Dukono

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  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 1.68°N
  • 127.88°E

  • 1335 m
    4379 ft

  • 268010
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Most Recent Weekly Report: 22 October-28 October 2014


Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 85 km E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


Most Recent Bulletin Report: August 2011 (BGVN 36:08)


Continued frequent minor ash plume at least as late as 13 September 2011

Frequent minor ash plumes have occurred at Dukono (see figure 4) since before July 2008 (BGVN 33:08, 33:11, 35:04, and 36:03). This report covers the time period subsequent to our previous report, which ended on 4 April 2011 (BGVN 36:03), through 13 September 2011. The Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) has provided continuous monitoring of the activity through satellite surveillance (table 12) during this time period.

Figure 4. Map showing Dukono volcano, on the island of Halmahera, Indonesia. Courtesy of Google Maps (prepared by GVP editor Jeff Jessens).

Table 12. Ash plumes from Dukono detected in satellite images between 21 April 2011 and 13 September 2011. Each date or date range represents at least one plume. No plumes were reported between the end of the table in our previous report (4 April 2011) and 21 April 2011. Data from the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre.

    Date                   Plume       Plume
                          altitude     drift

    21 Apr-22 Apr 2011     2.1 km      Up to 85 km NE and E 
    28 Apr-02 May 2011     4.3 km      55-150 km NW, W, and SW
    10 May-12 May 2011     4.3 km      75-110 km NE and E
    16 May 2011            3 km        Over 90 km E
    19 May 2011            3 km        110 km NE
    01 Jun 2011            3 km        110 km NE
    01 Jul 2011            3 km        110 km E
    06 Jul-07 Jul 2011     3 km        55 km NW
    11 Aug 2011            3 km        14-93 km (various directions)
    14 Aug 2011            3 km        93 km NW
    18 Aug-21 Aug 2011     3 km        110-150 km N and NE
    13 Sep 2011            3 km        75 km NW

According to a news article (Metro TV News), seismic activity increased in August 2011. On 11 August, ash explosions were audible within a radius of about 7 km from the base of the volcano. Ash was ejected as high as 1 km above the crater, producing plumes that drifted E and S, and also approached Tobelo City (14 km ENE). The news article noted that seismographs at the Dukono observation post had recorded more than 100 eruption earthquakes during this time.

A news report posted on the web (YouTube, 2011) discussed an eruption at Dukono during first half of September 2011. The commentator spoke in Indonesian. The video shows a large column of ash rising what appears to be on the order of one or a few kilometers above the crater. This news report was discussed elsewhere as well on the web.

During this reporting period (21 April 2011 to 13 September 2011), there were no thermal alerts derived from the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology Thermal Alerts System (MODVOLC). The most recent MODVOLC thermal alert was on 20 November 2010.

Reference. YouTube (2011), Gunung Dukono letusan, Leputan 6.com, uploaded by szbrnr on 7 September 2011 (URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mb3We1MwXdg).

Information Contacts: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://portal.vsi.esdm.go.id/joomla/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), University of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (http://hotspot.higp.hawaii.edu/); Metro TV News (URL: http://www.metrotvnews.com).

Index of Weekly Reports


2014: January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October
2013: August | September | October | December
2012: January | February | May | June
2011: January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2010: February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2009: January | February | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2008: May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
2007: January | June
2006: January | August | November | December
2005: February | May | June | August | September | October
2004: January | February | March | April | May | June | August | September
2003: June | July | August | September | October | November | December

Weekly Reports


22 October-28 October 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 85 km E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


15 October-21 October 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 15-19 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.7 km (7,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-110 km NE, E, and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


8 October-14 October 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-9 and 14 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75-95 km NNE and ENE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


1 October-7 October 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 1 October an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45 km NE. During 5-7 October ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-110 km E and ENE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


24 September-30 September 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 24-25 September ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. During 28-30 September ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-95 km NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


17 September-23 September 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 16 and 18 September ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-65 km E and NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


27 August-2 September 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 28-29 August a low level plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 40 km NE and N.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


20 August-26 August 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 20-21 August a low-level plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 37 km NW and N.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


6 August-12 August 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 August a low level plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 93 km NE and that on 8 August a plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 83 km NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


16 July-22 July 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 17 July a low level plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


9 July-15 July 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 12-15 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


25 June-1 July 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 27-28 June ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-75 km NE and E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


11 June-17 June 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 June an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


4 June-10 June 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 4 June an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 150 km N. The next day an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km NW. On 9 June ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-30 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


28 May-3 June 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 May ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km NW. The next day an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65 km W. On 3 June ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


21 May-27 May 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 24 May ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


14 May-20 May 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 14-15 May ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45 km NW and S.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


7 May-13 May 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-9 and 12 May ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75-110 km WNW, W, and SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


30 April-6 May 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 30 April-6 May ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted 35-185 km SE, E, SW, and W on 30 April and during 3-6 May but stayed in the vicinity of the volcano on the other days.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


23 April-29 April 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-29 April ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-150 km E, ESE, and SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


16 April-22 April 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16-19 and 21-22 April ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65-150 km SE, ESE, and E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


9 April-15 April 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-13 and 15 April ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75-280 km SE and E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


26 March-1 April 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27-28 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65-150 km W and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


19 March-25 March 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-25 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.4-2.7 km (8,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-100 km SE, E, and NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


12 March-18 March 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 14 March an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 90-160 km NW. During 16-17 March ash plumes drifted 130-150 km SW at an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


5 March-11 March 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 March an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


26 February-4 March 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1-2 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-100 km E and SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


19 February-25 February 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 20 and 22-23 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-150 km E, SE, and SSE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


12 February-18 February 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 17 February an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km SSW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


5 February-11 February 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-6 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km S and SW. During 9-11 February ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.1-4.3 km (7,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 40-90 km NW and NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


29 January-4 February 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 January ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km SE. During 31 January-4 February ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-185 km S, SE, and E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


22 January-28 January 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-23 January ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75-157 km NE. On 28 January ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 140 km E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


8 January-14 January 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-14 January ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 110 km NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


1 January-7 January 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-5 January ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-55 km SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


25 December-31 December 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25-27 December ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-75 km NNW, N, and SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


18 December-24 December 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 18 December a possible ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km E. On 24 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km N.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


23 October-29 October 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 23 October an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 150 km E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


16 October-22 October 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18-22 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.7 km (7,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-150 km NE and E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


18 September-24 September 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 23 September an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


11 September-17 September 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 17 September an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45 km NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


28 August-3 September 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 August and during 31 August-3 September ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 80-240 km W and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


27 June-3 July 2012

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28-29 June ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km NE and E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


13 June-19 June 2012

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 18 June an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110 km W. An ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 85 km W on 19 June.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


23 May-29 May 2012

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 25 May an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 4.5 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 185 km E. Ash plumes again rose to an altitude of 4.5 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. drifting 130 km E on 27 May and 93 km NE on 28 May. An ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km NE during 28-29 May.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


16 May-22 May 2012

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 18 May an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 May-8 May 2012

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-9 May ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


1 February-7 February 2012

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1-4 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted 220 km SW on 1 February and 45 km SW and S during 2-4 February.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


25 January-31 January 2012

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 30-31 January ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 220 km SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


14 December-20 December 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-15 December ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l and drifted 55-75 km SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


7 December-13 December 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 13 December an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 74 km SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


30 November-6 December 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 November ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


23 November-29 November 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27-28 November ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65-110 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 November-8 November 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 November an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


26 October-1 November 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27 October-1 November ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.7 km (7,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-110 km W, NW, and NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


19 October-25 October 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 22 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110-185 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


5 October-11 October 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-6 and 8-9 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75-83 km NE and SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


21 September-27 September 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 27 September ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km NW and NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


7 September-13 September 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 13 September an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


17 August-23 August 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18-21 August ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110-150 km NE and N.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


10 August-16 August 2011

According to a news article, activity at Dukono had continued to increase. On 11 August ash explosions were audible within a radius of about 7 km from the base of the volcano. Ash was ejected as high as 1 km above the crater, producing plumes that drifted E and S, and also approached Tobelo City (14 km ENE). Seismographs at the Dukono observation post recorded more than 100 eruption earthquakes. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 and 14 August ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 93 km NW.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC); Metro TV News


6 July-12 July 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-7 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


29 June-5 July 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 1 July an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110 km E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


1 June-7 June 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 1 June an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110 km NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


18 May-24 May 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 19 May an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110 km NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


11 May-17 May 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-12 May ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75-110 km NE and E. On 16 May an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 90 km E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


4 May-10 May 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 10 May ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 90-110 km NE and E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


27 April-3 May 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28 April-2 May ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-150 km NW, W, and SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


20 April-26 April 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-22 April ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted less than 85 km NE and E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


30 March-5 April 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 4 April an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 185 km E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


16 March-22 March 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18-19 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 37-75 km NW, N, and NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


9 March-15 March 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-12 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110-165 km SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


16 February-22 February 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16-17 February an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 150-185 km SW and W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


