Logo link to homepage

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 29 May-4 June 2024
Name Country Volcanic Province Eruption Start Date Report Status
Bezymianny Russia Eastern Kamchatka Volcanic Arc 2016 Dec 5 New
Dempo Indonesia Sunda Volcanic Arc 2024 May 27 New
Kanlaon Philippines Negros-Sulu Volcanic Arc 2024 Jun 3 New
Kilauea United States Hawaiian-Emperor Hotspot Volcano Group New
Mayon Philippines Eastern Philippine Volcanic Arc 2023 Apr 27 ± 2 days New
Reykjanes Iceland Iceland Neovolcanic Rift Zone 2023 Dec 18 New
Whakaari/White Island New Zealand Taupo Volcanic Zone New
Aira Japan Ryukyu Volcanic Arc 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Ambae Vanuatu Vanuatu Volcanic Arc Continuing
Ambrym Vanuatu Vanuatu Volcanic Arc Continuing
Ebeko Russia Kuril Volcanic Arc 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Great Sitkin United States Aleutian Ridge Volcanic Arc 2021 May 25 Continuing
Ibu Indonesia Halmahera Volcanic Arc 2008 Apr 5 Continuing
Lewotobi Indonesia Sunda Volcanic Arc 2023 Dec 23 Continuing
Lewotolok Indonesia Sunda Volcanic Arc 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Marapi Indonesia Sunda Volcanic Arc 2023 Dec 3 Continuing
Merapi Indonesia Sunda Volcanic Arc 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Sangay Ecuador Andean Northern Volcanic Arc 2019 Mar 26 Continuing
Semeru Indonesia Sunda Volcanic Arc 2017 Jun 6 Continuing
Sheveluch Russia Eastern Kamchatka Volcanic Arc 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Stromboli Italy Aeolian Volcanic Arc 1934 Feb 2 Continuing
Suwanosejima Japan Ryukyu Volcanic Arc 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Yasur Vanuatu Vanuatu Volcanic Arc 1270 ± 110 years Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 20,299 individual reports over 1,228 weeks (average of 17 per week) on 335 different volcanoes.

Search by Date



Use the dropdowns to choose the year and week for archived Weekly Reports.

Use the dropdowns to choose the year and week for archived Weekly Reports.          



Search by Volcano



Agung Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Poas Sulu Range
Aira Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Popocatepetl Sumbing
Akan Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Purace Sundoro
Alaid Davidof Irazu Lopevi Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suoh
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Iya Machin Rabaul Suretamatai
Ambae Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Raikoke Suwanosejima
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Ranakah Taal
Ambrym Dukono Kaba Manam Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Anatahan East Epi Kadovar Manda Hararo Rasshua Takawangha
Aniakchak Ebeko Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Raung Talang
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Redoubt Tambora
Antuco Edgecumbe Kambalny Martin Reventador Tanaga
Apoyeque Egon Kanaga Masaya Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Arenal Ekarma Kanlaon Matthew Island Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Asamayama Eldey Karangetang Maule, Laguna del Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Askja Erebus Karkar Mauna Loa Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Asosan Erta Ale Karthala Mayon Rotorua Ta'u
Atka Volcanic Complex Etna Karymsky McDonald Islands Ruang Taupo
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melebingoy Ruapehu Telica
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Katla Melimoyu Ruby Tenerife
Awu Fagradalsfjall Katmai Merapi Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Axial Seamount Fernandina Kavachi Midagahara Sabancaya Three Sisters
Azul, Cerro Fogo Kelimutu Misti, El Sakar Tinakula
Azumayama Fonualei Kelud Miyakejima Salak Tofua
Bagana Fournaise, Piton de la Kerinci Momotombo San Cristobal Tokachidake
Balbi Fourpeaked Ketoi Monowai San Miguel Tolbachik
Bamus Fuego Kharimkotan Montagu Island San Vicente Toliman
Banda Api Fujisan Kick 'em Jenny Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Sangay Tongariro
Bardarbunga Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kie Besi Mutnovsky Sangeang Api Trident
Barren Island Galeras Kikai Myojinsho Santa Ana Tungurahua
Batur Galunggung Kilauea Nabro Santa Maria Turrialba
Bezymianny Gamalama Kirishimayama Negra, Sierra Sao Jorge Ubinas
Bogoslof Gamkonora Kita-Ioto Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ugashik-Peulik
Brava Gareloi Kizimen Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ukinrek Maars
Bristol Island Gaua Klyuchevskoy Nishinoshima Saunders Ulawun
Bulusan Gorely Kolokol Group Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Calbuco Great Sitkin Koryaksky Novarupta Semeru Unnamed
Callaqui Grimsvotn Krakatau NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Cameroon Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Campi Flegrei Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Nyiragongo Sheveluch Vulcano
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Ofu-Olosega Shishaldin West Mata
Cayambe Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okataina Simbo Westdahl
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Okmok Sinabung Whakaari/White Island
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Ontakesan Sinarka Witori
Chiginagak Hekla La Palma Oraefajokull Siple Wolf
Chikurachki Helgrindur Lamington Osorno Sirung Wrangell
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamongan Pacaya Slamet Yakedake
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Pagan Snaefellsjokull Yasur
Chirinkotan Home Reef Lanin Palena Volcanic Group Soputan Yufu-Tsurumi
Chirpoi Hood Lascar Paluweh Sorikmarapi Zaozan [Zaosan]
Ciremai Huaynaputina Late Panarea Sotara Zavodovski
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Papandayan Soufriere Hills Zhupanovsky
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent Zubair Group
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Peuet Sague Spurr
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Pinatubo St. Helens
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


