphological changes to the SW lava dome identified in webcam images and during a 15 February drone overflight were due to continuing effusion and collapses of material. The highest temperature on the dome was 254.3 degrees Celsius, lower than the previous highest temperature. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit, based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Nevado del Ruiz
Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that eruptive activity at Nevado del Ruiz continued at moderate levels during 13-19 February. Seismic events indicating rock fracturing increased in number compared to the previous week. These events were located in areas up to 7 km in various directions from Arenas Crater at depths of 1-8 km. The largest earthquake, a M 1.6, was recorded at 1518 on 18 February and was located SE of the crater at a depth of 2 km. Seismicity associated with fluid movement in the conduit decreased in both number and magnitude. These events were mainly associated with ash-and-gas emissions that rose as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted NW. Several thermal anomalies on the crater floor were identified in satellite data; the highest value recorded since 2007 (when this type of monitoring began) was recorded on 15 February. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Level III (the second level on a four-level scale), and the public was warned to stay out of the restricted areas around Arenas Crater.
Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)
Report for Popocatepetl
CENAPRED reported that eruptive activity continued at Popocatépetl during 14-20 February. Long-period events totaling 9-330 per day were accompanied by steam-and-gas plumes that occasionally contained minor amounts of ash. The seismic network recorded from 9 to almost 24 hours of daily tremor, often characterized as high frequency and low amplitude. The Washington VAAC reported that daily ash plumes visible in webcam and/or satellite images rose to 5.8-6.1 km (19,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, SSE, and S. Based on information from El Centro Nacional de Comunicación y Operación de Protección Civil (CENACOM), CENAPRED noted that at 0830 on 14 February minor amounts of ashfall was reported in the municipalities of Nativitas (40 km NE), Santa Isabel (45 km ESE), Tetlatlahuaca (42 km NE), Tlaxcala (51 km NE), Santa Ana Chiautempan, and Zacatelco (45 km NE). Additionally, the Hermanos Serdán International Airport, located 30 km NE in the municipality of Huejotzingo, was closed during 0800-1300 so that ashfall could be cleared from the runway. Later that afternoon ashfall was reported in Puebla (43 km E). Minor ashfall was reported in the municipality of Hueyapan (17 km SSW) at 2025 on 19 February. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (the middle level on a three-color scale) and the public was warned to stay 12 km away from the crater.
Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
Report for Sabancaya
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that the eruption at Sabancaya continued at moderate levels during 12-18 February with a daily average of 35 explosions. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.6 km above the summit and drifted less than 10 km E, SE, and W. Thermal anomalies over the lava dome in the summit crater were identified in satellite data. Slight inflation was detected near the Hualca Hualca sector (4 km N). The Alert Level remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12 km radius.
Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity continued at Semeru during 14-20 February. Daily gray-and-white ash plumes rose 400-1,000 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. The plumes were often dense. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the third highest level on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit in all directions, 13 km from the summit to the SE, 500 m from the banks of the Kobokan drainage as far as 17 km from the summit, and to avoid other drainages including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that the eruption at Sheveluch continued during 8-15 February with a daily thermal anomaly identified in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Shishaldin
AVO reported that low-level unrest at Shishaldin continued during 13-20 February. Occasional small volcanic earthquakes were recorded daily by the seismic network. Robust steaming was observed in satellite and webcam images and reported by local pilots on 13 February, and minor steaming was visible in satellite and webcam images during 14-15 February. AVO noted that steam emissions were not uncommon at Shishaldin. At 1126 on 17 February AVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory (the second lowest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow (the second lowest color on a four-color scale) noting that there were no signs of eruptive activity.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 12-19 February. Crater incandescence was observed in webcam images nightly. Eruptive events at 0810 and 1414 on 13 February generated ash plumes that rose 1.1-1.3 km above the crater rim and drifted N. An explosion at 1908 on 15 February generated an ash plume that rose 400 m and drifted E. Explosions were also detected at 2125 on 15 February and at 0616 on 19 February, though details of emissions were unknown. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale) and the public was warned to stay at least 1 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Taal
In a special report issued for Taal on 19 February, PHIVOLCS noted that sulfur dioxide emissions were as high as 14,211 tonnes per day (t/d) and that a sulfur odor was reported in the neighborhoods of Bilibinwang and Banyaga, in the Municipality of Agoncillo. Sulfur dioxide emissions have been continuously released since 2021 and averaged 10,000 t/d during January-February 2024. Seismicity has been low in 2024 with only 17 volcanic earthquakes, mainly associated with gas emissions. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5), and PHIVOLCS reminded the public that the entire Taal Volcano Island was a Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Report for Ubinas
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that a lahar descended the Volcánmayo drainage on the SE flank at Ubinas at 1645 on 19 February. The report noted that the lahars traveled towards the Ubinas River. The public was warned to stay away from the drainage and to avoid driving on the Querapi-Ubinas-Huarina highway.
Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)
Report for Villarrica
SERNAGEOMIN reported that the eruption at Villarrica continued during 12-20 February. At 1937 on 12 February a long-period (LP) earthquake associated with fluid movement was accompanied by a gas emission with minor ash content that rose 420 m above the vent and drifted SW. LP earthquakes at 2206 on 13 February and 0153 on 14 February were accompanied by Strombolian explosions that ejected material 40-60 m high. The ejected material fell back into the crater. LP events were recorded at 0740 on 15 February and 0228 on 17 February, though no emissions were visible on the 15th and weather conditions prevented visual observations on the 17th. The Volcanic Alert level remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-level scale) and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the active crater.
Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)