9 February-15 February 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 February an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km N.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


5 January-11 January 2011

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-7 January ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.4-3.7 km (8,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65-130 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


15 December-21 December 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 21 December an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


1 December-7 December 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 3-5 December ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-110 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


24 November-30 November 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-27 November ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75-130 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


17 November-23 November 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 23 November an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 130 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


27 October-2 November 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1-2 November ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-75 km NW and SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


6 October-12 October 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-7 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75-110 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


29 September-5 October 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1-4 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-205 km W and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


22 September-28 September 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-25 September ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-95 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


15 September-21 September 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 15-18 and 20 September ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted 90-260 km NW and W during 17-18 and 20-21 September.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


8 September-14 September 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-11 and 14 September ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-95 km SW, W, and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


1 September-7 September 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1-2 and 6-7 September ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 95 km W and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


25 August-31 August 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25-29 August ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-110 km W and NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


18 August-24 August 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18-22 August ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65-225 km W and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


11 August-17 August 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 12-17 August ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-95 km W, NW, and SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


28 July-3 August 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 31 July an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 90 km W. A diffuse ash plume drifted 130 km NNE on 3 August at the same altitude.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


21 July-27 July 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 24 July an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 110 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


7 July-13 July 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 7 and 9-10 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-75 km NW and N.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


30 June-6 July 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 30 June-2 July and on 6 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 90-225 km W and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


23 June-29 June 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-24 and 29 June ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 120-225 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


16 June-22 June 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18-20 June ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 120 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


9 June-15 June 2010

The Darwin VAAC reported that during 9-10 June an ash plume from Dukono was seen in satellite imagery drifting 130 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 June-8 June 2010

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 2 June an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110 km NW. On 7 June a diffuse ash plume was seen drifting 110 km W at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


12 May-18 May 2010

The Darwin VAAC reported that on 16 and 18 May ash plumes from Dukono were seen in satellite imagery drifting about 165 km W and NW, respectively, at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


5 May-11 May 2010

The Darwin VAAC reported that during 4 and 8-10 May ash plumes from Dukono were seen in satellite imagery drifting 25-100 km NW, NE, and SE at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. On 6 May a pilot reported that a significant plume rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, but there was no confirmation of the plume in satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


28 April-4 May 2010

The Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 May an ash plume from Dukono was seen on satellite imagery drifting about 90 km W at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


21 April-27 April 2010

The Darwin VAAC reported that on 27 April an ash plume from Dukono was seen on satellite imagery drifting 45 km NW at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


7 April-13 April 2010

The Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 April an ash plume from Dukono was seen on satellite imagery drifting over 220 km NE at an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. During 10-12 April ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 20-75 km NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


31 March-6 April 2010

The Darwin VAAC reported that on 2 April an ash plume from Dukono was seen on satellite imagery drifting 55 km S at an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


17 March-23 March 2010

The Darwin VAAC reported that on 22 March an ash plume from Dukono was seen on satellite imagery drifting 45 km SE at an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


10 March-16 March 2010

The Darwin VAAC reported that on 13 March an ash plume from Dukono was seen on satellite imagery drifting 75 km E at an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


10 February-16 February 2010

The Darwin VAAC reported that on 10 February a plume from Dukono was seen on satellite imagery drifting 150 km SW at an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


3 February-9 February 2010

The Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-6 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-150 km SW and W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


9 December-15 December 2009

The Darwin VAAC reported that during 9-11 December ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 90-130 km E and SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 December-8 December 2009

The Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-6 December ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-85 km NE and SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


25 November-1 December 2009

The Darwin VAAC reported that on 30 November an ash plume from Dukono at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. was observed on satellite imagery 75 km E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


4 November-10 November 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 8 November an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


28 October-3 November 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 31 October an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-110 km NE and N.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


21 October-27 October 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 22-23 and 26-27 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-95 km NE and E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


14 October-20 October 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 October an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


7 October-13 October 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 7 October an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 74 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


30 September-6 October 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 2 October an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km NE. On 6 October, an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


23 September-29 September 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 24 September an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


16 September-22 September 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 17-20 September ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-75 km NE and ESE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


9 September-15 September 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 12 and 14 September ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-75 km W and SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 September-8 September 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 7-8 September ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-75 km E and SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


26 August-1 September 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and pilot observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26 August-1 September ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 20-65 km NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


12 August-18 August 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 August an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted more than 90 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


5 August-11 August 2009

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-7 and 10 August ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-130 km NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


8 July-14 July 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 8 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 85 km NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


1 July-7 July 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 5 and 7 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65 km E and 85 km NE, respectively.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


24 June-30 June 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 June an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km N.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


10 June-16 June 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 16 June an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 40 km NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


3 June-9 June 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-8 June ash plumes from Dukono drifted 20-75 km NW and NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


27 May-2 June 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27-28 May ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-110 km NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


20 May-26 May 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 26 May an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 90 km N.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


13 May-19 May 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 14 May an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110 km N.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


6 May-12 May 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-7 May ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 3-3.7 km (10,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 20-110 km SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


29 April-5 May 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and pilot observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 29 April-4 May ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3.7-4.5 km (12,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-165 km E and NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


22 April-28 April 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 April an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 4.5 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 150 km E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


8 April-14 April 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 12 April an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


11 February-17 February 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Dukono drifted SE at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 11 February.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


4 February-10 February 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 9-10 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


14 January-20 January 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 18 January ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and N.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


7 January-13 January 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 7 January ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


31 December-6 January 2009

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 January an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


10 December-16 December 2008

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 December an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 160 km SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


19 November-25 November 2008

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 20 November an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


5 November-11 November 2008

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-7 November ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WNW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


8 October-14 October 2008

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 October an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 110 km WNW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


24 September-30 September 2008

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 24 September a low-level ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


17 September-23 September 2008

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 23 September a low-level ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


10 September-16 September 2008

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 September a low-level ash plume from Dukono drifted SW. The next day, a plume rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


27 August-2 September 2008

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 2 September a low-level ash plume from Dukono drifted WNW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


20 August-26 August 2008

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 24 August an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. On 26 August, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and WNW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


13 August-19 August 2008

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 19 August an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


23 July-29 July 2008

Based on observations of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25-27 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


18 June-24 June 2008

On 19 June, CVGHM reported that during 30 May-12 June, seismicity from Dukono decreased and white plumes at altitudes of 1.4-1.8 km (4,600-5,900 ft) a.s.l. were spotted when clouds did not inhibit observations The Alert Level was decreased to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 13 June. Residents and visitors were not permitted within 2 km of the summit.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


28 May-3 June 2008

CVGHM reported incandescence at Dukono's summit during 31 March-24 April. On 25 April, incandescent material was ejected 25 m above the summit. During 30 April-2 May seismicty increased. On 25 May, an ash plume rose to an altitude of 1.4-2.1 km (4,600-6,900 ft) a.s.l. and was accompanied by thunderous and booming sounds. On 29 May, an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.3 km (7,500 ft) a.s.l. and again was accompanied by thunderous and booming sounds. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were not permitted within 3 km of the summit.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


20 June-26 June 2007

Based on visual observations, CVGHM reported that during 18-25 June ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 1.4 km (4,600 ft) a.s.l. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


10 January-16 January 2007

The Darwin VAAC reported that a diffuse plume from Dukono was visible on satellite imagery on 16 January and drifted SSE

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


20 December-26 December 2006

The Darwin VAAC reported that a diffuse ash plume from Dukono was visible on satellite imagery on 22 December drifting SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


29 November-5 December 2006

According to the Darwin VAAC, a diffuse ash plume from Dukono that was visible on satellite imagery on 5 December rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


23 August-29 August 2006

According to the Darwin VAAC, a diffuse ash plume from Dukono was visible on satellite imagery extending NNE on 23 August.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


11 January-17 January 2006

Ash from Dukono was visible on satellite imagery on 12 January at a height of ~3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l., extending SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


26 October-1 November 2005

An ash plume from Dukono was visible on satellite imagery on 27 October, extending NNW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


19 October-25 October 2005

A thin low-level plume from Dukono was visible on satellite imagery on 19 October. The plume extended to the ENE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


12 October-18 October 2005

Explosions and pyroclastic ejections continued at Dukono during 10-16 October. Ash columns rose 100-950 m above the summit (or 4,200-7,000 ft a.s.l.) and mainly drifted SE. Seismicity was dominated by explosion earthquakes. Dukono remained at Alert Level 2.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


5 October-11 October 2005

Explosive activity continued at Dukono during 26 September to 9 October. Ash rose 100-950 m above the summit (or 4,200-7,000 ft a.s.l.) and mostly drifted ENE. Seismicity was dominated by explosion earthquakes. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


28 September-4 October 2005

A thin low-level plume from Dukono was visible on satellite imagery on 28 September extending NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


31 August-6 September 2005

A plume from Dukono was observed on satellite imagery on 2 September at a height of ~3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. extending NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


15 June-21 June 2005

During 20-21 June, ash from Dukono was visible on satellite imagery drifting NW. The height of the ash was not reported.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