Download Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network RSS Feed

The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



Download Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network CAP Feed

The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.



Download Smithsonian/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network Link Download Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network Link

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Bezymianny
According to the Tokyo VAAC an ash plume from Bezymianny was identified in satellite images at 1350 on 5 June rising to 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting E. The ash plume had dissipated by 1720.
Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
Report for Dempo
PVMBG reported that at 0358 on 31 May an eruption at Dempo generated a whitish ash plume that rose around 200 m above the crater rim and drifted N. The eruption lasted about 39 seconds based on seismic data. According to a news article, Dempo was closed to climbers for a week starting on 2 June. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public were reminded to stay 1 km away from the crater and as far as 2 km on the N flank.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Antara News
Report for Kanlaon
PHIVOLCS reported that at 1851 on 3 June an explosive eruption at Kanlaon ejected incandescent material and produced a voluminous ash plume that rapidly rose 5 km above the vent and drifted W. Pyroclastic density currents generated from column collapses traveled 2-3 km down the S and SE flanks based on webcam views. The eruption was recorded by all 10 seismic stations, three infrasound stations, and webcams, and lasted six minutes based on the seismic data. Rumbling was heard in a La Castellana, La Carlota City, and Canlaon City. Coarse ashfall was reported in those same areas and additionally in Bago City. A sulfur odor was also reported in many neighborhoods in the cities of Bago, Bacolod, La Carlota, La Castellana, Murcia, and Canloan City. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 0-5) at 2000 and PHIVOLCS reminded the public to remain outside of the 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone. The eruption was preceded by a M 3.5 volcano-tectonic earthquake at 1847. The gas (sulfur dioxide) portion of the plume rose 8-17 km, reaching the upper troposphere based on satellite data.

Abundant gas emissions followed the eruption and then waned by 0820 on 4 June. The emissions likely entrained ash that fell in minor amounts SW of the volcano. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 4,113 t/d, the highest gas flux recorded in 2024 and the second highest ever recorded at Kanlaon. According to the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC), a total of 1,888 people had evacuated to 11 evacuation shelters and a total of eight domestic flights and one international flight were cancelled.

Periodic swarms of volcano-tectonic earthquakes had been recorded since March 2020 and seismicity had been above background levels during the previous month. The report noted that sulfur dioxide emissions had been variable but increasing overall since May 2023 and anomalously high during the 2024, averaging 1,273 tonnes per day (t/d); background levels averaged less than 300 t/d.
Sources: The National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC), Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Simon Carn
Report for Kilauea
HVO reported that increased seismicity and deformation at Kilauea began at around 1200 on 2 June and likely indicated that magma was rising. Rates of seismicity and deformation increased further after 1700, prompting HVO to raise the Volcano Alert Level to Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code to Orange (the third color on a four-color scale) at 1731. Activity decreased slightly by 2230 but remained at elevated levels. About 250 earthquakes in total were located beneath the summit region, though in the previous few hours before the Alert Level change, some were located beneath the upper East Rift Zone. The largest earthquakes included a M 4 event recorded at 1907 and a M 4.1 event recorded at 2112. Most events occurred at depths of 2-3 km, though several were located slightly shallower, at a depth of about 1.5. The earthquakes were widely felt in Hawai?i Volcanoes National Park and surrounding communities and triggered many rockfalls.