1 June-7 June 2005

Ash plumes from Dukono were visible on satellite imagery on 1 and 4 June. The plumes reached unknown heights.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


25 May-31 May 2005

During 29-31 May, small low-level ash plumes from Dukono were visible on satellite imagery. The plume heights were not known.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


18 May-24 May 2005

Satellite data showed thin ash plumes from Dukono on 21 May. The height of the plumes was not reported.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 February-8 February 2005

DVGHM reported that ash explosions at Dukono during 24-30 January produced ash plumes that rose 200-600 m above the summit. Dukono was at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


22 September-28 September 2004

On 26 September, satellite imagery showed a plume erupted from Dukono extending WNW at a height of ~3 km a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


25 August-31 August 2004

On 1 September, a thin ash plume emitted from Dukono was visible on satellite imagery at a height of ~3 km a.s.l. drifting NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


9 June-15 June 2004

During 9-15 June, Dukono occasionally emitted low-level plumes that were visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 June-8 June 2004

On 7 June a thin ash plume from Dukono was visible in satellite imagery extending ~75 km ESE at ~3 km a.s.l.. On 8 June another thin ash plume was observed in satellite imagery extending ~65 km ESE at an altitude of ~2 km a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


26 May-1 June 2004

During 26-31 May, Dukono occasionally emitted plumes that were visible on satellite imagery at a height of ~3 km a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


19 May-25 May 2004

During 19-25 May, Dukono occasionally emitted ash plumes that were visible on satellite imagery. Plumes rose to heights of ~3 km a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


5 May-11 May 2004

During 5-11 May, Dukono occasionally emitted ash plumes that were visible on satellite imagery. Plumes rose to heights of ~3 km a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


28 April-4 May 2004

During 28 April to 4 May, Dukono occasionally emitted ash plumes that were visible on satellite imagery. Plumes rose to heights of ~3 km a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


21 April-27 April 2004

During 21-27 April, Dukono occasionally emitted ash plumes that were visible on satellite imagery. Plumes rose to heights of ~3 km a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


14 April-20 April 2004

During 14-20 April, Dukono occasionally emitted ash plumes that were visible on satellite imagery. Plumes rose to heights of ~3 km a.s.l. and stretched up to ~75 km in various directions.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


7 April-13 April 2004

During 7-13 April, ash clouds emitted from Dukono were occasionally visible on satellite imagery around a height of 3 km a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


31 March-6 April 2004

During 31 March to 6 April, ash clouds emitted from Dukono were sometimes visible on satellite imagery at a height of ~3 km a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


24 March-30 March 2004

According to the Darwin VAAC, during 24-28 March ash plumes were visible on satellite imagery reaching a height of ~3 km a.s.l. On 24 March one of these plumes extended ~185 km E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


17 March-23 March 2004

According to the Darwin VAAC, during 17-23 March ash plumes were sometimes visible on satellite imagery reaching a maximum height of ~3 km a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


10 March-16 March 2004

According to the Darwin VAAC, an ash plume from Dukono was visible on satellite imagery on 14 March at a height of ~4.6 km a.s.l. extending SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


25 February-2 March 2004

During 25-27 February, the Darwin VAAC reported thin ash plumes from Dukono that were visible on satellite imagery extending a maximum distance of 160 km towards the E at a height of ~3 km a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


18 February-24 February 2004

The Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-22 February thin ash plumes from Dukono were visible on satellite imagery, extending predominately E to a maximum distance of 90 km.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


7 January-13 January 2004

During 7-13 January, low-intensity eruptions at Dukono continued to produce plumes to low levels that extended to ~120 km SSW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


31 December-6 January 2004

During 31 December to 6 January, low-intensity eruptions at Dukono continued to produce plumes to low levels that extended to ~185 km SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


24 December-30 December 2003

During 24-30 December, thin ash plumes emitted from Dukono were sometimes visible on satellite imagery extending ~90 km E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


17 December-23 December 2003

A thin plume emitted from Dukono on 17 December was visible on satellite imagery extending ~90 km E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


10 December-16 December 2003

During 10-16 December, thin ash plumes from Dukono were sometimes visible on satellite imagery extending to a maximum distance of ~90 km E and NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


3 December-9 December 2003

Satellite imagery on 8 December showed ash plumes from Dukono at ~3 km a.s.l. extending from 90-190 km WSW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


26 November-2 December 2003

During 26 November to 2 December, steam-and-ash plumes from Dukono were visible on satellite imagery. Plumes did not rise above 3 km and extended a maximum distance of ~65 km SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


19 November-25 November 2003

Satellite imagery showed ash plumes emitted from Dukono on 19 November at 1403, 20 November at 0713, and 21 November at 1428, extending ~185 km NE, ~170 km NE, and ~150 km ESE, respectively. A possible ash plume was observed on 22 November at 1349. All plumes were below ~3 km a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


12 November-18 November 2003

During 12-18 November, ash plumes continued to be emitted from Dukono. Plumes rose to ~3 km a.s.l. and extended a maximum distance of ~300 km to the NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


5 November-11 November 2003

During this week repeated aviation messages mentioned Dukono ash plumes of variable density. Some of these messages are summarized as follows.

A 5 November aviation message (Volcanic Ash Advisory) noted a faint ash plume to ~2.4 km a.s.l. and extending 220 km NE of the summit based on satellite imagery (GOES 9, 5 November, 0413 UTC). Another 5 November satellite image (visual data from NOAA-15) analyzed by the U.S. Air Force reported a "very pronounced ash plume" at 2137 UTC.

A 7 November Air Force message described a faint plume stemming from ash and steam eruptions to ~3 km a.s.l. The plume remained visible for ~60 km toward the E where it blew into thicker cirrus clouds thwarting detection.

An 11 November Air Force message described ash and steam to ~3 km a.s.l. moving ESE at 18-28 km/hour. At 0521 UTC the plume extended 120 km ESE of the summit. This observation was based on GOES-9 imagery. Similar reports noted shorter plumes later that day.

Source: US Air Force Weather Agency


29 October-4 November 2003

According to DVGHM, ash explosions at Dukono during October produced low-level plumes. Ash fell around the Tobelo area ~15 km E of the volcano. Dukono was at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


22 October-28 October 2003

Satellite imagery showed an ash plume emitted from Dukono that rose to ~3 km a.s.l. and extended ~230 km NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


15 October-21 October 2003

Satellite imagery showed an ash plume emitted from Dukono on 15 October at 1228. The plume rose to ~3 km a.s.l. and extended ~75 km NNE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


8 October-14 October 2003

On 10 October an ash plume emitted from Dukono was visible on satellite imagery rising to ~3 km a.s.l., and extending a maximum distance of ~90 km ENE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


1 October-7 October 2003

During 1-7 October, ash plumes emitted from Dukono were sometimes visible on satellite imagery rising to ~3 km a.s.l. and extending to a maximum distance of ~130 km from the summit.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


24 September-30 September 2003

During 24-26 September, faint ash plumes from Dukono were visible on satellite imagery rising to ~3 km a.s.l. and extending to a maximum distance of 80 km.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


10 September-16 September 2003

Ash plumes from Dukono were visible on satellite imagery on 11 and 16 September, extending NE of the summit ~40 and 80 km, respectively.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


27 August-2 September 2003

On 28 August an ash plume from Dukono was visible on satellite imagery at a height of ~4.3 km a.s.l. extending ~90 km N of the summit.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


20 August-26 August 2003

On 26 August an ash plume from Dukono was visible on satellite imagery at a height of ~3 km a.s.l. extending ~55 km E of the summit.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


13 August-19 August 2003

Plumes from ash emissions at Dukono were visible on satellite imagery on 16 and 18 August, rising ~3 km a.s.l. and extending ~55 km NW of the volcano on the 16th, and rising ~4.3 km a.s.l and extending ~130 km a.s.l. W on the 18th.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


6 August-12 August 2003

A faint ash plume emitted from Dukono was visible on satellite imagery on 9 August at an altitude of ~3 km a.s.l. extending ~65 km NE of the summit. The plume was ~75 km NW of the summit later in the day.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


30 July-5 August 2003

During 9-14 July, ash explosions at Dukono produced ash plumes to heights of 800-900 m above the volcano. Ash fell around the towns of Mamuya and Galela. During 15-23 July ash plumes rose to low levels, with a plume reaching ~1 km above the volcano on 22 July. According to the Darwin VAAC, ash was visible on satellite imagery on 31 July and 2 and 3 August, with the highest cloud reaching ~2 km above the volcano.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


16 July-22 July 2003

Satellite imagery on 21 July at 0724 showed an ash plume from Dukono that rose to a height of ~3 km a.s.l. and extended ~45 km NNE of the summit.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


18 June-24 June 2003

Ash emissions continued at Dukono during 18-24 June. On 21 June an ash plume was visible on satellite imagery at a height of about 3 km a.s.l. drifting NE.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC); News.com.au - News Limited


11 June-17 June 2003

Ash continued to be emitted from Dukono during 11-17 June, with plumes rising to a maximum height of ~4.5 km a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


4 June-10 June 2003

The Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Dukono was visible on satellite imagery beginning on 8 June at 1625. The ash plume was at a height of ~4.5 km a.s.l. and drifted NE. As of 10 June a plume was visible extending ~75 km towards the N.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


Index of Bulletin Reports


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

08/1978 (SEAN 03:08) Strongest explosions in many years

01/1980 (SEAN 05:01) Explosive activity continues

08/1991 (BGVN 16:08) Explosions and glow; ashfall to coast; small lahars

06/1993 (BGVN 18:06) White to light-gray ash cloud reaches 600-1,500 m

12/1994 (BGVN 19:12) Small eruptions prompt aviation notices

02/1995 (BGVN 20:02) Aviation report of an ash cloud on 30 January

10/1995 (BGVN 20:10) Pilot report of plume on 25 September

03/2003 (BGVN 28:03) Infrared satellite data suggest a significant event during August-September 2002

06/2003 (BGVN 28:06) Ash eruptions in February, June, and July 2003

09/2003 (BGVN 28:09) Ash explosions in late July through September generate plumes up to 250 m high

11/2003 (BGVN 28:11) Nearly continuous explosions, long ash plumes, and local ashfall

12/2003 (BGVN 28:12) December 2003 and January 2004 ash plumes to 3 km altitude extend to 185 km

04/2004 (BGVN 29:04) Continuously erupting volcano with occassional MODIS satellite thermal alerts

06/2004 (BGVN 29:06) Despite ongoing volcanism, a paucity of MODVOLC thermal alerts after 2002

06/2006 (BGVN 31:06) Ongoing emissions continue during 2004-2005 in decades-long eruption

01/2007 (BGVN 32:01) Inferred ash plume on 5 December 2006

03/2007 (BGVN 32:03) Early 2007 ash plume and occasional thermal anomalies

10/2007 (BGVN 32:10) Thermal anomalies indicate possible activity at Dukono in October 2007

08/2008 (BGVN 33:08) Thermal hotspots and ash plumes continue

11/2008 (BGVN 33:11) Ongoing minor ash plumes through at least 9 January 2009

04/2010 (BGVN 35:04) Intermittent ash plumes from January 2009 through May 2010

03/2011 (BGVN 36:03) Intermittent weak ash plumes persist through 4 April 2011

08/2011 (BGVN 36:08) Continued frequent minor ash plume at least as late as 13 September 2011




Bulletin Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.


08/1978 (SEAN 03:08) Strongest explosions in many years

Geologists Muslim Monoarta and Peter Jezek visited Dukono from 20-25 July. Activity had begun to intensify 4-7 days before their arrival and explosions of varying strength occurred about once every 10 seconds during their visit, ejecting bombs as large as 4 m in longest dimension. The bombs fell 200-250 m from the crater rim. Several 6-8-hour periods of quiescence interrupted the explosions, always at night. Ash emission was nearly continuous, with clouds rising as high as 10 km above the crater. The ash ranged from black sand-size particles to very fine light gray clay-size material.

On 21 July, fine light gray ash was blown N beyond the town of Galela, 15 km from the volcano. Moderate ashfall continued through most of the day on the 21st and during the morning of the 22nd. During the night of 23-24 July, the loudest explosions in many years rattled windows in Galela and incandescent ejecta were visible.

Information Contacts: M. Monoarta, Volcanology Division, GSI; P. Jezek, SI.
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01/1980 (SEAN 05:01) Explosive activity continues

VSI personnel visited Dukono in August 1979. Explosive activity had increased since the previous visit 13 months earlier. Ash was ejected every 9-15 minutes but there were no audible detonations.

Further Reference. Kusumadinata, K., 1977, Data on the Dukono volcano: Berita Direktorat Geologi, v. 9, no. 16, p. 183.

Information Contacts: A. Sudradjat and L. Pardyanto, VSI; D. Shackelford, Brea, CA.
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08/1991 (BGVN 16:08) Explosions and glow; ashfall to coast; small lahars

People living near the volcano reported that a new eruption began during the night of 8-9 June, after nine years of relative quiet. At the onset of the eruption, residents were awakened by rumblings and a red glow from the volcano, which has since remained active. Ashfalls have occurred regularly in coastal towns 15 km NNW to 15 km ENE of the summit (Galela, Mamoya, and Tobelo). When visited by a geologist on 23-28 June, small to moderate explosions occurred every 4-5 minutes, sometimes accompanied by noise and night glow. Small lahars occurred in rivers draining the volcano.

Space Shuttle astronauts photographed an apparently ash-rich plume extending ~30 km from the summit to slightly beyond the coast on 15 September at 2156 (photos STS048-110-34 & 35). The entire summit area appeared ash-covered.

Figure 1. Photograph of Dukono taken from the Space Shuttle, 2156 on 15 September 1991. The summit area appears to be covered with ash, and the plume extends ~30 km W from the summit. Courtesy of NASA-SSEOP; photo STS048-110-35.

Information Contacts: V. Clavel and P. Vetsch, SVG, Switzerland; C. Evans, NASA-SSEOP.
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06/1993 (BGVN 18:06) White to light-gray ash cloud reaches 600-1,500 m

A very dense white to light-gray ash cloud from Dukono was reported on 23 June by a commercial aircraft pilot. The cloud was rising ~600-1,500 m above the summit . . . . VSI notes that Dukono is very active, with small eruptions from the main crater almost every day. The height of the eruption column averages 300-600 m above the crater rim. No significant changes in activity have occurred in June or July.

Information Contacts: ICAO; W. Tjetjep, VSI.
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12/1994 (BGVN 19:12) Small eruptions prompt aviation notices

NOTAMs issued from the Ujung Pandang aviation control center on 22 November and 1 December 1994 indicated that Dukono was active, but the height of the ash cloud and its direction of drift were unknown. Satellite imagery on 22 November showed cumulus clouds but no evidence of ash. A pilot report from Qantas Airlines on 7 January 1995 described an ash cloud extending to ~6 km altitude and drifting NW, consistent with upper-level wind data; satellite imagery showed no evidence of ash.

Eruptive activity during he first half of 1993 consisted of dark ash clouds, sometimes associated with incandescent fragments (VSI, 1993a). The height of the ash cloud generally varied from 300-600 m above Malupang Magiwe crater . . . .

Information Contacts: BOM Darwin, Australia.
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02/1995 (BGVN 20:02) Aviation report of an ash cloud on 30 January

A NOTAM issued from the Ujung Pandang aviation control center on 30 January noted the presence of a volcanic ash cloud from Dukono with both altitude and drift direction unknown. Satellite imagery gave no indication of the presence of volcanic ash, although there was evidence of a low-level smoke plume.

Information Contacts: BOM Darwin, Australia.
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10/1995 (BGVN 20:10) Pilot report of plume on 25 September

A pilot report from a Qantas flight on the morning of 25 September described a plume to 6 km altitude that was drifting ESE. Visible satellite imagery failed to detect volcanic ash, but weather clouds in the SE sector were identified with infrared imagery.

Information Contacts: BOM Darwin, Australia.
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03/2003 (BGVN 28:03) Infrared satellite data suggest a significant event during August-September 2002

The last reported activity at Dukono consisted of a plume that reached 6 km altitude on 25 September 1995 (BGVN 20:10). Post-May 2000 MODIS data suggested a significant event during 26 August-7 September 2002. During that period, anomalies rose well above alert detection threshold, triggering 10 thermal alerts. All of the alert pixels were located within a 1-km radius.

Information Contacts: Diego Coppola and David A. Rothery, Department of Earth Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, UK (Email: d.coppola@open.ac.uk, d.a.rothery@open.ac.uk). Thermal alerts courtesy of the HIGP MODIS Thermal Alerts Team (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/).
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06/2003 (BGVN 28:06) Ash eruptions in February, June, and July 2003

According to the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Dukono erupted at 0105 on 22 February 2003. A gray-black ash cloud rose to 500 m and drifted E and then S. During 1200-1355 fiery flashes were observed for ~30 minutes, and on 28 February activity returned to normal.

The Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume was visible on NOAA and GOES 9 imagery beginning on 8 June at 1625. The ash plume reached ~4.5 km altitude and drifted NE. On 9 June ashfall reached the Galela area, as far as 7 km from the summit. Explosive activity decreased, but a blasting sound was still frequent. The Alert Level was set at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). As of 10 June the plume was visible on satellite imagery extending ~75 km N.

During 3-8 July activity preceded by gas emissions from the crater was observed and a gas plume rose 25-75 m. Ash explosions during 9-14 July produced ash columns 800-900 m high, accompanied by a continuous strong blasting sound. Ash fell around the Mamuya and Galela areas. A white-gray ash plume emitted during the week of 15-23 July rose 375 m. On 22 July, an ash explosion from the crater in clear, calm conditions, formed an ash column that reached a maximum height of 1,000 m.