A new eruption began at around 0030 on 3 June from fissures located in a remote area along the Southwest Rift Zone, about 1-2 km S of the caldera and N of the Koa’e fault system and Hilina Pali Road, within Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. At 0211 the Volcano Alert Level was raised to Warning and the Aviation Color Code was raised to Red. Incandescence from the eruption was visible in webcam images. During an overflight at 0600 volcanologists observed that four fissures had sequentially propagated from the ENE to WSW. Lava fountaining occurred along the fissure and gas plumes were drifting SW. The eruption was producing a low volume of lava; at 0827 the Volcano Alert Level and Aviation Color Code were lowered to Watch and Orange, respectively. At around 0745 sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 15,000 tonnes per day (t/d), decreased to 12,000 t/d by 1200, and likely decreased further during the afternoon. Earthquake activity in the summit region had greatly decreased with the onset of the eruption; all seismicity during 0700-1500 was concentrated near Maunaiki, at the westernmost fissure segment. Slow summit deflation had started at around 0200 and was ongoing. Lava flows were slow during 1100-1200 and had ceased moving by 1230, indicating that the eruption has ceased or paused. By 1500 volcanic tremor, a signal associated with fluid movement, continued to be recorded on summit seismometers though at a slightly decreased intensity. Gas emissions decreased and by noon on 4 June they averaged 5,500 t/d. Volcanic tremor continued to be recorded on summit seismometers, though earthquake activity and rates of ground deformation remained low in the summit region and upper rift zone areas. Incandescence from the fissures was visible overnight. The most recent eruption in that area occurred in December 1974.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Mayon
The Tokyo VAAC reported that at 1529 on 30 May an ash plume from Mayon rose to 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N based on information from PHIVOLCS. Ash was not identified in satellite images.
Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
Report for Reykjanes
IMO reported that the fissure eruption that began at 1246 on 29 May near Sundhnúk, NE of Sýlingarfell, within the Reykanes volcanic system, continued to effuse lava during 30 May-4 June. The fissure consisted of several segments and had a total length of 3.4 km. Just before 1600 explosive activity occurred near Hagafell where magma contacted ground water, producing plumes of steam and brownish ash. Based on data collected during an aerial survey the area of new lava was about 8.7 square kilometers and the erupted volume was an estimated 24 million cubic meters by 1706. The active part of the fissure was 2.4 km long by 1910 and continued to produce lava fountains. Lava flows from the fissure segment just S of Hagafell advanced S and W; part of the S flows advanced into a fissure, traveled beneath the surface, and emerged N of the barrier located NE of Grindavík. Lava flowed over Grindavík road towards Mt. Thorbjorn and along the barriers W of Grindavík, inundating part of Nesvegur road.