Information Contacts: Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: dali@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/).
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09/2003 (BGVN 28:09) Ash explosions in late July through September generate plumes up to 250 m high

Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI) reports for June and July 2003 noted volcanic activity and ash emissions from Dukono. VSI reported an ash explosion commencing on 7 June, with ashfall in the Galela area (~ 7 km from the summit) on 9 June (BGVN 28:06). Explosive events had decreased by 9 June, but as of 10 June the plume was still visible on satellite imagery. No additional activity was reported through the end of June.

Ash explosions were again reported by VSI during 9-23 July, with a maximum plume height of 1,000 m in clear weather on 22 July (BGVN 28:06). No Dukono activity was reported in the report for 21-27 July. Ash explosions were reported again during 28 July-3 August, with a white-gray column, under weak pressure, rising 15-75 m. Some explosions produced dark-gray ash columns reaching 95-450 m high. On 27 and 28 July some blasting sounds were heard in the Galela area and continuous blasting sounds were heard on 25, 26, and 29 July. Minor ash fell around the crater, and ash drifted E, SE, and NE.

Ash explosions continued during 18-31 August, producing a gray ash plume 75 m high and an ash column that rose 200-250 m accompanied by booming sounds. VSI reported that ash explosions during the 1-28 September period produced a gray ash plume 50-200 m high. When there was no explosive activity, white-gray ash emissions were observed rising 50 m from the crater. The hazard status has remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4) since early June.

Information Contacts: Dali Ahmad and Nia Haerani, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: dali@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).
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11/2003 (BGVN 28:11) Nearly continuous explosions, long ash plumes, and local ashfall

Ash explosions during 29 September-19 October rose 50-100 m above the crater. Some of the explosions were accompanied by blasting sounds, and ash fell to the E around the Tobelo area. White-gray ash eruptions continued during 27 October-30 November accompanied by booming sounds, a 100-m-high gray ash column, and more ashfall in the Tobelo area. The hazard status remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4) throughout this period.

The monitoring effort by the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia has been affected by the civil unrest on Halmahera. By 19 November the Dukono observatory had been completely destroyed by the recent "riots," with no idea when it might be rebuilt. Officially there is no longer a VSI officer there, but sometimes two staff check on the volcano. On 18 November they called Bandung with news that activity had increased, with larger, more frequent eruptions (every 5-15 minutes) generating higher plumes. Over the few weeks prior to 18 November eruptive activity has been tending towards bigger explosions, sometimes producing pyroclastic falls and lava flows down to the beach.

Ash plumes from Dukono have been identified in satellite imagery by the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre almost every week since early June 2003. Plumes were usually reported rising to altitudes of 3-4.5 km and extending downwind 45-75 km from the summit. Longer plumes to distances of 80-130 km were reported after 18 August. Distinct visual plumes reaching distances of over 200 km were seen in November (figure 2), with a maximum of ~300 km during 12-18 November. Aviation notices continued to be issued through December, warning of almost continuous activity and plumes extending ~90 km from the volcano.

Figure 2. Satellite image showing an ash plume extending S and SE from Dukono on 17 November 2003. The volcano is located below the "D" in Dukono, and the approximate extent of the ash cloud has been outlined. Courtesy of Darwin VAAC.

Paul Taylor provided the following account from Baptist missionary Charles W. Cole. He also noted that the Tobelo "o dukono" just means "(the) volcano," but that the word is now used as a proper name for the volcano on Halmahera. On 16 November 2003 Cole wrote: "The situation in Tobelo continues to be on edge as unknown parties continue to explode bombs. After the distribution of the food packets in Ternate, Kenneth and Oky accompanied the Tobelo pastors on a seven hour ride in a small van to Tobelo. When they arrived in Tobelo it looked like it had just snowed. The ground and all the buildings were covered with white ash. This past week it has rumbled and put out large clouds of white ash. Entire villages and neighborhoods have been destroyed (not by ash)."

Information Contacts: Dali Ahmad, Hetty Triastuty, Nia Haerani, and Suswati, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: dali@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Charles W. Cole, Jakarta, Indonesia (Email: cbcole@emailworld.biz); Paul W. Taylor, Australian Volcanological Investigations, PO Box 291, Pymble, NSW 2073, Australia (Email: avitaylor@mpx.com.au); Andrew Tupper, Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom. gov.au/info/vaac/, Email: darwin.vaac@bom.gov.au).
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12/2003 (BGVN 28:12) December 2003 and January 2004 ash plumes to 3 km altitude extend to 185 km

Satellite imagery for 8 December showed ash plumes at ~ 3 km altitude extending 90-190 km WSW from Dukono. During 10-17 and 24-30 December, thin ash plumes were sometimes visible on satellite imagery extending E to a maximum distance of ~ 90 km. During 31 December to 6 January, low-intensity eruptions at Dukono continued to produce plumes to low levels that extended to ~ 185 km SE.

Information Contacts: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/).
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04/2004 (BGVN 29:04) Continuously erupting volcano with occassional MODIS satellite thermal alerts

Dukono, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, erupts nearly continually. Unfortunately, satellite-based thermal alerts from MODVOLC processing and NASA's Terra satellite have thus far only occasionally disclosed Dukono activity. MODVOLC data appear on a dedicated website maintained by the University of Hawaii HIGP MODIS Thermal Alerts team. Coppola and Rothery previously reported a significant thermal event on Dukono during 26 August-7 September 2002 (BGVN 28:03). This was the first sign of Dukono activity indicated by MODVOLC data since the remote-sensing system began data collection in May 2000. Reports from the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia and the Darwin VAAC (BGVN 28:06, 28:09, 28:11, and 28:12) documented ash eruptions during February and June 2003, with activity continuing to at least January 2004.

An updated analysis of MODVOLC data for the observational period August 2000-April 2004 included thermal alerts from NASA's Aqua satellite. Alerts were triggerd for 26 August and 6 and 7 September 2002. They confirmed the August-September 2002 event, but found very little sign of subsequent activity through the end of April 2004. After September 2002 the only thermal alerts were single pixel events only slightly above the MODVOLC detection threshold. They took place on 1 March and 10 November 2003. Inspection of raw MODIS data revealed an additional anomaly on 17 November 2003, but the alert ratio was slightly below the MODVOLC detection threshold.

For an explanation of MODVOLC anomalies see BGVN 28:01 or the MODVOLC website. The scarcity of thermal alerts at Dukono, despite the recurrent ash eruptions, indicates the general invisibility (or small size) of any hot feature(s) there. Small to moderate sized ash columns would be unlikely to trigger an alert since they occur in a narrow time window.

Information Contacts: MODIS Thermal Alerts team, Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP), School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii at Manoa (URL: http://modis.hgip.hawaii.edu/, Email: wright@higp.hawaii.edu, flynn@higp.hawaii.edu, and pilger@higp.hawaii.edu); David A . Rothery and Charlotte Saunders, Department of Earth Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, United Kingdom.
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06/2004 (BGVN 29:06) Despite ongoing volcanism, a paucity of MODVOLC thermal alerts after 2002

Based on MODVOLC thermal alert data, Coppola and Rothery had previously reported a significant thermal event during 26 August-7 September 2002 (BGVN 28:03). This was the first sign of activity at Dukono since the inception of MODVOLC data in May 2000. Subsequent reports from the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia and the Darwin VAAC (BGVN 28:06, 28:09, and 28:11) documented ash eruptions in February and June-December 2003.

An updated analysis of MODVOLC data covering the period August 2000-April 2004 confirmed the August-September 2002 event by the addition of thermal alerts from NASA's Aqua satellite (26 August, 6 and 7 September 2002), but found very little sign of activity subsequently throughl the end of April 2004. During the whole period since September 2002 the only thermal alerts were single-pixel events, only slightly above the MODVOLC detection threshold, on 1 March and 10 November 2003. Inspection of raw MODIS data revealed an additional anomaly on 17 November 2003 with an alert ratio slightly below the MODVOLC detection threshold. The scarcity of thermal alerts at Dukono despite recurrent ash eruptions indicated the general invisibility (or small size) of any hot feature at the source, such as an incandescent vent or lava dome.

Data acquisition and analysis. Reports from Diego Coppola and David A. Rothery provided analyses of MODIS thermal alerts during 2001 and 2002 (using the MODVOLC alert-detection algorithm) extracted from the MODIS Thermal Alerts website (http://modis.hgip.hawaii.edu/) maintained by the University of Hawaii HIGP MODIS Thermal Alerts team (BGVN 28:01). Rothery and Charlotte Saunders provided updates to 31 May 2004. MODVOLC data are now routinely available from the Aqua satellite (equator crossing times 0230 and 1430 local time) in addition to the original Terra satellite (equator crossing times 1030 and 2230 local time).

Information Contacts: David A. Rothery and Charlotte Saunders, Department of Earth Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, United Kingdom (Email: d.a.rothery@open.ac.uk).
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06/2006 (BGVN 31:06) Ongoing emissions continue during 2004-2005 in decades-long eruption

During 2004 and 2005, Dukono continued to emit ash plumes as it has for many decades. This report first summarizes available reports from Indonesia's Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM).

David Rothery and Charlotte Saunders previously discussed MODIS thermal alerts up to April 2004 in our last report (BGVN 29:06). Since that time, and as recently as 1 August 2006, the only MODIS thermal alerts were detected on 4 October 2004.

CVGHM observations, 2004-2005. During this interval, the volcano's hazard status stood at Level 2 (Yellow).

During 31 May to 31 August 2004 small explosions were accompanied by rumbling sounds and the release of white to gray-black ash. The emissions occurred at a relatively constant frequency and intensity. The ash-bearing clouds reached up to ~ 500 m above the summit. Ash discharges and rumbling were constant.

Eruptive behavior continued throughout 2005. From 24 to 30 January explosions often ejected ash, and dark gray ash plumes reached 200-600 m above the summit. On 9 May an ash eruption was accompanied by an explosive sound repeated 27 times. Ejections the week of 26 September-2 October contained ash and, occasionally, larger pyroclastic material. Explosions occurred about 15 times a day, sending plumes 100-400 m high. Thousands of explosions were documented during the next two weeks (table 1). Ash columns rose 100-950 m above the summit.

Table 1. Summary of types and numbers of seismic/volcanic events occurring at Dukono during late September through mid-October 2005. Courtesy of CVGHM.

    Date (2005)    A-type    B-type    Explosions    Tectonic

    26 Sep-02 Oct    27        18          146          22
    03 Oct-09 Oct    42        32        1,471           5
    10 Oct-16 Oct    10         1        2,068           3

Aviation reports, 2004-2006. A large table contains aviation observations from 31 December 2003 through 12 January 2006 from the Darwin VAAC (table 2), although not all the VAAC's original reports were inspected. Some of the reported eruptions during that time generated plumes visible on satellite imagery to distances as far as 200 km. Plumes often rose to ~ 3 km altitude.

Table 2. Events reported for Dukono for the interval 31 December 2003-12 January 2006 (as taken from summaries of collaborative Darwin VAAC and CVGHM reports presented in USGS-Smithsonian Weekly Reports). Courtesy of Darwin VAAC and CVGHM.

    Dates                      Event(s)                   Plume characteristics
                                                          (heights above sea level)

    31 Dec 2003-06 Jan 2004    low-intensity eruptions    low levels, extended to ~185 km SE
    07 Jan 2004-13 Jan 2004    low-intensity eruptions    low levels, extended to ~120 km SSW
    20 Feb 2004-22 Feb 2004    --                          thin ash plumes visible on satellite,
                                                            extended predominately E to max. of
                                                            90 km
    25 Feb 2004-27 Feb 2004    --                          thin ash plumes visible on satellite,
                                                            extended max. of 160 km E at height
                                                            of ~3 km
    14 Mar 2004                --                          ash plume visible on satellite imagery
                                                            at height of ~4.6 km, extended SE
    17 Mar 2004-01 Jun 2004    --                          ash plumes sometimes visible on
                                                            satellite imagery reaching max.
                                                            height of ~3 km; on 24 Mar one plume
                                                            extended ~185 km E
    07 Jun 2004                --                          thin ash plume visible in satellite
                                                            imagery extended ~75 km ESE at ~3 km
    08 Jun 2004                --                          thin ash plume seen in satellite
                                                            imagery extended ~65 km ESE at
                                                            altitude of ~2 km
    09 Jun 2004-15 Jun 2004    --                          low-level plumes occasionally emitted,
                                                            visible on satellite imagery
    01 Sep 2004                --                          thin ash plume visible on satellite
                                                            imagery at height of ~3 km, drifting
                                                            NW.
    26 Sep 2004                eruption                   satellite imagery showed plume extended
                                                            WNW at a height of ~3 km
    24 Jan 2005-30 Jan 2005    ash explosions             ash plumes rose 200-600 m above summit
    21 May 2005                --                          satellite data showed thin ash plumes;
                                                            height not reported
    29 May 2005-31 May 2005    --                          small low-level ash plumes visible on
                                                            satellite imagery
    01 and 04 Jun 2005         --                          ash plumes visible on satellite imagery
    20 Jun 2005-21 Jun 2005    --                          ash visible on satellite imagery,
                                                            drifting NW; height not reported
    02 Sep 2005                --                          plume observed on satellite imagery,
                                                            height of ~3 km, extended NW.
    26 Sep 2005-09 Oct 2005    explosive activity         ash rose 100-950 m above the summit and
                                                            mostly drifted ENE
    10 Oct 2005-16 Oct 2005    explosions,                ash columns rose 100-950 m above summit
                                pyroclastic ejections       and mainly drifted SE
    19 Oct 2005                --                          thin low-level plume visible on
                                                            satellite imagery extended to the ENE
    27 Oct 2005                --                          ash plume visible on satellite imagery
                                                            extended to NNW
    12 Jan 2006                --                          ash visible on satellite imagery at
                                                            height of ~3 km, extended SW

Information Contacts: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au); HIGP Thermal Alerts Team, Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) / School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), University of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (http://hotspot.higp.hawaii.edu/).
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01/2007 (BGVN 32:01) Inferred ash plume on 5 December 2006

Situated on Halmahera Island in northern Indonesia, Dukono released an ash plume 5 December 2006. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying onboard NASA's Terra satellite captured the 5 December plume (figure 3) drifting E away from meteorological clouds. NASA affiliate Jesse Allen has interpreted the plume as ash bearing.

Figure 3. Inferred ash plume of Dukono volcano streaming E and then S on 5 December 2006. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data provided courtesy of the MODIS Rapid Response team.

As of early 2007, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) reported that plumes from Dukono were visible on satellite imagery several times during 2006, and once in January 2007 (see table 3). Satellite images suggested modest successive plumes with ash concentrations varying from diffuse to dense.

Table 3. Summary of plumes reported from Dukono, January 2006-January 2007. Courtesy of the Darwin VAAC.

    Date           Plume top    Plume drift    Comment
                   (altitude)    direction

    12 Jan 2006      3 km            SW        ash
    23 Aug 2006       --            NNE        diffuse ash
    05 Dec 2006      3 km           ENE        ash
    22 Dec 2006       --             SE        diffuse ash
    16 Jan 2007       --            SSE        diffuse

Thermal anomalies were detected by MODIS (table 4) on 13 December 2006 and then on four days in February 2007. These were the first anomalies detected by the MODVOLC system since October 2004 (BGVN 31:06).

Table 4. Thermal anomalies at Dukono based on MODIS-MODVOLC retrievals and processing from October 2004 through February 2007. Courtesy of Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology Thermal Alerts System.

    Date (UTC)    Time (UTC)    Pixels    Satellite

    04 Oct 2004     1350          2         Terra
    13 Dec 2006     1350          1         Terra
    13 Feb 2007     1405          1         Terra
    13 Feb 2007     1700          1         Aqua
    15 Feb 2007     1350          1         Terra
    18 Feb 2007     1715          1         Aqua
    24 Feb 2007     1345          1         Terra

Information Contacts: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Darwin, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://hotspot.higp.hawaii.edu/).
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03/2007 (BGVN 32:03) Early 2007 ash plume and occasional thermal anomalies

Our last Dukono report discussed an ash plume on 5 December 2006 (BGVN 32:01). During the time period of this report, 1 January through mid-April 2007, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) detected a small plume on satellite imagery on 16 January 2007 that lacked clear ash content.

The 16 January plume was imaged using data from two satellites (DMSP and MTSAT-1R). The Darwin VAAC's ash advisory noted a low-level plume blowing to the SSE on an image taken at 2233 on 15 January (time and date in terms of UTC; 0733 on 16 January local time).

Table 5 contains a list of thermal anomalies detected from MODIS satellites by the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts System during the first four months of 2007. There were two alerts on 13 February followed by one alert on the respective days 15, 18, and 24 February and 8 March.

Table 5. Thermal anomalies at Dukono based on MODIS-MODVOLC retrievals and processing for the interval 1 January through April 2007. Courtesy of Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts System.

    Date (UTC)    Time (UTC)    Pixels    Satellite

    13 Feb 2007     1405          1         Terra
    13 Feb 2007     1700          1         Aqua
    15 Feb 2007     1350          1         Terra
    18 Feb 2007     1715          1         Aqua
    24 Feb 2007     1345          1         Terra
    08 Mar 2007     1410          1         Terra

Information Contacts: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://portal.vsi.esdm.go.id/joomla/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), University of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (http://hotspot.higp.hawaii.edu/).
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10/2007 (BGVN 32:10) Thermal anomalies indicate possible activity at Dukono in October 2007

Based on visual observations, the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) reported that during the week of 18-25 June 2007 white-gray ash rose to 50-250 m above the summit. The hazard status of the volcano remained on level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

No significant change of seismicity was noted with respect to previous weeks, and no thermal anomalies were measured during that week by the MODIS/MODVOLC satellite team (table 6). Subsequently, a sequence of thermal anomalies were measured by satellite between 10 August and 27 October 2007.

Table 6. Thermal anomalies at Dukono based on MODIS-MODVOLC imaging between 9 March 2007 and 27 November 2007 (continued from the list in BGVN 32:03). Courtesy of Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts System.

    Date (2007)      Time (UTC)    Pixels    Satellite

    09 Mar-09 Aug       --          none       --
    10 Aug             1645          1        Aqua
    27 Sep             1350          1        Terra
    02 Oct             1705          1        Aqua
    04 Oct             1355          1        Terra
    04 Oct             1650          1        Aqua
    11 Oct             1405          1        Terra
    13 Oct             1350          1        Terra
    13 Oct             1645          2        Aqua
    16 Oct             1715          1        Aqua
    18 Oct             1410          2        Terra
    18 Oct             1705          1        Aqua
    27 Oct             1655          1        Aqua
    28 Oct-27 Nov       --          none       --

Information Contacts: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://portal.vsi.esdm.go.id/joomla/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), University of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (http://hotspot.higp.hawaii.edu/).
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08/2008 (BGVN 33:08) Thermal hotspots and ash plumes continue

Thermal anomalies at Dukono were reported on nine days between 10 August and 27 October 2007 and an ash plume occurred in June 2007 (BGVN 32:10). This report discusses activity from late November 2007 through early October 2008.

MODIS-MODVOLC thermal alerts were recorded on 12 December 2007 and 31 January 2008. Between 31 March and 24 April 2008 the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) reported incandescence at the summit. On 25 April, incandescent material was ejected 25 m above the summit. Seismicity increased during 30 April-2 May.

On 25 May, an ash plume rose to an altitude of 1.4-2.1 km and was accompanied by thunderous and booming sounds. An ash plume on 29 May rose to an altitude of 2.3 km and again was accompanied by thunderous and booming sounds. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were not permitted within 3 km of the summit. Satellite imagery detected hotspots through 26 May 2008 (table 7).

Table 7. Thermal anomalies at Dukono based on MODIS-MODVOLC imaging between 27 November and 6 October 2008 (continued from the lists in BGVN 32:03 and 32:10). Courtesy of Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts System.

    Date           Time (UTC)    Pixels    Satellite

    12 Dec 2007      1710          1         Aqua
    31 Jan 2008      1700          1         Aqua
    06 Apr 2008      1645          1         Aqua
    17 Apr 2008      1330          1         Terra
    06 May 2008      1700          1         Aqua
    26 May 2008      1340          1         Terra
    26 May 2008      1635          2         Aqua

According to the CVGHM, during 30 May-12 June, seismicity decreased and white plumes were observed at altitudes of 1.4-1.8 km when clouds did not inhibit observations. Because of decreased seismic activity, on 13 June the Alert Level was decreased to 2. Residents and visitors were not permitted within 2 km of the summit.

No further reports were issued by CVGHM through 6 October 2008. However, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre reported that satellite imagery had detected ash plumes during 25 July-6 October (table 8).

Table 8. Ash plumes reported from Dukono during 25 July-6 October 2008 (UTC). Data from the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre.

    Date (UTC)        Plume Altitude    Plume Direction

    25-27 Jul 2008        3 km                W
    19 Aug 2008           2.4 km              W
    24 Aug 2008           2.7 km             NW
    26 Aug 2008           1.5 km           W, WNW
    02 Sep 2008          Low-level           WNW
                      (not specified)
    10 Sep 2008           --                 SW
    11 Sep 2008           1.5 km             NW
    12 Sep 2008           1.5 km             NW
    23 Sep 2008           1.8 km             NE
    24 Sep 2008           1.8 km             NE

Information Contacts: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://portal.vsi.esdm.go.id/joomla/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), University of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (http://hotspot.higp.hawaii.edu/).
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11/2008 (BGVN 33:11) Ongoing minor ash plumes through at least 9 January 2009

Thermal hotspots and minor ash plumes were reported through September and early October 2008 (BGVN 33:08). Dukono continued to emit minor ash plumes from early October 2008 through 9 January 2009, although MODVOLC thermal alerts have been absent since 26 May 2008. Five instances of ash plumes were noted from 11 October 2008 to 9 January 2009, as recorded by the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (table 9). None of the plumes rose above 3 km altitude.

Table 9. Ash plumes reported from Dukono between 11 October 2008 and 9 January 2009 (UTC). Data from the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre.

    Date (UTC)        Plume         Plume Direction
                      Altitude    (distance from vent)

    11 Oct 2008       3 km          WNW (~ 110 km)
    06-07 Nov 2008    2.4 km        WNW (~ 72 km)
    20 Nov 2008       3 km           NW (~ 110 km)
    15 Dec 2008       3 km           SE (~ 160 km)
    06 Jan 2009       1.8 km          E (~ 90 km)

Information Contacts: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://portal.vsi.esdm.go.id/joomla/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), University of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (http://hotspot.higp.hawaii.edu/).
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04/2010 (BGVN 35:04) Intermittent ash plumes from January 2009 through May 2010

Minor ash plumes had continued to be intermittently reported from this long-active volcano during October 2008-January 2009 (BGVN 33:11). The Darwin VAAC has provided continuous monitoring of the activity through satellite surveillance (table 10).

Table 10. Ash plumes reported from Dukono between 7 January 2009 and 30 May 2010 (UTC). Data from the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre.

    Date (UTC)               Plume Altitude               Plume Direction (distance from vent)

    07 Jan 2009              1.8 km                       E and SE
    18 Jan 2009              3 km                         NE and N
    09-11 Feb 2009           3 km                         E and SE
    12 Apr 2009              3 km                         NW (55 km)
    28 Apr 2009              4.5 km                       E (150 km)
    29 Apr-04 May 2009       3.7-4.5 km (pilot report)    E and NE (45-165 km)
    05-07 May 2009           3-3.7 km                     SE (20-110 km)
    14 May 2009              3 km                         N (110 km)
    26 May 2009              3 km                         N (90 km)
    27-28 May 2009           3 km                         NE (55-110 km)
    06-08 Jun 2009           ?                            NW and N (20-75 km)
    16 Jun 2009              1.5 km                       NE (40 km)
    28 Jun 2009              2.4 km                       N (75 km)
    05 Jul 2009              2.4 km                       E (65 km)
    07-08 Jul 2009           2.4 km                       NE (85 km)
    06-07, 10 Aug 2009       2.4-3 km                     NE (45-130 km)
    15 Aug 2009              3 km                         NW (90 km)
    26 Aug-01 Sep 2009       2.1 km                       NE (20-65 km )
    07-08 Sep 2009           2.1 km                       E and SE (35-75 km)
    12, 14 Sep 2009          2.4 km                       W and SW (25-75 km)
    17-20 Sep 2009           2.4 km                       NE and ESE (25-75 km) 
    24 Sep 2009              2.4 km                       NW (65 km)
    02 Oct 2009              2.7 km                       NE (75 km)
    06 Oct 2009              3 km                         NE (55 km)
    07 Oct 2009              3 km                         NW (74 km)
    15 Oct 2009              2.4 km                       NW (45 km)
    22-23, 26-27 Oct 2009    2.1-2.4 km                   NE and E (45-95 km)
    31 Oct 2009              1.5 km                       NE and N (35-110 km)
    08 Nov 2009              3 km                         NW (35 km)
    30 Nov 2009              3 km                         E (75 km)
    05-06 Dec 2009           3 km                         E and SE (55-85 km)
    09-11 Dec 2009           3 km                         E and SE (90-130 km)
    05-06, 10 Feb 2010       2.4 km                       SW and W (55-150 km)
    13 Mar 2010              2.7 km                       E (75 km)
    22 Mar 2010              2.4 km                       SE (45 km)
    02 Apr 2010              2.4 km                       S (55 km)
    09 Apr 2010              3.7 km                       NE (220 km)
    10-12 Apr 2010           1.5-2.1 km                   NE (20-75 km)
    27 Apr 2010              3 km                         NW (45 km)
    03 May 2010              3 km                         W (90 km)
    04 May 2010              3 km                         NW, NE, SE (25-100 km)
    06 May 2010              4.6 km (pilot report)        NW
    08-10 May 2010           3 km                         NW, NE, SE (25-100 km)
    16 May 2010              3 km                         W (165 km)
    18 May 2010              3 km                         NW (165 km)

Dukono's visible plume was almost continuous between January 2009 and February 2010 with only two short periods of quiescence for about eight weeks between mid-February and mid-April 2009 and eight weeks from 11 December 2009 to 5 February 2010. Three periods of relatively stronger activity occurred in late April through 28 May 2009 and created ash plumes that drifted the greatest distances, 110-150 km. A higher level of activity occurred again in early to mid-August and in early December 2009 just before the second period of reduced activity. Two recent MODVOLC thermal alerts occurred on 30 May 2010; they were detected on both the Terra and Aqua satellites.

Information Contacts: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://portal.vsi.esdm.go.id/joomla/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), University of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (http://hotspot.higp.hawaii.edu/).
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03/2011 (BGVN 36:03) Intermittent weak ash plumes persist through 4 April 2011

Dukono has generated intermittent minor ash plumes since before July 2008 (BGVN 33:08, 33:11, 35:04). The Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) has provided satellite surveillance. Table 11 extends the table of ash plumes presented in BGVN 35:04 through 4 April 2011.

Table 11. Ash plumes reported from Dukono between 30 May 2010 and 4 April 2011, based on data from the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre. Each date or date range represents at least one plume.

Date (UTC)Plume altitude (km)Plume drift
02 Jun 2010 2.4 NW (110 km)
07 Jun 3 W (110 km)
09-10 Jun W (130 km)
18-20 Jun 2.4 W (120 km)
23-24 Jun 2.4 W (120-225 km)
29 Jun 2.4 W (120-225 km)
30 Jun-2 Jul 2.4 W, NW (90-225 km)
06 Jul 2.4 W, NW (90-225 km)
07 Jul 2.4 N, NW (35-75 km)
09-10 Jul 2.4 N, NW (35-75 km)
24 Jul 3 W (110 km)
31 Jul 3 W (90 km)
03 Aug 3 NNE (130 km)
12-22 Aug 3 W, NW, SW (25-225 km)
25-29 Aug 2.1-3 W, NE (35-110 km)
01-02 Sep 2.4 W, NW (95 km)
06-11 Sep 2.4 W, NW, SW (35-95 km)
14-18 Sep 2.4 W, NW, SW (35-260 km)
20-25 Sep 2.4 W, NW (35-260 km)
01-04 Oct 2.4 W, NW (55-205 km)
06-07 Oct 2.4 W (75-110 km)
01-02 Nov 3 NW, SW (45-75 km)
23-27 Nov 2.4 W (75-130 km)
03-05 Dec 3 W (55-110 km)
21 Dec 2.7 NW (55 km)
05-07 Jan 2011 2.4-3.7 W (65-130 km)
11 Feb 2.4 N (75 km)
16-17 Feb 3 W, SW (150-185 km)
11-12 Mar 2.1 SW (110-165 km)
18-19 Mar 2.1 N, NW, NE (37-75 km)
04 Apr 2.4 E (185 km)

During the reporting period (1 June 2010- 4 April 2011), there were four thermal alerts derived from the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology Thermal Alerts System (MODVOLC). They were on 1 and 10 September and 6 and 20 November 2010.

Arnold Binas uploaded photos and video showing Dukono ongoing ash emissions during late January 2010 (Binas, 2010, 2011). The video takes the form of an excursion from an adjacent settlement, approach to the volcano, and finally some shots taken at the crater rim. In addition, he posted several still photos of Dukono on Flickr (Binas, 2010). The photo titled "Inside the Dukono crater" noted frequent pulses of ash rising from the crater and his 6 hours on the crater rim led to only one partial view into the crater interior.

References. Binas, A., 2011, Halmahera ? Dukono Volcano 2010, YouTube (URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NqMax2hqxMo).

Binas, A., 2010, Indonesian volcanoes 2010, hshdude photostream, Flickr (URL: http://www.flickr.com/photos/hshdude/sets/72157623718033396).

Information Contacts: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://hotspot.higp.hawaii.edu/); Arnold Binas (aka, hshdude), Australia.
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08/2011 (BGVN 36:08) Continued frequent minor ash plume at least as late as 13 September 2011

Frequent minor ash plumes have occurred at Dukono (see figure 4) since before July 2008 (BGVN 33:08, 33:11, 35:04, and 36:03). This report covers the time period subsequent to our previous report, which ended on 4 April 2011 (BGVN 36:03), through 13 September 2011. The Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) has provided continuous monitoring of the activity through satellite surveillance (table 12) during this time period.

Figure 4. Map showing Dukono volcano, on the island of Halmahera, Indonesia. Courtesy of Google Maps (prepared by GVP editor Jeff Jessens).

Table 12. Ash plumes from Dukono detected in satellite images between 21 April 2011 and 13 September 2011. Each date or date range represents at least one plume. No plumes were reported between the end of the table in our previous report (4 April 2011) and 21 April 2011. Data from the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre.

    Date                   Plume       Plume
                          altitude     drift

    21 Apr-22 Apr 2011     2.1 km      Up to 85 km NE and E 
    28 Apr-02 May 2011     4.3 km      55-150 km NW, W, and SW
    10 May-12 May 2011     4.3 km      75-110 km NE and E
    16 May 2011            3 km        Over 90 km E
    19 May 2011            3 km        110 km NE
    01 Jun 2011            3 km        110 km NE
    01 Jul 2011            3 km        110 km E
    06 Jul-07 Jul 2011     3 km        55 km NW
    11 Aug 2011            3 km        14-93 km (various directions)
    14 Aug 2011            3 km        93 km NW
    18 Aug-21 Aug 2011     3 km        110-150 km N and NE
    13 Sep 2011            3 km        75 km NW

According to a news article (Metro TV News), seismic activity increased in August 2011. On 11 August, ash explosions were audible within a radius of about 7 km from the base of the volcano. Ash was ejected as high as 1 km above the crater, producing plumes that drifted E and S, and also approached Tobelo City (14 km ENE). The news article noted that seismographs at the Dukono observation post had recorded more than 100 eruption earthquakes during this time.

A news report posted on the web (YouTube, 2011) discussed an eruption at Dukono during first half of September 2011. The commentator spoke in Indonesian. The video shows a large column of ash rising what appears to be on the order of one or a few kilometers above the crater. This news report was discussed elsewhere as well on the web.

During this reporting period (21 April 2011 to 13 September 2011), there were no thermal alerts derived from the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology Thermal Alerts System (MODVOLC). The most recent MODVOLC thermal alert was on 20 November 2010.

Reference. YouTube (2011), Gunung Dukono letusan, Leputan 6.com, uploaded by szbrnr on 7 September 2011 (URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mb3We1MwXdg).

Information Contacts: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://portal.vsi.esdm.go.id/joomla/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), University of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (http://hotspot.higp.hawaii.edu/); Metro TV News (URL: http://www.metrotvnews.com).
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Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the north-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. This complex volcano presents a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of the summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1933 Aug 13 2014 Sep 18 (continuing) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Malupang Magiwe and Malupang Warirang
1901 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1868 (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1719 ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations East flank of Tolo
1550 Nov 20 ± 20 days Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Doekono | Dodoekko | Duko Ma Tala | Tolo | Tala

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Kariang Stratovolcano
Malupang Wariang
    Maloepang Wariang
Stratovolcano 1335 m 1° 40' 0" N 127° 51' 0" E
Mamuya, Gunung
    Mamuja, Gunung
Stratovolcano 933 m 1° 46' 0" N 127° 55' 0" E

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Dilekene Crater 1000 m
Gogodom, Gunung Crater 1° 43' 0" N 127° 52' 0" E
Heneowara Crater 1009 m
Malupang Magiwe
    Maloepang Magiwe
Crater 968 m
Saho Brani Crater 1115 m 1° 40' 0" N 127° 51' 0" E
Tanah Lapang Crater 1087 m
Telori Crater 1065 m
This compound photo from Malupang Warirang, whose crater rim appears at the extreme right, shows features of the massive Dukono volcanic complex in northern Halmahera. The prominent flank stratovolcano Gunung Mamuya appears along the coast in the right distance. Dukono, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, has been in more or less continual eruptive activity since 1933.

Photo by A. Solihin, 1984 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
An ash plume rises from the summit of Dukono volcano in June 1991. The isolated volcano of Dukono at the northern end of Halmahera Island is one of Indonesia's most active, displaying more or less continuous explosive activity since 1933, when a new cinder cone was formed in Malupang Magiwe crater.

Photo by Vivianne Clavel, 1991.
The isolated volcano of Dukono at the northern end of Halmahera Island, is one of Indonesia's most active. Seen here in June 1991, Dukono has a broad profile and is capped by many compound craters. Dukono has displayed more or less continuous explosive activity since 1933, occasionally accompanied by lava flows.

Photo by Vivianne Clavel, 1991.
Nearly constant explosive eruptions keep the ash-blanketed crater floor of Dukono volcano unvegetated. This view from Gunung Heneowara peak on the southern crater rim shows Gunung Telori peak at the upper left and the small Gunung Dilekene pyroclastic cone at the right-center. The slopes of Gunung Mamuya stratovolcano rise at the extreme right above the coast. Dukono has been in continuous eruption since 1933.

Photo courtesy of Volcanological Survey of Indonesia, 1984.

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Hantke G, 1953. Ubersicht uber die Vulkanische Tatigkeit 1948-1950. Bull Volc, 14: 151-180.

Kusumadinata K, 1979. Data Dasar Gunungapi Indonesia. Bandung: Volc Surv Indonesia, 820 p.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Supriatna S, 1980. Geologic map of Morotai quadrangle, north Maluku. Geol Res Devel Centre Indonesia, 1:250,000 scale map and 10 p text.

Volcano Types

Complex

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Oceanic crust (< 15 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Trachyte / Trachyandesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
1,575
3,348
101,506
393,070

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Dukono Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.