Activity significantly declined during 29-30 May and the ground surface in the Svartsengi area had subsided about 15 cm. Volcanic tremor stabilized and explosions were not detected since the afternoon of 29 May. IMO warned that the gas plume could impact areas downwind and had received reports of vog in several areas of the country during 29-31 May. During 30-31 May lava flows from the N end of the fissure flowed E, and flows W of Grindavík did not advance. According to a news report the effusion rate had slowed to around 50 cubic meters per second by 31 May. The lava flows minimally advanced and the flow field inflated. Areas of ponded lava were visible. Three cones had built up along the fissure and lava from two or three cones flowed SW and E during 2-3 June based on news articles. Two cones were active on 3 June and sometime during 0200-0300 on 4 June one of the cones ceased to be active. Lava advanced NW towards Sýlingarfell and then flowed N. An additional 4-6 cm of ground subsidence was detected at Svartsengi.
Sources: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), Iceland Monitor, Iceland Monitor
Report for Whakaari/White Island
GeoNet reported that no further activity at Whakaari/White Island occurred after 25 May. Typical steam-and-gas emissions were visible on webcam images from the webcam located in Whakatane during 26-31 May when weather conditions allowed for observations. Vivid white steam-and-gas emissions from numerous vents were observed during a 31 May monitoring overflight. No clear signs of emitted ash were seen in webcam images or during the overflight, though GeoNet noted that low-level ash emissions could still have occurred. Gas data collected during the overflight showed elevated levels of magmatic gases compared to observations prior to the eruptions in May. Sulfur dioxide emissions were notably at some of the highest levels since measurements began at the island in 2003. Satellite data from 27 May showed no ground deformation. There are no sensors on the island; GeoNet relies on webcams and satellite imagery, complemented with occasional gas and observation flights. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second level on a four-color scale).
Source: GeoNet
Report for Aira
JMA reported ongoing eruptive activity at Minamidake Crater (Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 27 May-3 June with nighttime crater incandescence. Sulfur dioxide emissions were high, averaging 2,000 tons per day on 30 May. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from both craters.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Ambae
On 30 May the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD) reported that steam-and-gas emissions from the active vents at Ambae were ongoing based on both webcam and satellite images. Seismic data also confirmed ongoing unrest. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5), and the public was warned to stay outside of the Danger Zone, defined as a 2-km radius around the active vents in Lake Voui, and away from drainages during heavy rains.
Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD)
Report for Ambrym
On 30 May the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) reported that ongoing small fumarolic steam emissions at Ambrym were coming from both Benbow and Marum craters based on both satellite and webcam images. Seismic data also confirmed ongoing unrest. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). VMGD warned the public to stay outside of Permanent Danger Zone A, defined as a 1-km radius around Benbow Crater and a 2-km radius around Marum Crater, and to stay 500 m away from the ground cracks created by the December 2018 eruption.
Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate explosive activity was ongoing at Ebeko during 23-30 May. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 30 May; on other days either no activity was observed or weather conditions prevented views. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are UTC; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that slow lava effusion in Great Sitkin’s summit crater likely continued during 29 May-4 June. Seismicity was low with few daily small earthquakes. Weather clouds mostly obscured satellite and webcam views. Slightly elevated surface temperatures at the summit were identified in satellite images during 3-4 June. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Ibu
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Ibu continued during 22-28 May. White steam-and-gas plumes rose 200-600 m above the crater rim and drifted in multiple directions during on 29 May and 3 June. White-and-gray ash plumes rose 200-800 m and drifted in multiple directions during 30-31 May and 3 June. Taller plumes were visible during 1-2 June. At 0323 on 1 June a dense gray-to-black ash plume rose 6 km above the summit and drifted SW and at 1103 on that same day a dense gray plume rose 5 km and drifted SW. A 10-minute-long eruption that began at 1235 on 2 June produced a dense gray-to-black ash plume that rose 7 km above the summit and drifted W. BNPB noted that tephra fell in areas to the W including at the Ibu observation post (9 km W) and in Gam Ici (8.5 km W). At 0303 on 27 May an eruptive event produced a white, gray, and black ash plume that rose 6 km above the crater rim and drifted SW and W. According to a news article ash fell in residential areas and at the Ibu observation post (9 km W). Incandescent material was ejected as far as 1 km from the vent onto the NW, W, SW, and S flanks. The Alert Level remained at 4 (the highest level on a four-level scale) and the public was advised to stay 4 km away from the active crater and 7 km away from the N crater wall opening.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Lewotobi
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity at Lewotobi’s Laki-laki volcano continued during 29 May-4 June. White steam-and-gas plumes rose as high as 150 m above the summit and drifted W and SW during 29-30 May; emissions were not observed on 31 May. White, gray, and brown ash plumes rose 100-900 and drifted SW and W during 1-3 June, and ash plumes rose as high as 900 m on 4 June. The Alert Level remained at 2 (the second lowest level on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay outside of the exclusion zone, defined as a 2-km radius around Laki-laki crater, 3 km to the NNE, and 5 km on the NE flanks.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 29 May-4 June. White steam-and-gas plumes rose 100-700 m above the summit and drifted W, NW, and SE during 29 and 31 May, 1-2 June, and 4 June. On 30 May and 3 June white-and-gray ash plumes rose as high as 500 m and drifted W and NW. According to a news article, the lava flow had not advanced by 1 June and remained about 1.3 km long. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and visitors and residents of Lamawolo, Lamatokan, and Jontona were warned to stay 2 km away from the vent and 3 km away from the vent on the S and SE flanks.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Antara News
Report for Marapi
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity at Marapi (on Sumatra) was ongoing during 29 May-4 June. White gas-and-steam plumes rose 150-400 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions during 29 May-1 June and on 3 June. An eruptive event at 1304 on 30 May produced a dense gray ash plume that rose 2 km and drifted NW. BNPB noted that a booming noise from the event was heard in areas as far as the Marapi Volcano Observation post in Bukittinggi (12 km NW). White-and-gray ash plumes rose 200-1,000 m above the summit and drifted S, SW, W, and NW on 2 June. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 4.5 km away from the active crater.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi (on Java) continued during 17-23 May. Seismicity had decreased compared to the previous week. The SW lava dome produced 138 lava avalanches that traveled as far as 1.9 km down the Bebeng drainage on the SW flank. Morphological changes to the SW lava dome were due to continuing effusion and collapses of material. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit, based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Sangay
IG-EPN reported that high levels of eruptive activity continued at Sangay during 28 May-4 June. Daily gas-and-ash plumes visible in webcam and/or satellite images rose as high as 2 km above the summit and drifted NW, W, and SW; ash emissions were not confirmed on 4 June. Weather conditions often hindered views during the week. Minor ashfall was reported in Cebadas del Cantón Guamote (35 km WNW), Provincia Chimborazo on 1 June. Incandescent material at the crater was visible during the dark hours of 28-29 May and 31 May-3 June, and several episodes of incandescent material traveling as far as 1 km down the SE flank were visible during 1-3 June. Secretaría de Gestión de Riesgos (SGR) maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN), Secretaría de Gestión de Riesgos (SGR)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity continued at Semeru during 29 May-4 June. White-and-gray ash plumes that were sometimes dense rose 300-800 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions on all days except for 31 May. Several additional daily eruptive events were recorded by the seismic network, though plumes were not visually confirmed. A 29 May news article stated that the bridge in Kloposawit had been repaired; it was one of 11 that had been damaged by lahars on 18 April. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the third highest level on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit in all directions, 13 km from the summit to the SE, 500 m from the banks of the Kobokan drainage as far as 17 km from the summit, and to avoid other drainages including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Antara News
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that the Karan-1 lava dome on Sheveluch’s SW flank continued to be active during 23-30 May. Thermal anomalies over both the new and older lava domes were identified in satellite images during 23-24 May; the dome was obscured by weather clouds on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Stromboli
INGV reported that eruptive activity continued at Stromboli during 27 May-2 June. Webcam images showed Strombolian activity at two vents in Area N (one at N1 and one at N2), within the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco, and from two vents at S2 in Area C-S (South-Central Crater) on the crater terrace. Intense spattering at a hornito in N1 on 27 May was followed by a short lava flow that descended a few hundred meters in the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco; a partial collapse of the hornito occurred the day before. During the week low- to medium-intensity explosive activity at N1 and N2 ejected coarse material (bombs and lapilli) less than 150 m above the vents. The average rate of explosions from this area was 11-15 events per hour. Spattering at N1 was almost continuous and intense at times. At Area C-S, explosive activity at two vents in sector S2 ejected both coarse and fine material as high as 150 m above the vent. The average explosion rate was 1-6 events per hour.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that eruptive activity at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 27 May-3 June and produced volcanic plumes that rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim. Crater incandescence was observed nightly in webcam images. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale) and the public was warned to stay at least 1.5 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Yasur
On 30 May the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD) reported that activity at Yasur continued at a level of “major unrest,” as defined by the Alert Level 2 status (on a scale of 0-5). Recent visual observations, webcam mages, and photos taken in the field indicated that explosions continued, producing emissions of gas, steam, and/or ash. Gas emissions and weak-to-moderate power thermal anomalies were identified in satellite images during the previous few days. Seismic data indicated that some of the explosions were strong. The report warned that some of the explosions may eject material that falls in and around the crater. The public was reminded to not enter the restricted area within 600 m around the boundaries of the Permanent Exclusion Zone, defined by Danger Zone A on the hazard map.
Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD)