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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

All reports of volcanic activity published by the Smithsonian since 1968 are available through a monthly table of contents or by searching for a specific volcano. Until 1975, reports were issued for individual volcanoes as information became available; these have been organized by month for convenience. Later publications were done in a monthly newsletter format. Links go to the profile page for each volcano with the Bulletin tab open.

Information is preliminary at time of publication and subject to change.


Recently Published Bulletin Reports

Suwanosejima (Japan) Small ash plumes continued during January through June 2019

Great Sitkin (United States) Small steam explosions in early June 2019

Ibu (Indonesia) Frequent ash plumes and small lava flows active in the crater through June 2019

Ebeko (Russia) Continuing frequent moderate explosions though May 2019; ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk

Klyuchevskoy (Russia) Weak thermal anomalies and moderate Strombolian-type eruptions in September 2018-June 2019

Yasur (Vanuatu) Strong thermal activity with incandescent ejecta continues, February-May 2019

Bagana (Papua New Guinea) Infrequent thermal anomalies, no ash emissions, February-May 2019

Ambae (Vanuatu) Declining thermal activity and no explosions during February-May 2019

Sangay (Ecuador) Explosion on 26 March 2019; activity from 10 May through June produced ash plumes, lava flows, and pyroclastic flows

Kadovar (Papua New Guinea) Ash emissions and thermal anomalies during October 2018-April 2019; lava emissions at the E flank coast and summit area

Sarychev Peak (Russia) Brief ash emission reported on 16 May 2019

Nyiragongo (DR Congo) Lava lake remains active through May 2019; three new vents around the secondary cone



Suwanosejima (Japan) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Suwanosejima

Japan

29.638°N, 129.714°E; summit elev. 796 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Small ash plumes continued during January through June 2019

Suwanosejima is an active volcanic island south of Japan in the Ryuku islands with recent activity centered at Otake crater. The current eruption began in October 2004 and activity has mostly consisted of small ash plumes, ballistic ejecta, and visible incandescence at night. This report summarizes activity during January through June 2019 and is based on reports by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), and various satellite data.

Thermal activity recorded by the MIROVA system was low through January and February after a decline in November (figure 36), shown in Sentined-2 thermal infrared imagery as originating at a vent in the Otake crater (figure 37). During January an explosive event was observed at 1727 on the 3rd, producing a gray plume that rose 600 m above the crater. A white gas-and-steam plume rose to 1.5 km above the crater and nighttime incandescence was observed throughout the month. Reduced activity continued through February with no reported explosive eruptions and light gray plumes up to 900 m above the crater. Incandescence continued to be recorded at night using a sensitive surveillance camera.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 36. MIROVA log radiative power plot of MODIS thermal infrared data at Suwanosejima during September 2018 through June 2019. There was reduced activity in 2019 with periods of more frequent anomalies during March and June. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 37. A Sentinel-2 thermal satellite image shows Suwanosejima with the active Otake crater in the center with elevated temperatures shown as bright orange/yellow. There is a light area next to the vent that may be a gas plume. False color (urban) satellite image (bands 12, 11, 4) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

There was an increase in thermal energy detected by the MIROVA system in mid-March and there was a MODVOLC thermal alert on the 15th. Occasional small explosions occurred but no larger explosive events were recorded. A white plume was noted on the 27th rising to 900 m above the crater and an event at 1048 on the 30th produced a light-gray plume that rose to 800 m. Incandescence was only observed using a sensitive camera at night (figure 38).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 38. Incandescence from the Suwanosejima Otake crater reflecting in clouds above the volcano. Courtesy of JMA (Volcanic activity of Suwanosejima March 2019).

No explosive events were observed through April. A white gas-and-steam plume rose to 1,200 m above the crater on the 19th and incandescence continued intermittently. Minor explosions were recorded on 5, 30, and 31 May, but no larger explosive events were observed during the month. The event on the 30th produced ash plume that reached 1.1 km above the crater. Similar activity continued through June with one explosive event occurring on the 2nd. Overall, there was a reduction in the number of ash plumes erupted during this period compared to previous months (figure 39).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 39. Observed activity at Suwanosejima for the year ending in July 2019. The black vertical bars represent steam, gas, or ash plume heights (scale in meters on the left axis), yellow diamonds represent incandescence observed in webcams, gray volcano symbols along the top are explosions accompanied by ash plumes, red volcano symbols represent large explosions with ash plumes. Courtesy of JMA (Volcanic activity of Suwanosejima June 2019).

Geologic Background. The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanosejima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. The summit of the volcano is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the east flank that was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanosejima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent strombolian activity from Otake, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted until 1996, after which periods of inactivity lengthened. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, and the SW crater produced two lava flows that reached the western coast. At the end of the eruption the summit of Otake collapsed forming a large debris avalanche and creating the horseshoe-shaped Sakuchi caldera, which extends to the eastern coast. The island remained uninhabited for about 70 years after the 1813-1814 eruption. Lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884. Only about 50 people live on the island.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Otemachi, 1-3-4, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Great Sitkin (United States) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Great Sitkin

United States

52.076°N, 176.13°W; summit elev. 1740 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Small steam explosions in early June 2019

The Great Sitkin volcano is located about 40 km NE of Adak Island in the Aleutian Islands and has had a few short-lived eruptions over the past 100 years. Prior to the latest activity in early June 2019 described below, small phreatic explosions occurred in June and August 2018 (BGVN 43:09). An eruption in 1974 produced a lava dome in the center of the crater. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) is the primary source of information for this September 2018-June 2019 reporting period.

Low-level unrest occurred from September 2018 through February 2019 with slightly elevated seismic activity (figure 6). Small explosions were seismically detected by AVO on 30 October, 5 and 16 November, and 11 December 2018, but they were not seen in regional infrasound data and satellite data did not show an ash cloud.

On 1, 7, and 9 June 2019, AVO reported small steam explosions as well as slightly elevated seismic activity. Steam plumes and surficial evidence of an explosion were not observed during these events. On 18 June 2019 weakly elevated surface temperatures were recorded, field crews working on Adak observed some steam emissions, and a gas flight was conducted. Elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide detected above the lava dome were likely associated with the steam explosions earlier in the month (figures 7 and 8). From 23 June through the end of the month seismicity began to decline back to background levels.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 6. A steam plume was seen at the summit of Great Sitkin on 7 December 2018. Photo by Andy Lewis and Bob Boyd; courtesy of AVO/USGS.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. Some degassing was observed on the southern flank of the Great Sitkin during an overflight on 18 June 2019. Photo by Laura Clor; image courtesy of AVO/USGS.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. View of Great Sitkin with white plumes rising from the summit on 20 June 2019. Photo by Laura Clor, courtesy of AVO/USGS.

Geologic Background. The Great Sitkin volcano forms much of the northern side of Great Sitkin Island. A younger parasitic volcano capped by a small, 0.8 x 1.2 km ice-filled summit caldera was constructed within a large late-Pleistocene or early Holocene scarp formed by massive edifice failure that truncated an ancestral volcano and produced a submarine debris avalanche. Deposits from this and an older debris avalanche from a source to the south cover a broad area of the ocean floor north of the volcano. The summit lies along the eastern rim of the younger collapse scarp. Deposits from an earlier caldera-forming eruption of unknown age cover the flanks of the island to a depth up to 6 m. The small younger caldera was partially filled by lava domes emplaced in 1945 and 1974, and five small older flank lava domes, two of which lie on the coastline, were constructed along northwest- and NNW-trending lines. Hot springs, mud pots, and fumaroles occur near the head of Big Fox Creek, south of the volcano. Historical eruptions have been recorded since the late-19th century.

Information Contacts: Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667 USA (URL: https://avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA (URL: http://dggs.alaska.gov/).


Ibu (Indonesia) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Ibu

Indonesia

1.488°N, 127.63°E; summit elev. 1325 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Frequent ash plumes and small lava flows active in the crater through June 2019

Ibu volcano on Halmahera island in Indonesia began the current eruption episode on 5 April 2008. Since then, activity has largely consisted of small ash plumes with less frequent lava flows, lava dome growth, avalanches, and larger ash plumes up to 5.5 km above the crater. This report summarizes activity during December 2018 through June 2019 and is based on Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation (VONA) reports by MAGMA Indonesia, reports by Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) and Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), and various satellite data.

During December PVMBG reported ash plumes ranging from 200 to 800 m above the crater. There were 11 MODVOLC thermal alerts that registered during 1-12 December. An explosion on 12 January 2019 produced an ash plume that reached 800 m above the crater and dispersed to the S (figure 15). A report released for this event by Sutopo at BNPB said that Ibu had erupted almost every day over the past three months; an example given was of activity on 10 January consisting of 80 explosions. There were four MODVOLC thermal alerts through the month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. An eruption at Ibu at 1712 on 21 January 2019 produced an ash plume that rose to 800 m above the crater. Courtesy of BNPB (color adjusted).

Throughout February explosions frequently produced ash plumes as high as 800 m above the crater, and nine MODVOLC thermal alerts were issued. Daily reports showed variable plume heights of 200-800 m most days throughout the month. Wind directions varied and dispersed the plumes in all directions. A VONA released at 1850 on 6 February reported an ash plume that rose to 1,925 m altitude (around 600 m above the summit) and dispersed S. Activity continued through March with the Darwin VAAC and PVMBG reporting explosions producing ash plumes to heights of 200-800 m above the crater and dispersing in various directions. There were ten MODVOLC alerts through the month.

Similar activity continued through April, May, and June, with ash plumes reaching 200-800 m above the crater. There were 12, 6, and 15 MODVOLC Alerts in April, May, and June, respectively.

Planet Scope satellite images show activity at a two vents near the center of the crater that were producing small lava flows from February through June (figure 16). Thermal anomalies were frequent during December 2018 through June 2019 across MODVOLC, MIROVA, and Sentinel-2 infrared data (figures 17 and 18). Sentinel-2 data showed minor variation in the location of thermal anomalies within the crater, possibly indicating lava flow activity, and MIROVA data showed relatively constant activity with a few reductions in thermal activity during January and February.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. Planet Scope natural color satellite images showing activity in the Ibu crater during January through June 2019, with white arrows indicating sites of activity. One vent is visible in the 21 February image, and a 330-m-long (from the far side of the vent) lava flow with flow ridges had developed by 24 March. A second vent was active by 12 May with a new lava flow reaching a maximum length of 520 m. Activity was centered back at the previous vent by 23-27 June. Natural color Planet Scope Imagery, copyright 2019 Planet Labs, Inc.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. Examples of thermal activity in the Ibu crater during January through May 2019. These Sentinel-2 satellite images show variations in hot areas in the crater due to a vent producing a small lava flow. Sentinel-2 false color (urban) images (bands 12, 11, 4) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. MIROVA log radiative power plot of MODIS thermal infrared at Ibu from September 2018 through June 2019. The registered energy was relatively stable through December, with breaks in January and February. Regular thermal anomalies continued with slight variation through to the end of June. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. The truncated summit of Gunung Ibu stratovolcano along the NW coast of Halmahera Island has large nested summit craters. The inner crater, 1 km wide and 400 m deep, contained several small crater lakes through much of historical time. The outer crater, 1.2 km wide, is breached on the north side, creating a steep-walled valley. A large parasitic cone is located ENE of the summit. A smaller one to the WSW has fed a lava flow down the W flank. A group of maars is located below the N and W flanks. Only a few eruptions have been recorded in historical time, the first a small explosive eruption from the summit crater in 1911. An eruption producing a lava dome that eventually covered much of the floor of the inner summit crater began in December 1998.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), National Disaster Management Agency, Graha BNPB - Jl. Scout Kav.38, East Jakarta 13120, Indonesia (URL: http://www.bnpb.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Planet Labs, Inc. (URL: https://www.planet.com/).


Ebeko (Russia) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Ebeko

Russia

50.686°N, 156.014°E; summit elev. 1103 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continuing frequent moderate explosions though May 2019; ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk

The Ebeko volcano, located on the northern end of the Paramushir Island in the Kuril Islands, consists of many craters, lakes, and thermal features and has been frequently erupting since late February 2017. Typical activity includes ash plumes, explosive eruptions, and gas-and-steam activity. The previous report through November 2018 (BGVN 43:12) described frequent ash explosions that sometimes caused ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk (7 km E). The primary source of information is the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT). This report updates the volcanic activity at Ebeko for December 2018 through May 2019.

Frequent moderate explosive activity continued after November 2018. Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk observed explosions sending up ash, which drifted N, NE, and E, resulting in ash falls on Severo-Kurilsk on 28 different days between December 2018 and March 2019. On 25 December 2018 an explosion sent ash up to a maximum altitude of 4.5 km and then drifted N for about 5 km. Explosions occurring on 8-10 March 2019 sent ash up to an altitude of 4 km, resulting in ashfall on Severo-Kurilsk on 9-10 March 2019. An ash plume from these explosions rose to a height of 2.5 km and drifted to a maximum distance of 30 km ENE.

Satellite data analyzed by KVERT registered 12 thermal anomalies from December 2018 through May 2019. According to satellite data analyzed by MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), only one thermal anomaly was recorded from December 2018-May 2019, and no hotspot pixels were recognized using satellite thermal data from the MODVOLC algorithm.

Geologic Background. The flat-topped summit of the central cone of Ebeko volcano, one of the most active in the Kuril Islands, occupies the northern end of Paramushir Island. Three summit craters located along a SSW-NNE line form Ebeko volcano proper, at the northern end of a complex of five volcanic cones. Blocky lava flows extend west from Ebeko and SE from the neighboring Nezametnyi cone. The eastern part of the southern crater contains strong solfataras and a large boiling spring. The central crater is filled by a lake about 20 m deep whose shores are lined with steaming solfataras; the northern crater lies across a narrow, low barrier from the central crater and contains a small, cold crescentic lake. Historical activity, recorded since the late-18th century, has been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive eruptions from the summit craters. Intense fumarolic activity occurs in the summit craters, on the outer flanks of the cone, and in lateral explosion craters.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/).


Klyuchevskoy (Russia) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Klyuchevskoy

Russia

56.056°N, 160.642°E; summit elev. 4754 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Weak thermal anomalies and moderate Strombolian-type eruptions in September 2018-June 2019

Klyuchevskoy has had alternating eruptive and less active periods since August 2015. Activity has included lava flows, a growing cinder cone, thermal anomalies, gas-and-steam plumes, and ash explosions. Though some eruptions occur near the summit crater, major explosive and effusive eruptions have also occurred from flank craters (BGVN 42:04 and 43:05). Intermittent moderate gas-and-steam and ash emissions were previously reported from mid-February to mid-August 2018. The Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT) is the primary source of information for this September 2018-June 2019 reporting period.

KVERT reported that moderate gas-and-steam activity, some of which contained a small amount of ash, and weak thermal anomalies occurred intermittently from the beginning of September 2018 through mid-April 2019. On 21-22 April 2019 webcam data showed a gas-and-steam plume extending about 160 km SE (figure 31). Moderate Strombolian-type volcanism began late April 2019 and continued intermittently through June 2019. On 11-12 June webcam data showed explosions that sent ash up to a maximum altitude of 6 km, with the resulting ash plume extending about 200 km WNW.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 31. Gas-and-steam plume containing some amount of ash rising from the summit of Klyuchevskoy on 22 April 2019. Photo by A. Klimova, courtesy of Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (IVS FEB RAS).

Thermal anomalies were noted by KVERT during two days in September 2018, six days in April 2019, eleven days in May 2019, and six days in June 2019. MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data showed infrequent weak thermal anomalies December 2018 through early May 2019.

Geologic Background. Klyuchevskoy (also spelled Kliuchevskoi) is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. It rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of the 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).


Yasur (Vanuatu) — June 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Yasur

Vanuatu

19.532°S, 169.447°E; summit elev. 361 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strong thermal activity with incandescent ejecta continues, February-May 2019

Yasur volcano on Tanna Island has been characterized by Strombolian activity with large incandescent bombs, frequent explosions, lava fountaining, and ash emissions for much of its known eruptive history. Melanesians from nearby islands are believed to have settled Tanna in about 400 BCE; it is now part of the nation of Vanuatu, independent since 1980. The Kwamera language (or Tannese) spoken on the SE coast of the island is thought to be the source of the name of the island. No known oral history describes volcanic activity; the first written English-language documentation of activity dates to 5 August 1774, when Captain James Cook saw "a great fire" on Tanna Island. Cook realized that it "was a Volcano which threw up vast quantities of fire and smoak and made a rumbling noise which was heard at a good distance" (The Captain Cook Society) (figure 51).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 51. Incandescence, steam, and dark ash from Yasur fill the sky in this sketch representing Captain James Cook's landing in the 'Resolution' at Tanna Island on 5 August 1774. The form of the volcano is behind the ship, the incandescence is in the upper right next to the ship's masts. "Landing at Tanna" by William Hodges, 1775-1776, National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London. The Maritime Museum noted that this is one of a group of panel paintings produced by Hodges of encounters with islanders during the voyage, in which the European perception of each society at the time is portrayed. Image taken from Wikimedia Commons.

Based on numerous accounts from ships logs and other sources, volcanic activity has been continuous since that time. During periods of higher activity, multiple vents within the summit crater send ejecta 100 m or more above the crater rim, with large bombs occasionally landing hundreds of meters away. Continued activity during February-May 2019 is covered in this report with information provided by the Geo-Hazards Division, Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) which monitors the volcano and satellite data; photographs from tourists also provide valuable information about this remote location.

VMGD has maintained Alert Level 2 at Yasur since October 2016, indicating that it is in a major state of unrest. There is a permanent exclusion zone within 395 m of the eruptive vents where access is prohibited due to multiple hazards, primarily from large incandescent bombs up to 4 m in diameter which have been ejected from the vents onto the crater rim in the past, resulting in fatalities (BGVN 20:08).

Satellite and ground based information all support high levels of thermal activity during February -May 2019. MODVOLC thermal alerts were issued 11 times in February, 27 times in March, and 20 times each in April and May. The MIROVA graph also indicated the ongoing consistently high levels of thermal energy throughout the period (figure 52). Plumes of SO2 emissions are common from Vanuatu's volcanoes; newer higher resolution data available beginning in 2019 reveal a persistent stream of SO2 from Yasur on a near-daily basis (figure 53).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 52. The MIROVA graph of thermal energy at Yasur from 3 September 2018 through May 2019 indicates the ongoing activity at the volcano. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 53. The SO2 plumes from Yasur were persistent during January-May 2019 when they were visible many days of each week throughout the period. Top left: On 12 January plumes were visible drifting E from both Ambrym (top) and Yasur (bottom). Top right: Plumes drifted W from three Vanuatu volcanoes on 7 February, Gaua (top), Ambrym (middle) and Yasur (bottom). Bottom left: On 12 March N drifting plumes could be seen from Ambae (top) and Yasur (bottom). On 27 April, only Yasur had an SO2 plume drifting W. Courtesy of Goddard Space Flight Center.

Satellite imagery confirmed that the heat sources from Yasur were vents within the summit crater of the pyroclastic cone. Both northern and southern vent areas were active. On 7 March 2019 the N vent area had a strong thermal signal. Ten days later, on 17 March, similar intensity thermal anomalies were present in both the N and S vent areas (figure 54). On 6 April the S vent area had a stronger signal, and gas emissions from both vents were drifting N (figure 55). Satellite imagery from 21 May 2019 indicated a strong thermal signal inside the crater in the area of the vents, and included a weaker signal clearly visible on the inside E crater rim. Strong Strombolian activity or spatter sending large incandescent bombs as far as the crater rim are a likely explanation for the signal (figure 56), underscoring the hazardous nature of approaching the crater rim.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 54. Strong thermal anomalies from the crater of Yasur's pyroclastic cone seen in satellite images confirmed the ongoing high level of activity. Left: 7 March 2019, a strong thermal anomaly from the N vent area, shown with "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, 2). Right: 17 March 2019, thermal anomalies at both the N and S vent areas, shown with "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A). The crater is about 500 m in diameter. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 55. Strong thermal anomalies (left) and gas emissions (right) at Yasur were captured with different bands in the same Sentinel-2 satellite image on 6 April 2019. Left: The thermal anomaly in the S vent area was stronger than in the N vent area, "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A). Right: Gas plumes drifted N from both vent areas, "Natural color" rendering (bands 4, 3, 2). The crater is about 500 m in diameter. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 56. Thermal activity from the crater of Yasur on 21 May 2019 produced a strong thermal signal from the center of the crater and a weaker signal on the inside E crater rim, likely the result of hazardous incandescent bombs and ejecta, frequent products of the activity at Yasur. Left: "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A). Right: "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, 2). The crater is about 0.5 km in diameter. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Tourists visit Yasur on a regular basis. A former lake on the N side of Yasur has left ripples in the sand deposits over older volcanic rocks on the N side of the volcano (figure 57) since it drained in 2000 (BGVN 28:01). Visitors are allowed to approach the S rim of the crater where incandescence from both the N and S vents is usually visible (figure 58). Incandescent spatter from the convecting lava in the vents is highly dangerous and unpredictable and often covers the inner slopes of the rim as well as sending bombs outside the crater (figure 59).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 57. The pyroclastic cone of Yasur viewed from the north on 6 May 2019. Ripples in volcaniclastic sand in the foreground are remnants of a lake that was present on the N side of the volcano until a natural dam breached in 2000. Copyrighted photo by Nick Page, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 58. Two glowing vents were visible from the south rim of Yasur on 6 May 2019. The S vent area is in the foreground, the N vent area is in the upper left. Copyrighted by Nick Page, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 59. Incandescent spatter at Yasur on 6 May 2019 sent fragments of lava against the inside crater wall and onto the rim. The convecting lava in the vent can be seen in the lower foreground. Copyrighted photo by Nick Page, used with permission.

Geologic Background. Yasur, the best-known and most frequently visited of the Vanuatu volcanoes, has been in more-or-less continuous Strombolian and Vulcanian activity since Captain Cook observed ash eruptions in 1774. This style of activity may have continued for the past 800 years. Located at the SE tip of Tanna Island, this mostly unvegetated pyroclastic cone has a nearly circular, 400-m-wide summit crater. The active cone is largely contained within the small Yenkahe caldera, and is the youngest of a group of Holocene volcanic centers constructed over the down-dropped NE flank of the Pleistocene Tukosmeru volcano. The Yenkahe horst is located within the Siwi ring fracture, a 4-km-wide, horseshoe-shaped caldera associated with eruption of the andesitic Siwi pyroclastic sequence. Active tectonism along the Yenkahe horst accompanying eruptions has raised Port Resolution harbor more than 20 m during the past century.

Information Contacts: Geo-Hazards Division, Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD), Ministry of Climate Change Adaptation, Meteorology, Geo-Hazards, Energy, Environment and Disaster Management, Private Mail Bag 9054, Lini Highway, Port Vila, Vanuatu (URL: http://www.vmgd.gov.vu/, https://www.facebook.com/VanuatuGeohazardsObservatory/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); The Captain Cook Society (URL: https://www.captaincooksociety.com/home/detail/225-years-ago-july-september-1774); Royal Museums Greenwich (URL: https://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections/objects/13383.html); Wikimedia Commons, (URL: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Landing_at_Tana_one_of_the_New_Hebrides,_by_William_Hodges.jpg); Nick Page, Australia,Flickr: (URL: https://www.flickr.com/photos/152585166@N08/).


Bagana (Papua New Guinea) — June 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Bagana

Papua New Guinea

6.137°S, 155.196°E; summit elev. 1855 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Infrequent thermal anomalies, no ash emissions, February-May 2019

With historical eruptions reported back to 1842, Papua New Guinea's Bagana volcano on the island of Bougainville has been characterized by viscous andesitic lava flows down the steep flanks of its cone, along with intermittent ash plumes and pyroclastic flows. Ongoing thermal anomalies and frequent ash plumes have been typical of activity during the current eruption since it began in early 2000. Activity declined significantly in December 2018 and remained low through May 2019, the period covered in this report (figure 33). Information for this report comes primarily from satellite images and thermal data.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. The MIROVA plot of radiative power at Bagana from 1 September 2018 through May 2019 shows a marked decline in thermal activity during December 2018 after ash explosions and satellite observations of flows during the previous months. Courtesy of MIROVA.

The last ash emission at Bagana was reported on 1 December 2018 by the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). A Sentinel-2 satellite image showed a linear thermal anomaly trending NW from the summit on 14 December (BGVN 50:01). On 8 January 2019, an image contained a dense steam plume drifting E and a very faint thermal anomaly on the N flank a few hundred meters from the summit. A more distinct thermal anomaly at the summit appeared on 22 February 2019 (figure 34). A visitor to the region photographed incandescence on the flank, likely from the volcano, at dawn around 19 February 2019 (figure 35).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 34. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery revealed thermal anomalies at Bagana in January and February 2019. Left: a very faint thermal anomaly was N of the summit at the edge of the E-drifting steam plume on 8 January 2019. Right: A thermal anomaly was located at the summit, at the base of the NE-drifting steam plume on 22 February 2019. Sentinel-2 satellite images with "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 35. A visitor near Bagana spotted incandescence on the flank at dawn, possibly from a lava flow. Posted online 19 February 2019. Courtesy of Emily Stanford.

Two faint thermal anomalies were visible at the summit in satellite imagery on 19 March; a single one appeared on 29 March 2019 (figure 36). No thermal anomalies were recorded in Sentinel-2 images during April or May, but steam plumes and gas emissions were visible through cloud cover on multiple occasions (figure 37).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 36. Faint thermal anomalies at Bagana were recorded in satellite imagery twice during March 2019. Left: 19 March, two anomalies appear right of the date label. Right: 29 March, a small anomaly appears right of the date label. Sentinel-2 image rendered with "Atmospheric Penetration" (bands 12, 11, 8A). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 37. Steam and gas emissions at Bagana were recorded in satellite imagery during April and May 2019. Left: A steam plume drifted NW from the summit on 23 April, visible through dense cloud cover. Right: A gas plume drifted SW from the summit on 18 May. Sentinel-2 image with "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, 2). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Bagana volcano, occupying a remote portion of central Bougainville Island, is one of Melanesia's youngest and most active volcanoes. This massive symmetrical cone was largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire edifice could have been constructed in about 300 years at its present rate of lava production. Eruptive activity is frequent and characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50 m thick with prominent levees that descend the flanks on all sides.

Information Contacts: MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Emily Stanford (Twitter: https://twitter.com/NerdyBatLady, image posted at https://twitter.com/NerdyBatLady/status/1098052063009792001/photo/1).


Ambae (Vanuatu) — June 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Ambae

Vanuatu

15.389°S, 167.835°E; summit elev. 1496 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Declining thermal activity and no explosions during February-May 2019

Ambae (Aoba) is a large basaltic shield volcano in the New Hebrides arc, part of the multi-island country of Vanuatu. Its periodic phreatic and pyroclastic explosions originating in the summit crater lakes have been recorded since the 16th century. A pyroclastic cone appeared in Lake Voui during November 2005-February 2006 (BGVN 31:12, figure 30); an explosive eruption from a new pyroclastic cone in the lake began in mid-September 2017 (BGVN 43:02). Activity included high-altitude ash emissions (9.1 km), lava flows, and Strombolian activity. Intermittent pulses of ash emissions during the following months resulted in extensive ashfall and evacuations; multiple communities were affected by lahars. The most recent episode of the eruption from July to September 2018 (BGVN 44:02) resulted in 11-km-altitude ash plumes and the evacuation of the entire island due to heavy ashfall and lahars. This report covers activity from February to May 2019, with information provided by the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory of the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) and satellite data from multiple sources.

Activity diminished after the extensive eruptive phase of July-September 2018 when substantial ash plumes and ashfall resulted in evacuations. An explosion with an ash plume on 30 October 2018 was the last activity reported for 2018. Thermal alerts were reported by the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) MODVOLC thermal alerts system through January 2019, and the Log Radiative Power graph prepared by the MIROVA project showed decreasing thermal anomalies into June 2019 (figure 92). Satellite images recorded in April and May 2019 (figure 93) showed the configuration of the summit lakes to be little changed from the previous November except for the color (BGVN 44:02, figure 89). No ash emissions or SO2 plumes were reported during the period. VMGD noted that the volcano remained at Alert Level 2 through May 2019 with a 2-km-radius exclusion zone around the summit.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 92. The MIROVA log radiative power plot for Ambae showed ongoing intermittent thermal anomalies from early September 2018 through May 2019. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 93. Satellite imagery in April and May 2019 showed little change in the configuration of lakes at the summit of Ambae since November 2018 (see BGVN 44:02, figure 89). Left: 24 April 2019. Right: 29 May 2019. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery with "Natural Color" rendering (bands 4, 3, 2); courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The island of Ambae, also known as Aoba, is a massive 2500 km3 basaltic shield that is the most voluminous volcano of the New Hebrides archipelago. A pronounced NE-SW-trending rift zone dotted with scoria cones gives the 16 x 38 km island an elongated form. A broad pyroclastic cone containing three crater lakes (Manaro Ngoru, Voui, and Manaro Lakua) is located at the summit within the youngest of at least two nested calderas, the largest of which is 6 km in diameter. That large central edifice is also called Manaro Voui or Lombenben volcano. Post-caldera explosive eruptions formed the summit craters about 360 years ago. A tuff cone was constructed within Lake Voui (or Vui) about 60 years later. The latest known flank eruption, about 300 years ago, destroyed the population of the Nduindui area near the western coast.

Information Contacts: Geo-Hazards Division, Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD), Ministry of Climate Change Adaptation, Meteorology, Geo-Hazards, Energy, Environment and Disaster Management, Private Mail Bag 9054, Lini Highway, Port Vila, Vanuatu (URL: http://www.vmgd.gov.vu/, https://www.facebook.com/VanuatuGeohazardsObservatory/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Sangay (Ecuador) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Sangay

Ecuador

2.005°S, 78.341°W; summit elev. 5286 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosion on 26 March 2019; activity from 10 May through June produced ash plumes, lava flows, and pyroclastic flows

Sangay is the southernmost active volcano in Ecuador, with confirmed historical eruptions going back to 1628. The previous eruption occurred during August and December and was characterized by ash plumes reaching 2,500 m above the crater. Lava flows and pyroclastic flows descended the eastern and southern flanks. This report summarizes activity during January through July 2019 and is based on reports by Instituto Geofísico (IG-EPN), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and various satellite data.

After the December 2018 eruption there was a larger reduction in seismicity, down to one event per day. During January, February, and most of March there was no recorded activity and low seismicity until the Washington VAAC reported an ash plume at 0615 on 26 March. The ash plume rose to a height of around 1 km and dispersed to the SW as seen in GOES 16 satellite imagery as a dark plume within white meteorological clouds. There was no seismic data available due to technical problems with the station.

More persistent eruptive activity began on 10 May with thermal alerts (figure 30) and an ash plume at 0700 that dispersed to the W. An explosion was recorded at 1938 on 11 May, producing an ash plume and incandescent material down the flank (figure 31). Two M 2 earthquakes were detected between 3.5 and 9 km below the crater on 10 May, possibly corresponding to explosive activity. By 17 May there were two active eruptive centers, the central crater and the Ñuñurcu dome (figure 32).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 30. MIROVA log radiative power plot of MODIS thermal infrared at Sangay for the year ending June 2019. The plot shows the August to December 2018 eruption, a break in activity, and resumed activity in May 2019. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 31. An explosion at Sangay on 10 May 2019 sent ballistic projectiles up to 650 m above the crater at a velocity of over 400 km/hour, an ash plume that rose to over 600 m, and incandescent blocks that traveled over 1.5 km from the crater at velocities of around 150 km/hour. Screenshots are from video by IG-EPN.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 32. A photograph of the southern flank of Sangay on 17 May 2019 with the corresponding thermal infrared image in the top right corner. The letters correspond to: a) a fissure to the W of the lava flow; b) an active lava flow from the Ñuñurcu dome; c) the central crater producing a volcanic gas plume; d) a pyroclastic flow deposit produced by collapsing material from the front of the lava flow. Prepared by M. Almeida; courtesy of IG-EPN (special report No. 3 – 2019).

Activity at the central crater by 21 May was characterized by sporadic explosive eruptions that ejected hot ballistic ejecta (blocks) with velocities over 400 km/hour; after landing on the flanks the blocks travelled out to 2.5 km from the crater. Ash plumes reached heights between 0.9-2.3 km above the crater and dispersed mainly to the W and NW; gas plumes also dispersed to the W. The Ñuñurcu dome is located around 190 m SSE of the central crater and by 21 May had produced a lava flow over 470 m long with a maximum width of 175 m and an estimated minimum volume of 300,000 to 600,000 m3. Small pyroclastic flows and rockfalls resulted from collapse of the lava flow front, depositing material over a broad area on the E-SE flanks (figure 33). One pyroclastic flow reached 340 m and covered an area of 14,300 m2. During the 17 May observation flight the lava flow surface reached 277°C.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. A view of the ESE flanks of Sangay on 17 May 2019. The area within the black dotted line is the main area of pyroclastic flow deposition from the Ñuñurco Dome. Photo by M. Almeida; courtesy of IG-EPN (special report No. 4 – 2019).

At the end of June activity was continuing at the central crater and Ñuñurco Dome. At least three lava flows had been generated from the dome down the SE flank and pyroclastic flows continued to form from the flow fronts (figure 34). Pyroclastic material had been washed into the Upano river and steam was observed in the Volcán River possibly due to the presence of hot rocks. Ash plumes continued through June reaching heights of 800 m above the crater (figure 35), but no ashfall had been reported in nearby communities.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 34. Sentinel-2 natural color (left) and thermal (center) images (bands 12, 11, 4), and 1:50 000 scale maps (right) of Sangay with interpretation on the background of a 30 m numerical terrain model (WGS84; Zone 17S) (Prepared by B. Bernard). The dates from top to bottom are 17 May, 22 May, 27 May, 16 June, and 26 June 2019. Prepared by B. Bernard; courtesy IG-EPN (special report No. 4 – 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 35. Plots giving the heights and dispersal direction of ash plumes at Sangay during May and June 2019. Top: Ash plume heights measures in meters above the crater. Bottom: A plot showing that the dominant dispersal direction of ash plumes is to the W during this time. Courtesy of IG-EPN (special report No. 4 – 2019).

Geologic Background. The isolated Sangay volcano, located east of the Andean crest, is the southernmost of Ecuador's volcanoes and its most active. The steep-sided, glacier-covered, dominantly andesitic volcano grew within horseshoe-shaped calderas of two previous edifices, which were destroyed by collapse to the east, producing large debris avalanches that reached the Amazonian lowlands. The modern edifice dates back to at least 14,000 years ago. It towers above the tropical jungle on the east side; on the other sides flat plains of ash have been sculpted by heavy rains into steep-walled canyons up to 600 m deep. The earliest report of a historical eruption was in 1628. More or less continuous eruptions were reported from 1728 until 1916, and again from 1934 to the present. The almost constant activity has caused frequent changes to the morphology of the summit crater complex.

Information Contacts: Instituto Geofísico (IG-EPN), Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Casilla 17-01-2759, Quito, Ecuador (URL: http://www.igepn.edu.ec); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Kadovar (Papua New Guinea) — May 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Kadovar

Papua New Guinea

3.608°S, 144.588°E; summit elev. 365 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash emissions and thermal anomalies during October 2018-April 2019; lava emissions at the E flank coast and summit area

Steeply-sloped Kadovar Island is located about 25 km NNE from the mouth of the Sepik River on the mainland of Papua New Guinea. The first confirmed historical eruption with ash plumes and lava extrusion began in early January 2018, resulting in the evacuation of around 600 residents from the N side of the approximately 1.4-km-diameter island (BGVN 43:03); continuing activity from October 2018 through April 2019 is covered in this report. Information was provided by the Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), satellite sources, and photos from visiting tourists.

Activity during March-September 2018. After the first recorded explosions with ash plumes in early January 2018, intermittent ash plumes continued through March 2018. A lava flow on the E flank extended outward from the island, extruding from a vent low on the E flank and forming a dome just offshore. The dome collapsed and regrew twice during February 2018; the growth rate slowed somewhat during March. A satellite image from 21 March 2018 was one of the first showing the new dome growing off the E flank with a thermal anomaly and sediment plumes in the water drifting N and E from the area. Thermal anomalies were visible at both the summit vent and the E-flank coastal dome in in April and May 2018, along with steam and gas rising from both locations (figure 19).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery of Kadovar provided clear evidence of thermal activity at the new E-flank coastal dome during March-May 2018. Sediment plumes were visible drifting N and E in the water adjacent to the coastal dome. The summit crater also had a persistent steam plume and thermal anomaly in April and May 2018. Left: 21 March 2018. Middle 10 April 2018. Right: 15 May 2018. Images all shown with "Geology" rendering using bands 12, 4, and 2. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

A trip to Kadovar by tourists in mid-May 2018 provided close-up views of the dense steam plumes at the summit and the growing E-flank coastal dome (figures 20 and 21). The thermal anomaly was still strong at the E-flank coastal dome in a mid-June satellite image, but appeared diminished in late July. Intermittent puffs of steam rose from both the summit and the coastal dome in mid-June; the summit plume was much denser on 29 July (figure 22). Ash emissions were reported by the Darwin VAAC and photographed by tourists during June (figure 23) and September 2018 (BGVN 43:10), but thermal activity appeared to decline during that period (figure 24).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. A tourist photographed Kadovar and posted it online on 19 May 2018. Steam plumes rose from both the summit and the E-flank coastal dome in this view taken from the SE. Courtesy of Tico Liu.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. A closeup view of the E-flank coastal dome at Kadovar posted online on 19 May 2018 showed steam rising from several places on the dome, and dead trees on the flank of the volcano from recent eruptive activity. Courtesy of Tico Liu.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 22. The thermal anomaly was still strong at the E-flank coastal dome of Kadovar in a 14 June 2018 satellite image (left), but appeared diminished on 29 July 2018 (right). Intermittent puffs of steam rose from both the summit and the coastal dome on 14 June; the summit plume was much denser on 29 July. Sentinel-2 images both show "Geology" rendering using bands 12, 4, and 2. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 23. An ash plume rose from the summit of Kadovar and drifted W while steam and gas rose from the E-flank coastal dome, posted online 27 June 2018. Courtesy of Shari Kalt.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 24. Thermal activity at Kadovar for the year ending on 26 April 2019 was consistent from late April 2018 through mid-June 2018; a quiet period afterwards through late September ended with renewed and increased thermal activity beginning in October 2018. All distances are actually within 1 km of the summit of Kadovar, a DEM georeferencing error makes some locations appear further away. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Multiple satellite images during August and early September 2018 showed little or no sign of thermal activity at the E-flank coastal dome, with only intermittent steam plumes from the summit. A new steam plume on the eastern slope appeared in a 22 September 2018 image (figure 25). The Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) reported explosive activity on the afternoon of 21 September. Noises of explosions were accompanied by dark gray and brown ash clouds that rose several hundred meters above the summit crater and drifted NW. Local reports indicated that the activity continued through 26 September and ashfall was reported on Blupblup island during the period. Ground observers noted incandescence visible from both the summit and the E-flank coastal dome.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 25. Steam plumes were seen in satellite images of Kadovar during August and early September 2018, but no thermal anomalies. Intermittent steam plumes rose from the summit vent on 28 August (left). A new dense steam plume originating mid-way down the E flank appeared on 22 September 2018 (right). Sentinel-2 images both show "Geology" rendering using bands 12, 4, and 2. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Activity during October-December 2018. Evidence of both thermal and explosive activity reappeared in October 2018 (figure 24). The Darwin VAAC reported intermittent ash plumes rising to 2.7 km altitude and drifting W on 1 October 2018. Low-level continuous ash emissions rising less than a kilometer and drifting W were reported early on 3 October. A higher plume drifted WNW at 2.4 km altitude on 7 October. Intermittent discrete emissions of ash continued daily at that altitude through 16 October, drifting NW or W. Ash emissions drifting NW and thermal anomalies at the summit were visible in satellite imagery on 2 and 12 October (figure 26). A brief ash emission was reported on 21 October 2018 at 2.4 km altitude drifting NE for a few hours. Intermittent ash emissions also appeared on 29 October moving SE at 1.8 km altitude. For the following three days ash drifted SW, W, then NW at 2.1 km altitude, finally dissipating on 1 November; the thermal anomaly at the summit was large and intense in satellite images on 27 October and 1 November compared with previous images (figure 27).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 26. Ash emissions drifting NW and thermal anomalies at the summit of Kadovar were visible in satellite imagery on 2 and 12 October 2018; no thermal activity was noted at the E-flank coastal dome. Sentinel-2 images both show "Geology" rendering using bands 12, 4, and 2. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 27. Strong thermal anomalies at the summit of Kadovar on 27 October and 1 November 2018 were not concealed by the steam plumes drifting SW and NW from the summit. Sentinel-2 images both show "Geology" rendering using bands 12, 4, and 2. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

An ash explosion was photographed by tourists on a cruise ship on the afternoon of 6 November 2018 (figure 28). After the explosion, a dense steam plume rose from a large dome of lava near the summit at the top of the E flank (figure 29). Continuous ash emissions rising to 1.8 km altitude were reported by the Darwin VAAC beginning on 9 November 2018 moving WNW and lasting about 24 hours. A new ash plume clearly identifiable on satellite imagery appeared on 13 November at 2.4 km altitude moving E, again visible for about 24 hours. Another shipboard tourist photographed an ash plume on 18 November rising a few hundred meters above the summit (figure 30).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 28. An explosion at Kadovar photographed on the afternoon of 6 November 2018 sent a dense gray ash plume hundreds of meters above the summit drifting W; blocks of volcanic debris descended the flanks as well. View is from the S. Courtesy of Coral Expeditions, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 29. Tourists on a cruise ship passed by Kadovar on 6 November 2018 and witnessed a steam plume drifting W from a large dome of lava near the summit at the top of the E flank after an ash explosion. Smaller steam plumes were visible in the middle and at the base of the E flank, but no activity was visible at the coastal dome off the E flank (lower right). View is from the SE. Courtesy of Coral Expeditions, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 30. An ash plume rose at dusk from the summit of Kadovar and was witnessed by a cruise ship tourist on 18 November 2018. View is from the E; the E-flank coastal dome is a lighter area in the lower foreground. Courtesy of Philip Stern.

Low-level ash emissions were reported briefly on 28 November at about 1 km altitude moving SE. Intermittent puffs of ash were seen drifting WSW on 2 and 3 December at about 1.2 km altitude. They were the last VAAC reports for 2018. Two thermal anomalies were visible at the summit in satellite imagery on 26 November, they grew larger and more intense through 16 December when multiple anomalies appeared at the summit and on the E flank (figure 31).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 31. Multiple thermal anomalies near the summit of Kadovar grew larger and more intense between 26 November and 16 December 2018. Sentinel-2 images show "Geology" rendering using bands 12, 4, and 2. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Activity during January-April 2019. Multiple thermal anomalies were still visible at the summit in satellite imagery on 5 January 2019 as regular puffs of steam drifted SE from the summit, leaving a long trail in the atmosphere (figure 32). Additional imagery on 10 and 30 January showed a single anomaly at the summit, even through dense meteorologic clouds. A short-lived ash emission rose to 2.4 km altitude on 11 January 2019 and drifted E; it dissipated the next day. Multiple minor intermittent discrete ash plumes extended WNW at 3.0 km altitude on 18 January; they dissipated within six hours.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 32. Multiple thermal anomalies were visible in satellite imagery of Kadovar on 5 January 2019 as regular puffs of steam drifted SE from the summit. Sentinel-2 image shows "Geology" rendering using bands 12, 4, and 2. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The Royal New Zealand Air Force released images of eruptive activity on 10 February 2019 (figure 33). Satellite imagery in February was largely obscured by weather; two thermal anomalies were barely visible through clouds at the summit on 14 February. The Darwin VAAC reported an ash emission at 1.8 km altitude drifting ESE on 16 February; a similar plume appeared on 21 February that also dissipated in just a few hours.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. The Royal New Zealand Air Force released images of an ash plume at Kadovar on 10 February 2019. Courtesy of Brad Scott.

Satellite imagery on 1 March 2019 confirmed a strong thermal anomaly from the summit and down the E flank almost to the coast. A month later on 5 April the anomaly was nearly as strong and a dense ash and steam plume drifted N from the summit (figure 34). A tourist witnessed a dense steam plume rising from the summit on 4 April (figure 35). Multiple discrete eruptions were observed in satellite imagery by the Darwin VAAC on 9 April at 1.2-1.5 km altitude drifting SE. The thermal anomaly at the summit persisted in satellite imagery taken on 15 April 2019.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 34. A strong thermal anomaly appeared from the summit down the E flank of Kadovar on 1 March 2019 (left). A month later on 5 April the strong anomaly was still present beneath a dense plume of ash and steam (right). Sentinel-2 imagery shows "Geology" rendering with bands 12, 4, and 2. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 35. A dense steam plume is shown here rising from the summit area of Kadovar, posted online on 4 April 2019. View is from the N. Courtesy of Chaiyasit Saengsirirak.

Geologic Background. The 2-km-wide island of Kadovar is the emergent summit of a Bismarck Sea stratovolcano of Holocene age. Kadovar is part of the Schouten Islands, and lies off the coast of New Guinea, about 25 km N of the mouth of the Sepik River. The village of Gewai is perched on the crater rim. A 365-m-high lava dome forming the high point of the andesitic volcano fills an arcuate landslide scarp that is open to the south, and submarine debris-avalanche deposits occur in that direction. Thick lava flows with columnar jointing forms low cliffs along the coast. The youthful island lacks fringing or offshore reefs. No certain historical eruptions are known; the latest activity was a period of heightened thermal phenomena in 1976.

Information Contacts: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Geohazards Management Division, Department of Mineral Policy and Geohazards Management (DMPGM), PO Box 3386, Kokopo, East New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea; Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Tico Liu, Hong Kong (Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/tico.liu. https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10155389178192793&set=pcb.10155389178372793&type=3&theater); Shari Kalt (Instagram user LuxuryTravelAdvisor: https://www.instagram.com/luxurytraveladviser/, https://www.instagram.com/p/BkhalnuHu2j/); Coral Expeditions, Australia (URL: https://www.coralexpeditions.com/, Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/coralexpeditions); Philip Stern (Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/sternph, https://www.facebook.com/sternph/posts/2167501866616908); Brad Scott, GNS Science Volcanologist at GNS Science, New Zealand (Twitter: https://twitter.com/Eruptn); Chaiyasit Saengsirirak, Bangkok, Thailand (Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/chaiyasit.saengsirirak, https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=2197513186969355).


Sarychev Peak (Russia) — June 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Sarychev Peak

Russia

48.092°N, 153.2°E; summit elev. 1496 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Brief ash emission reported on 16 May 2019

Located on Matua Island in the central Kurile Islands of Russia, Sarychev Peak has historical observations of eruptions dating back to 1765. Thermal activity in October 2017 (BGVN 43:11) was the first sign of renewed activity since a major eruption with ash plumes and pyroclastic flows in June 2009 (BGVN 34:06). The following month (November 2017) there was fresh dark material on the NW flank that appeared to be from a flow of some kind. After that, intermittent thermal anomalies were the only activity reported until explosions with ash plumes took place that lasted for about a week in mid-September 2018 (figure 24). Additional explosions in mid-October were the last reported for 2018. A single ash explosion in May 2019 was the only reported activity from November 2018 to May 2019, the period covered in this report. Information is provided by the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT) and the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), members of the Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (FEB RAS), and from satellite data.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 24. Multiple ash plumes were observed at Sarychev Peak during September 2018. Left: 13 September. Right: 18 September. Photos by S. A. Tatarenkov, courtesy of IMGG FEB RAS.

Satellite imagery in mid-September and early October 2018 showed gas emissions from the summit vent, and a weak thermal anomaly in October (figure 25). KVERT lowered the Aviation Color Code from Orange to Yellow on 1 November 2018, and SVERT released a VONA on 12 November 2018 lowering the Aviation Color Code from Yellow to Green after the ash emissions in October.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 25. Minor gas emissions were visible at Sarychev Peak in satellite imagery in mid-September and early October 2018; a possible weak thermal anomaly appeared in the summit vent in October. Top left: 13 September. Top right: 18 September. Bottom left: 8 October. Bottom right: 11 October. The 13 September image uses "Natural Color" rendering (bands 4, 3, 2) and the other images use "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, 2). Sentinel-2 satellite imagery courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Sentinel-2 satellite instruments in March, April, and May 2019 acquired images that showed dark streaks in the snow-covered peak radiating out from the summit vent in various directions. As the spring snows melted, more dark streaks appeared. It is unclear whether the streaks represent fresh ash, particulates from gas emissions in the snow, or concentrated material from earlier emissions that were exposed during the spring melting (figure 26). No further activity was reported until the Tokyo VAAC noted an eruption on 16 May 2019 that produced an ash plume which rose to 2.4 km altitude and drifted S. It was visible in satellite imagery for 3 or 4 hours before dissipating. SVERT reported the ash plume visible up to 50 km SE of the island. They also noted that weak thermal anomalies had been seen in satellite data on 10, 12, and 17 May 2019.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 26. Streaks of brown radiate outward from the summit vent at Sarychev Peak in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery taken during March-May 2019. The exact material and timing of deposition is unknown. Top left: 17 March. Top middle: 14 April. Top right: 19 April. Bottom left: 29 April, Bottom middle: 6 May. Bottom right: 26 May 2019. Sentinel-2 images with "Natural Color" rendering using bands 4,3, and 2. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Sarychev Peak, one of the most active volcanoes of the Kuril Islands, occupies the NW end of Matua Island in the central Kuriles. The andesitic central cone was constructed within a 3-3.5-km-wide caldera, whose rim is exposed only on the SW side. A dramatic 250-m-wide, very steep-walled crater with a jagged rim caps the volcano. The substantially higher SE rim forms the 1496 m high point of the island. Fresh-looking lava flows, prior to activity in 2009, had descended in all directions, often forming capes along the coast. Much of the lower-angle outer flanks of the volcano are overlain by pyroclastic-flow deposits. Eruptions have been recorded since the 1760s and include both quiet lava effusion and violent explosions. Large eruptions in 1946 and 2009 produced pyroclastic flows that reached the sea.

Information Contacts: Institute of Marine Geology and Geophysics, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, (FEB RAS IMGG), 693 022 Russia, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, ul. Science 1B (URL: http://imgg.ru/ru); Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT), Institute of Marine Geology and Geophysics, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Science, Nauki st., 1B, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Russia, 693022 (URL: http://www.imgg.ru/en/, http://www.imgg.ru/ru/svert/reports); Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Nyiragongo (DR Congo) — May 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Nyiragongo

DR Congo

1.52°S, 29.25°E; summit elev. 3470 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava lake remains active through May 2019; three new vents around the secondary cone

Since at least 1971 scientists and tourists have observed a lava lake within the Nyiragongo summit crater. Lava flows have been a hazard in the past for the nearby city of Goma (15 km S). The previous report (BGVN 43:06) of activity between November 2017 and May 2018 described nearly daily record of thermal anomalies due to the active lava lake and lava fountaining, gas-and-steam plumes, and the opening of a new vent within the crater in February 2016. Monthly reports from the Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) disseminate information regarding the volcano's activity. This report updates the activity during June 2018-May 2019.

OVG noted that the level of the lava lake changes frequently, and was lower when observed on October 2018, 12 April 2019, and 12 May 2019. According to data from the OVG, on 15 April 2019 the secondary cone that formed in February 2016 produced lava flows and ejecta. In addition, at least three other vents formed surrounding this secondary cone. During most of April 2019 the lava lake was still active; however, beginning on 12 April 2019, seismic and lava lake activity both declined.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data continues to show almost daily, strong thermal anomalies every month from June 2018 through 24 May 2019 (figure 66). Similarly, the MODVOLC algorithm reports a majority of the hotspot pixels (2,406) occurring within the lava lake at the summit crater (figure 67).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 66. Thermal anomalies at Nyiragongo for June 2018 through 24 May 2019 as recorded by the MIROVA system (Log Radiative Power) were frequent and strong. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 67. Map showing the number of MODVOLC hotspot pixels at Nyiragongo from 1 June 2018 to 31 May 2019. Nyiragongo (2,423 pixels) is at the bottom center; Nyamuragira volcano (342 pixels) is about 13 km NW. Courtesy of HIGP-MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System.

Geologic Background. One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained a lava lake in its deep summit crater that was active for half a century before draining catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. The steep slopes of a stratovolcano contrast to the low profile of its neighboring shield volcano, Nyamuragira. Benches in the steep-walled, 1.2-km-wide summit crater mark levels of former lava lakes, which have been observed since the late-19th century. Two older stratovolcanoes, Baruta and Shaheru, are partially overlapped by Nyiragongo on the north and south. About 100 parasitic cones are located primarily along radial fissures south of Shaheru, east of the summit, and along a NE-SW zone extending as far as Lake Kivu. Many cones are buried by voluminous lava flows that extend long distances down the flanks, which is characterized by the eruption of foiditic rocks. The extremely fluid 1977 lava flows caused many fatalities, as did lava flows that inundated portions of the major city of Goma in January 2002.

Information Contacts: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), Goma, North Kivu, DR Congo (URL: https://www.facebook.com/Observatoire-Volcanologique-de-Goma-OVG-180016145663568/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).

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Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin - Volume 14, Number 10 (October 1989)

Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland

Aira (Japan)

Explosions increase

Ambrym (Vanuatu)

Lava lakes in two craters; changes since 1943 described

Arenal (Costa Rica)

Volcanic seismicity and recorded explosions increase

Asosan (Japan)

More explosions; stronger tremor; new vent

Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989) (Unknown)

New aerosols seen August/September no longer evident

Bagana (Papua New Guinea)

Frequent rockfalls; weak explosions; glow

Etna (Italy)

Details of September-October eruption

Galeras (Colombia)

Seismic activity remains strong; high SO2

Kanlaon (Philippines)

Mild ash ejections to 1,200 m

Kilauea (United States)

Lava flows into sea at three sites; breakouts from lava tubes

Langila (Papua New Guinea)

Vulcanian explosion; ash to coast; night glow

Manam (Papua New Guinea)

Intermittent vapor release; decreasing seismicity

Poas (Costa Rica)

Continued thermal activity from crater lake; sulfur flows

Rabaul (Papua New Guinea)

Seismicity increases slightly; no new deformation

Ruiz, Nevado del (Colombia)

Seismic energy release declines

St. Helens (United States)

Earthquakes in magma conduit

Stromboli (Italy)

Frequent incandescent tephra ejection similar to 1988

Supply Reef (United States)

Twenty-one hours of volcanic seismicity

Taal (Philippines)

Increased seismicity; main crater inflation

Ulawun (Papua New Guinea)

Weak-moderate vapor emission

Vulcano (Italy)

Fumaroles deposit sulfur

White Island (New Zealand)

Tephra ejections; possible new vent



Aira (Japan) — October 1989 Citation iconCite this Report

Aira

Japan

31.593°N, 130.657°E; summit elev. 1117 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosions increase

Ten explosions were recorded in October, raising the 1989 total to 21. The activity caused no damage. Maximum plume height was 2,200 m above the crater, on 14 October. The month's ash accumulation at KLMO . . . was 111 g/m2.

Geologic Background. The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.

Information Contacts: JMA.


Ambrym (Vanuatu) — October 1989 Citation iconCite this Report

Ambrym

Vanuatu

16.25°S, 168.12°E; summit elev. 1334 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava lakes in two craters; changes since 1943 described

"After our previous report of the April-May 1989 eruption (14:04), activity apparently declined in early May to the normal level in the cone complex near Marum (figure 1). The previous report of a possible extra-caldera flow turned out to be erroneous, with the 1989 lava flows staying strictly confined inside the caldera. However, a pilot indicated that on 25 May a white plume was rising to 6,000 m, associated with an ash cloud that rose to 3,000 m, showing that the volcano remained active.

"There was no further report until two of us visited the volcano 26-30 September, gathering complementary information about the recent eruptions and the present level of activity (Monzier and Douglas, 1989). The 1988 and 1989 lava flows originated from an area on the S flank of Marum formed by one crater and two cones, one of which was already visible during a 1943 photographic survey. The flows are basaltic aa, 1-3 m thick, highly vesicular and aphyric in 1988, and slightly vesicular and plagioclase sub-aphyric in 1989. The lava contours have been mapped; one of the 1989 flows partially covered a 1988 flow, while the other (E) one rejoined the 1988 flow in the SE sector and extended farther E, but stayed inside the caldera. Observation of the main craters was limited by poor weather. The Benbow pit was occupied by a gently bubbling lava lake, evident at night by a red glow visible from Sesivi, on the S coast of Ambrym. Marum was slightly degassing. The Mbuelesu pit was also occupied by a strongly bubbling lava lake but no large explosions were observed. The crater just S of Mbuelesu was in a fumarolic stage, as were the craters from which the recent flows originated.

"The series of photographic surveys done periodically between 1943 and 1989 allows us to compare the evolution of the morphology of the craters (figure 2). Benbow, source of the major historic eruptions (figure 3), does not show any major morphological changes. In contrast, the morphology of Marum and adjacent cones changed substantially during this period. In 1943, Marum and its eastern neighbor Mbuelesu were both clogged with detrital material. Note that the small '892' cone, from which the recent flows originated, already existed in 1943. In 1953, Marum resumed its activity (Eissen, Blot, and Louat, 1991). On the 1954 photos, one new crater ('1953') underlain by fumaroles had formed across the edges of Marum and Mbuelesu Craters. Two smaller cones were also visible S of the 1953 crater. On the 1972 photos we can note: 1) the opening of a gently smoking pit in the center of Marum Crater; 2) the enlargement and division of 1953 crater, inactive at this time; 3) the formation of a new active crater S of 1953 crater, at the site of the two small cones visible in 1954. In 1986, the central pit of Marum and the W part of the 1972 double crater had merged and were slightly smoking. The E part of the 1972 double crater had enlarged at Mbuelesu and was strongly active and smoking. The 1989 situation is described above.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Morphological evolution of the main intra-caldera craters of Ambrym from aeriel photographic surveys done in 1943 (US Air Force), 1954 (Institut Géographique National), 4 August 1972 (Royal Air Force), and 22 September 1986 (Royal Australian Air Force), and from ground observations 27-28 September 1989 (Monzier and Douglas, 1989). Symbols: 1 = volcanic cone with detrital filling (dots); 2 = lava flow; 3 = plume (white or gray); 4 = fumaroles.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Tentative chronology of historical eruptions of Ambrym (Eissen and others, 1991). The 1774 report of activity is from Captain Cook. The 1850-1950 period is based on miscellaneous reports, mainly about extra-caldera eruptions, the only ones that are a significant threat to the local population. 1950-80 observations were by the New Hebrides Geological Survey, before Vanuatu's independence on 1 August 1980. Levels of activity: 1 = low, without precise details; 2 = high, with heavy ashfalls and/or lava lake; 3 = eruption with intra-caldera flow(s); 4 = eruption with lateral extra-caldera flows.

"Thus, whereas Benbow has remained almost unchanged morphologically during the last 46 years, Marum and its adjacent craters strongly evolved during the same period, and recent activity seems concentrated in this area, restricted to the caldera. Although testimony is fragmental since 1980, strong activity seems to have resumed, the presence of two lava lakes indicating that the magma column is presently very high. Ambrym has had at least seven eruptions accompanied by extra-caldera lava flows, sometimes with resulting destruction and casualties. Part of the population has been evacuated several times (in 1913-15, 1929, and 1951) on adjacent islands. Careful study, observation, and eventually monitoring of this volcano should be encouraged to help prevent further destruction due to extra-caldera lava flow(s) that could reasonably be expected within the next few years."

References. Eissen, J.P., Blot, C., and Louat, R., 1991, Chronology of the historic volcanic activity of the New Hebrides Island Arc from 1595 to 1991: ORSTOM Rapports Scientifiques et Technique, Sciences de la Terre, Géologie-Géophysique, no. 2, 69 p.

Monzier, M., and Douglas, C., 1989, Rapport de Mission à Ambrym (Vanuatu) du 26 au 30 Septembre 1989: Rapport de Mission Géologie-Géophysique no. 10, Document ORSTOM Nouméa, 30 p.

New Hebrides Geological Survey, 1976, Geology of Pentecost and Ambrym: 1:100,000, Sheet 6.

Quantin, P., 1978, Archipel des Nouvelles Hébrides; Atlas des Sols et de Quelques Donées du Milieu: Cartes Pédologíques (01:50,000-1:100,000), des Formes du Relief, Géologiques et de la Végétation (01:100,000-1:250,000), 18 feuilles et 11 notices; ed. ORSTOM.

Geologic Background. Ambrym, a large basaltic volcano with a 12-km-wide caldera, is one of the most active volcanoes of the New Hebrides arc. A thick, almost exclusively pyroclastic sequence, initially dacitic, then basaltic, overlies lava flows of a pre-caldera shield volcano. The caldera was formed during a major plinian eruption with dacitic pyroclastic flows about 1900 years ago. Post-caldera eruptions, primarily from Marum and Benbow cones, have partially filled the caldera floor and produced lava flows that ponded on the caldera floor or overflowed through gaps in the caldera rim. Post-caldera eruptions have also formed a series of scoria cones and maars along a fissure system oriented ENE-WSW. Eruptions have apparently occurred almost yearly during historical time from cones within the caldera or from flank vents. However, from 1850 to 1950, reporting was mostly limited to extra-caldera eruptions that would have affected local populations.

Information Contacts: J. Eissen, M. Lardy, and M. Monzier, ORSTOM, New Caledonia; C. Douglas and L. Mollard, ORSTOM, Vanuatu.


Arenal (Costa Rica) — October 1989 Citation iconCite this Report

Arenal

Costa Rica

10.463°N, 84.703°W; summit elev. 1670 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Volcanic seismicity and recorded explosions increase

At the end of September, seismic instruments at Arenal recorded a significant increase in the number of volcanic events and tremor episodes. Volcanic seismicity remained at an increased level during October, with a mean of 45 and a maximum of 64 volcanic events daily . . . . Recorded explosions also increased significantly, but in general were of moderate to intermediate magnitude.

Geologic Background. Conical Volcán Arenal is the youngest stratovolcano in Costa Rica and one of its most active. The 1670-m-high andesitic volcano towers above the eastern shores of Lake Arenal, which has been enlarged by a hydroelectric project. Arenal lies along a volcanic chain that has migrated to the NW from the late-Pleistocene Los Perdidos lava domes through the Pleistocene-to-Holocene Chato volcano, which contains a 500-m-wide, lake-filled summit crater. The earliest known eruptions of Arenal took place about 7000 years ago, and it was active concurrently with Cerro Chato until the activity of Chato ended about 3500 years ago. Growth of Arenal has been characterized by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. An eruptive period that began with a major explosive eruption in 1968 ended in December 2010; continuous explosive activity accompanied by slow lava effusion and the occasional emission of pyroclastic flows characterized the eruption from vents at the summit and on the upper western flank.

Information Contacts: R. Barquero, ICE.


Asosan (Japan) — October 1989 Citation iconCite this Report

Asosan

Japan

32.884°N, 131.104°E; summit elev. 1592 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


More explosions; stronger tremor; new vent

Recorded explosions became more frequent in mid-October, occurring almost every day during the second half of the month (see table 4), for a total of 29 since 16 July. Minor ash emission occurred on most days in October, causing ashfalls around the crater. Ash reached AWS during favorable wind conditions, and by 21 October had accumulated to 3 cm depth (11,409 g/m2). On 27 October, 8437 g/m2 of ash was deposited at AWS, and slight ashfall was observed at Kumamoto Local Meteorological Observatory, ~35 km SW of Aso. The heavy ashfalls damaged agricultural products. A zone within 1 km of the crater remained closed to tourists by the Aso Disaster Authority.

Block ejection, to 10 m height, from Vent 891 was first seen during a 6 October field survey. During 9 October fieldwork, a new vent (named 892) about 1-2 m in diameter was observed about 10 m N of Vent 891, intermittently ejecting fist-sized blocks to 20 m height. Ash emission continued from 891 vent, but no blocks were ejected. The next day, Vent 892 had grown to ~5 m in diameter. By 21 October, the new vent had enlarged further to 25 m across, coalescing with 891 the following day.

Flames from burning gases rising several tens of meters from the vent were often seen at night. Strong rumbling was sometimes audible at AWS, and rumbling was heard 10 km to the ESE (at Takamori) during the 28 October eruptive episode.

The number of isolated tremor episodes increased toward the end of October (figure 15). The amplitude of continuous tremor, recorded by a seismograph 0.8 km W of Crater 1, grew particularly large from mid-October, reaching a maximum of 12.8 µm on the 21st.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. Daily maximum and average amplitudes of volcanic tremor episodes, 1 February-10 November 1989. Courtesy of JMA.

Geologic Background. The 24-km-wide Asosan caldera was formed during four major explosive eruptions from 300,000 to 90,000 years ago. These produced voluminous pyroclastic flows that covered much of Kyushu. The last of these, the Aso-4 eruption, produced more than 600 km3 of airfall tephra and pyroclastic-flow deposits. A group of 17 central cones was constructed in the middle of the caldera, one of which, Nakadake, is one of Japan's most active volcanoes. It was the location of Japan's first documented historical eruption in 553 CE. The Nakadake complex has remained active throughout the Holocene. Several other cones have been active during the Holocene, including the Kometsuka scoria cone as recently as about 210 CE. Historical eruptions have largely consisted of basaltic to basaltic-andesite ash emission with periodic strombolian and phreatomagmatic activity. The summit crater of Nakadake is accessible by toll road and cable car, and is one of Kyushu's most popular tourist destinations.

Information Contacts: JMA.


Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989) (Unknown) — October 1989 Citation iconCite this Report

Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989)

Unknown

Unknown, Unknown; summit elev. m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


New aerosols seen August/September no longer evident

The new stratospheric aerosols, perhaps from the 19 July explosion of Santiaguito, Guatemala, were no longer evident when observations from Hawaii resumed on 20 October (after a period of cloudy weather), nor in subsequent early November data (figure 71). Lidar measurements from Hampton, VA have not revealed any new aerosol material.

Figure with caption Figure 71. Lidar data from various locations, showing altitudes of aerosol layers during October-November 1989. Backscattering ratios are all for the ruby wavelength of 0.69 µm. Only bases of layers at Mauna Loa are shown. Integrated values show total backscatter, expressed in steradians-1, integrated over 300-m intervals from 16-33 km at Mauna Loa and from the tropopause to 30 km at Hampton.

Enhanced twilight glows over Millville, New Jersey (39.4°N, 74.9°W) 3-5 October were described as only fairly strong, but the most impressive of the past several years.

Geologic Background. The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found here.

Information Contacts: Thomas DeFoor, Mauna Loa Observatory, P.O. Box 275, Hilo, HI 96720 USA; Mary Osborn, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23665 USA; Fred Schaaf, RD 2, Box 248, Millville, New Jersey 08332 USA.


Bagana (Papua New Guinea) — October 1989 Citation iconCite this Report

Bagana

Papua New Guinea

6.137°S, 155.196°E; summit elev. 1855 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Frequent rockfalls; weak explosions; glow

"Activity was at a relatively low level during October. The summit steadily released thick white vapour of moderate volume, with occasional grey clouds associated with reported weak explosions. Weak glow was occasionally seen at night over the summit, and rockfalls continued on the flanks. Seismicity was dominated by rockfall events (6-70/day), but occasional B-type events (0-8/day) were also recorded."

Geologic Background. Bagana volcano, occupying a remote portion of central Bougainville Island, is one of Melanesia's youngest and most active volcanoes. This massive symmetrical cone was largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire edifice could have been constructed in about 300 years at its present rate of lava production. Eruptive activity is frequent and characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50 m thick with prominent levees that descend the flanks on all sides.

Information Contacts: C. McKee, RVO.


Etna (Italy) — October 1989 Citation iconCite this Report

Etna

Italy

37.748°N, 14.999°E; summit elev. 3295 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Details of September-October eruption

The following report (quoted sections technically edited by F. Barberi, A. Bertagnini, P. Landi, and R. Rapuzzi) summarizes studies of Etna's recent activity.

Eruption chronology. "The vigorous Strombolian activity at three summit area craters (Bocca Nuova, La Voragine, and Southeast Crater) observed during May, June, and July (14:07) declined during the first 20 days of August, then progressively resumed in the last 10 days of the month. On 29 and 31 August, after some days of Strombolian activity, La Voragine emitted a 700-m-high tephra column with fallout of lapilli and ash that affected the SE flank to the coast, 19 km from the crater.

"In the first days of September, Strombolian activity also increased at Bocca Nuova and in the morning of 10 September an explosive eruption, identical to those of 29 and 31 August, occurred again at La Voragine. Beginning in the early hours of 11 September, Strombolian activity also resumed at Southeast Crater, then progressively evolved into lava fountaining. Lava spilled over the rim of Southeast Crater, forming two fluid, fast-moving flows that traveled ~2 km SE. Explosive activity and lava spillover then suddenly ceased, indicating lowering of the magma column in the conduit. On the evening of the same day, and 12 more times until 27 September (figure 29), new episodes of vigorous Strombolian activity, evolving into lava fountaining with effusion, were observed at Southeast Crater, each suddenly ceasing and giving rise to slow degassing followed by the resumption of less vigorous Strombolian activity. Lava flows emitted during these 14 effusive episodes were confined to the upper S and SE flank area (Torre del Filosofo-Cisternazza) and descended 2.5-3 km S and SE (figure 30)."

Figure (see Caption) Figure 29. Schematic chronology of Etna's September-October 1989 eruption. Periods of eruptive activity on the NE and SE fractures are indicated by x's.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 30. Topographic sketch map of Etna's summit and upper flanks, showing timing of fracture propagation 25 September-3 October (dashed lines). Thin arrows show paths traveled by 11-27 September lava flows from Southeast Crater and from vents at 2,900 and 2,850 m elevations on the SE and NE fractures respectively. Thick arrows show advance of the lava flows down the Valle del Bove (stippled) through 6 October. Contour interval, 200 m.

During fieldwork on the 23rd, geologists observed that the area between Southeast Crater and the TDF was covered by fresh aa, in a flow field that had advanced around the TDF and continued southward. The most distal lobes stopped moving on 22 September.

"Near the end of the lava fountaining phase, in at least six cases (13, 19, 22, 23, 25, and 26 September) a sustained tephra column was formed, with consequent lapilli and ash fallout over the E and SE flank to the coast. On [24] September, two fracture systems, trending [N40°E] and N140°E, opened on the flanks of the newly formed Southeast Crater cone, down to elevations of 2,800 and 2,900 m respectively. An appreciable quantity of lava spilled either over the Southeast Crater rim or from the two newly formed fractures on 25 September and in the following two days. In the morning of 25 September a lava flow from the NE fracture descended 3 km in the Valle del Bove, to 1,900 m (M. Simone area, figure 30). The last episode of lava fountaining and effusion at Southeast Crater occurred the morning of 27 September. Since that afternoon the crater has been characterized by Strombolian activity and ash emission."

On the evening of 27 September, the focus of activity shifted to the NE fracture system. "At about 2200 a small fast-moving flow was emitted from the terminus of the NE fracture, and descended 2 km in the Valle del Bove. The Strombolian activity of Southeast Crater then [temporarily] ceased, and between 2300 and 2330 a series of eruptive vents opened at 2,550 m elevation in the Valle del Leone (upper part of the Valle del Bove), preceded and accompanied by a vigorous seismic swarm. These vents were aligned along a N50°E fracture, on the extension of the fracture cutting the NE flank of the SE cone (figure 30). Lava poured from 3-4 vents, where degassing was minor with ejection of lava fragments to only a few meters height. The various lava tongues converged a short distance from the fracture into a main channel, 10 m wide, where lava advanced rapidly. At dawn on 28 September the flow had descended 5 km in the Valle del Bove, reaching Rocca Musarra at ~ 1,650 m elevation.

"That morning, the SSE fracture (extending N140°E from Southeast Crater) was also seen to have progressed downslope. This newly formed part of the fracture system affected a 100-m-wide sector, extending down 2.5 km (to Cisternazza) and to the upper (W) part of the Valle del Bove. Fracture propagation continued on 29 and 30 September, when the S scarp of the Valle del Bove was affected. On 1 October the fracture, accompanied by marked collapses along the fissure system, crossed the Valle del Bove scarp and propagated farther downslope, following the feeding fissure of the 1792 flank eruption. At 1200 on 2 October the fracture cut route SP92 connecting Zafferana to Rifugio Sapienza. The seismic activity that accompanied the entire fracturing process peaked at that time, with ~40 shocks/hour (figure 31). In the following hours, seismic activity rapidly declined and fracture propagation stopped at ~ 1,500 m elevation, 8 km from Southeast Crater. In the following three days only widening of single fissures was observed, with development of consistent compressive structures (uplift folding, reverse faulting) on both sides of the main extensional (open) fissure."

Figure (see Caption) Figure 31. Daily number of seismic events recorded by station ESP, 1 January-5 October, 1989.

During fieldwork the night of 1 October (by C. Oppenheimer, M. Pompilio, M. Coltelli, and V. Scribano) the flow near the NE fracture's main vent was ~ 8 m wide, and its center was moving at faster than a walking pace. Blocks of lava tossed onto the flow welded instantly but did not sink. A maximum lava surface brightness temperature of 1,039°C was measured by a 0.8-1.1 mm bandpass infrared thermometer (recording for 10 minutes, 3 m from the flow top).

Guy Kieffer notes that the axes of the two fracture systems that opened during the eruption had both been frequently active during the eruptive cycle that began in 1971: the NE axis in 1971, 1978, 1979, and 1986-87; and the SSE axis in 1971, 1978, 1979, 1983, and 1985 (along a southward extension). The NE axis had also been active during the 1811, 1865, and 1928 eruptions, and the SSE axis in 1792, 1908, and 1910. As in the present eruption, fissures had opened from the SSE base of the central cone in 1874, 1911, and 1923 without producing any lava, while lava was emitted from N flank fissures. The 1989 eruption's SSE fracture had opened ~ 45 cm and had a right-lateral displacement of ~ 15 cm (on 7 October) where it crossed route SP92. Kieffer suggested that the SSE fracture was the result of an offset caused by intrusion below Southeast Crater, added to several years of accrued stresses as part of the E flank is forced eastward.

"Lava outpouring from the Valle del Leone fissure continued until 2 October without significant variation in the effusion rate. From 3 October, oscillations, but with a slow progressive decrease, were observed in the rate of lava effusion. During temporary phases of effusion rate increase, eruptive vents were reactivated at higher elevation on the NE effusive fracture. New hornitos were formed, 50 m above those at the 1,550-m vents, accompanied by a series of lava overflows. The effusion rate decreased further on 6 October and lava emission stopped during the night of 8-9 October.

"During the same period, explosive activity continued at Southeast Crater. After the late morning of 28 September ash-laden clouds were emitted from the crater, which also showed Strombolian activity of variable intensity." When observed by C. Oppenheimer on 29 September, discrete eruptions of ash and blocks about every 30 seconds were superimposed on continuous ash emission. Ballistic trajectories of incandescent bombs that rose >400 m above the crater were visible at night.

"Tephra were dispersed eastward by the wind, causing ash showers on Catania and eastern villages, especially on 3 and 4 October. Limited episodes of lava fountaining last occurred during the night of 3-4 October. Strombolian activity stopped during the night of 6 October, whereas discontinuous weak ash emission continued until 9 October. Southeast Crater appeared almost totally obstructed on 11 October. Ash emission and vigorous degassing continued, since 9 October, only at Bocca Nuova.

Lava flows. "Etna's 27 September-9 October flank eruption produced an aa flow field in the Valle del Leone-Valle del Bove ~ 6.5 km long and 5-10 m thick, with a volume of 10-20 x 106 m3. The flows descended from ~2,550 to 1,100 m elevation. The average effusion rate is estimated at 10-20 m3/second, with peak daily average values during the first 4 days of eruption (until 2 October) of between 15 and 25 m3/second. Combinations of the overall emplacement characteristics (e.g. length-average effusion rate, length-volume, width/length-duration) of the flow fields lie within ranges typical for Etna's historic lavas. Velocity and dimension measurements of active overflows at the feeding vent (Valle del Leone, ~ 2,550 m asl) on 2 and 4 October suggest apparent viscosities for the initial lava of the order of 10,000 Pas, for bulk shear rates between 0.01 and 0.1/s. Thermocouple data yielded a surface temperature of 800°C on the overflow (after it had advanced ~ 50-75 m) on 2 October. Preliminary analysis of infrared data obtained on the ground on 5 October suggests a similar temperature for incandescent cracks in an active flow front ~ 6 km from the vent.

Petrology. "The lavas are porphyritic (P.I. = 30-40) alkali basalts with phenocrysts of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and olivine, and microphenocrysts of Ti-magnetite. There are only minor differences, in size and relative abundance of phenocrysts, between the Southeast Crater flows and the Valle del Leone lavas. Two representative chemical analyses are shown in table 4. The 1989 lavas are slightly more mafic and magnesian than those of either the last Etna eruptions (1986-87 average) or Southeast Crater in 1988.

Table 4. Chemistry of 1989 lavas from Etna's Southeast Crater (11 September) and the Valle del Leone 93 October). Analyses by X-ray Flourescence at the Dipt. di Scienze della Terra, Univ. di Pisa, except Na2O and MgO (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer) and FeO (titration) at IIV.

Oxide Southeast Crater Valle del Leone
SiO2 47.46 46.70
TiO2 1.78 1.78
Al2O3 18.11 17.36
Fe2O3 2.83 4.30
FeO 7.32 7.41
MnO 0.19 0.20
MgO 5.57 5.84
CaO 10.39 10.25
Na2O 3.45 3.51
K2O 1.99 1.81
P2O5 0.44 0.41
LOI 0.48 0.44

Civil Protection aspects. "The lava flow emitted from the SE fractures in the Valle del Leone did not present any serious civil protection problem. Flow fronts advanced very slowly at elevations lower than 1,200 m. The flow was confined within the totally uninhabited Valle del Bove and never threatened villages or lifelines. However, the propagation of the SE fracture system from Southeast Crater downslope caused serious concern. Because of strong seismic activity and marked uplift on that sector of the volcano, route SP92 was closed to traffic 24 hours before it was cut by the fracture. The terminus of the fracture was located in a zone that had been affected by flank eruptions in the past (e.g. in 1792). It was at low elevation (~ 1,500 m) and only 5-6 km from villages (Malpasso, Fleri), a distance that could be traveled by a fluid lava flow in a dangerously short time, considering that magma was at the surface in Southeast Crater vent (3,000 m elevation) and hence there was a very high potential load (1,500 m of lava column) on the fracture apex.

"The more probable paths of lava flow in case of effusion from a vent at 1,500 m elevation were estimated on a morphological basis. People living on the potential lava trajectories were alerted to the potential risk and a plan was established for their prompt evacuation.

"Scientific monitoring at the fracture terminus was expanded and reinforced with a mobile seismic network, precision levelling, microgravimetry, geodimeter lines, and soil gas geochemistry. I gas;sampling Visual observation points (24 hours/day) were established near the fracture apex and along the expected flow path, radio linked with the army units responsible for the emergency plans.

"The alert system was maintained until 16 October. Then, with six days having passed since the end of eruptive activity and without any sign of potential volcanic activation of the SE fracture, the eruption was considered concluded.

Seismicity. "Seismic activity has been monitored since early summer 1989, using both the IIV's permanent array (8 stations) and a temporary array operated by the OV (up to 11 three-component telemetered digital stations). The daily frequency histogram is shown in figure 31.

Pre-eruptive period."Five major seismic sequences were recorded from late July to late August; none of the events exceeded M 3.3. Focal depths, calculated with respect to the highest stations (at 2,900 m asl) ranged from ~ 15 km (3 August, 45 events) to

Eruptive period. "On 23-24 September, a swarm of 84 events (M >3.2) was located at ~20 km depth. Three days later, during a period of large fluctuations in tremor amplitude, intense microseismic activity preceded and accompanied the opening of the eruptive fissures on the E flank. Because of its weakness (only 19 events of M>2), this activity was clearly observed only at the nearest station (PDN, ~ 1 km from the new vents).

"More than 1,000 shallow events (depth

Volcanic tremor. "Volcanic tremor was monitored at stations PDN (hourly analysis) and SLN (real-time analysis). A rapid increase in tremor energy was recorded during the morning of 10 September. The level of tremor remained high for four days, with an estimated daily energy release of 1017 ergs (1010 J), then dropped by about an order of magnitude (figure 32). Between 18 September and 6 October, near-periodic (daily/half-daily) oscillations could be distinguished in the tremor amplitude (minor peaks in energy release on 19, 22, 25, and 27 September, and 4 October). With the end of the eruption on 9 October, tremor amplitude dropped to the pre-crisis level. Energy spectra analysis of 5-minute samples from station SLN shows steady peaks in the 1.4-1.9 Hz band, independent of energy level, while spectral displacements to higher frequencies were occasionally observed at station PDN.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 32. Daily release of tremor energy recorded by SLN (Serra la Nave) station, 9 September-18 October, 1989.

Ground deformation - tilt. "Tilt data have been collected at an IIV borehole biaxial tilt station (SPC), located along the SE flank at ~ 1,600 m elevation. Continuously monitored tilt signals indicated a positive variation of the radial component (crater up), clearly exceeding the signal confidence limit, since the beginning of June 1989. The tangential component of the tilt remained practically flat until the beginning of the fracturing phase affecting the SE flank by 2 October. Both radial and tangential tilt underwent a sharp variation by the afternoon of 1 October, suggesting a rapid inflation of the Valle del Bove's S outer flank, where the fracture later propagated. The almost constant ratio between the two tilt components throughout this phase of the deformation process depicts a resultant tilt vector trending approximately N25°E (up) and totaling 14 µrad by the end of the deformation phase.

"Additional tilt data were obtained by two stations (sensor made of a pair of horizontal pendulums) installed by IIV and IPGP. The two automated stations (GIA and TRE) recorded an uplift of the summit area since the first 10 days of June (radial component, figure 33). Marked variations were recorded during the SE fracture propagation, particularly at TRE station, only 200 m from the fracture.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. Radial (top) and tangential (bottom) data from the GIA horizontal pendulum tilt station, 21 May-13 October, 1989.

Ground deformation - geodimeter. "A trilateration network on the SE flank area had been previously surveyed in 1987, 1988, and May 1989. Daily EDM measurements were made on some of the network benchmarks since 30 September, before the fracture propagated downslope. Horizontal strain solutions for the main deformation phase that occurred on 2 October indicated an overall areal contraction (~152 ppm) with a minimum extension axis of about -206 ± 80 ppm striking N30°E; maximum shear was 260 ppm. Distance measurements across the main fracture system, at ~ 1,700 m elevation, indicated a local extension of up to ~ 1 m between May 1987 and October 1989.

Ground deformation - levelling. "Precise levelling surveys around the circumference of the volcano and across the new fracture system where it cuts route SP92 were carried out 2-16 October. With respect to September 1988, the N part of the volcano had remained stable, while relative sinking had occurred at the station closest to the central crater (20 mm) and across the fault at Piano Pernicana (25 mm; figure 34). Along route SP92, repeated surveys 6-16 October indicated a relative sinking near the new fracture system of ~ 14 mm.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 34. Top: elevation changes between reoccupations of the level line in September 1988 and on 2-16 October 1989, at about 1,500-2,000 m elevation and 4-10 km from the central crater. Directions from the central crater are shown at top. Bottom: elevation changes between reoccupations of the segment of the level line crossing the SE fracture along route SP92 (figure 30), 6 and 16 October, 1989.

Microgravimetry. "On 3 October the pre-existing microgravimetric network (OV, IIV) was expanded near the fracture cutting route SP92. A new 2-km-long E-W line was established, with eight stations symmetrically arranged across the fracture, each coinciding with a precision levelling benchmark. Gravity measurements were carried out on 3, 4, 6, and 11 October. Differences from 3 to 4 October (figure 35) show a positive variation of the gravity field with a maximum (18 ± 7 microgal) corresponding to the fracture. Subsequent gravity variations remained mostly within the error range. Correction for levelling data does not appreciably modify these results.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 35. Gravity changes across the SE fracture (indicated by arrows) along route SP92, 3-4 October, 1989.

Geochemistry - COSPEC data. "A slow increase in SO2 output from the summit craters was observed in August 1989, with a transition from very low values (1,000 t/d) to medium-high values (~ 7,000 t/d). In the first half of September, SO2 flux remained around medium values. Since 14 September, coinciding with the Valle del Leone effusive phase, SO2 emission increased markedly with oscillation around 15,000 t/d, three times the average Etna values. [Measured rates of SO2 emission exceeded 25,000 t/d on one day around 18 September and reached ~ 23,000 t/d on another day near 1 October].

Geochemistry - soil gases. "From 3 to 14 October, CO2 was measured in the soil close to the terminus of the SE fracture. CO2 concentrations were determined at a soil depth of 50 cm by an IR spectrophotometer, and varied from 0 to 1,500 ppmv, with a clear anomalous degassing at the fracture which showed a progressive decrease with time (figure 36). In addition, CO2 concentration in the soil was measured continuously at one of the points. Two sharp peaks were recorded on 3 and 8 October, while later CO2 concentrations remained quite constant (figure 37).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 36. CO2 concentration in soil across the SE fracture, at 1,600 m elevation (route SP92) 6-10 October, 1989. Dynamic gas samples are taken after pumping; static samples without pumping.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 37. Data from continuous CO2 monitoring of soil near the SE fracture, 3-15 October 1989.

"From 9 to 13 October another soil-gas survey was carried out across the fracture. Data from 140-cm soil depths did not show any anomalous H2 and CO degassing but the data from 60-cm depths were significantly higher than atmospheric: they ranged from 3 to 12 ppmv for H2 and 0.3-58.8 ppmv for CO. The meaning of this difference of gas concentration between 140- and 60-cm-deep holes must be further investigated."

Further References. Barberi, F., Bertagnini, F., and Landi, P., eds., 1990, Mt. Etna: the 1989 eruption: CNR–Gruppo Nazionale per la Vulcanologia; Giardini, Pisa, 75 pp. (11 papers).

Briole, P., Nunnari, G., Puglisi, G., and Murray, J., L'Eruption de Septembre-Octoberobre 1989 à l'Etna (Italie): quelques informations quantitatives fournies par la géodesie et l'inclinométrie: Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, v. 310, série II, no. 13, p. 1747-1754.

Geologic Background. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BCE. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello stratovolcano, truncated by several small calderas, was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur, sometimes simultaneously. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more summit craters. Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by Strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank.

Information Contacts: Many scientists and technicians were involved in the September-October Etna eruption, coordinated by the National Volcanic Group.
Scientific coordination and Civil Protection problems:F. Barberi, Univ di Pisa; G. Frazzetta and R. Santacroce, IIV; F. Innocenti, Univ di Pisa; G. Luongo, OV; R. Mazzuoli, Univ di Cosenza; L. Villari, Univ di Messina.
Volcanological Observations:R. Azzaro, S. Calvari, M. Coltelli, G. Frazzetta, G. Lanzafame, M. Pompilio, and R. Romano, IIV; V. Scribano, Univ di Catania; F. Barberi, A. Bertagnini, F. Innocenti, and P. Landi, Univ di Pisa; C. Kilburn, OV; L. Glaze, JPL.
Petrology:P. Armienti and F. Innocenti, Univ di Pisa; S. Calvari, M. Carà, M. Coltelli, and M. Pompilio, IIV.
Seismicity (24-hour monitoring):E. Privitera, R. Allotta, C. Cardaci, O. Cocina, D. Condarelli, V. Longo, A. Montalto, D. Patanè, A. Pellegrino, S. Rapisarda, S. Spampinato, and O. Torrisi, IIV.
Seismicity (OV mobile network and tremor):F. Ferrucci, G.P. Ricciardi, M. Calì, M. Capello, M. Castellano, U. Coppa, R. D'Alessandro, J. Dorel, D. Ereditato, V. D'Errico, G. Gaudiosi, C. Godano, and G. Milano, OV.
Seismicity – Univ di Catania:S. Gresta, G. Lombardo, and G. Patanè, Univ di Catania.
Ground deformation (IIV tiltmetry and geodimetry):L. Villari, Univ di Messina; A. Bonaccorso, O. Campisi, O. Consoli, B. Puglisi, G. Puglisi, and R. Velardita, IIV.
IIV-IPGP tiltmetry:P. Briole, G. Nunnari, G. Puglisi.
OV levelling:F. Obrizzo, H.A. Ali Naghi, C. Del Gaudio, C. Ricco, V. Sepe, OV.
Microgravimetry:G. Budetta, IIV; M. Grimaldi, OV.
Geochemistry (COSPEC):T. Caltabiano and R. Romano, IIV.
CO2:M. Valenza, G. Capasso, M. Carapezza, W. D'Alessandro, S. Giammanco, S. Gurrieri, J. Hauser, and F. Parello, IGF, Palermo.
H2 and CO:R. Cioni, G. Chiodini, A. Pescia, B. Raco, and G. Taddeucci, IGGI, Pisa, and Univ di Perugia.
Others:G. Kieffer, Univ Blaise-Pascal; C. Oppenheimer and D. Rothery, Open Univ.


Galeras (Colombia) — October 1989 Citation iconCite this Report

Galeras

Colombia

1.22°N, 77.37°W; summit elev. 4276 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Seismic activity remains strong; high SO2

Seismicity remained stable during October, except for a brief decline at mid-month. Low-frequency events averaged ~40/day, while high-frequency events averaged 6/day, with 31 recorded on the 24th (figure 11). About 13 pulses of spasmodic tremor were recorded each day over nearly continuous background tremor.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 11. Daily number of low-frequency (cross-hatched bars) and high-frequency (solid bars) events at Galeras, October 1989. Courtesy of the Observatorio Vulcanológico de Colombia.

Aerial and field inspections showed little change in fumarolic emissions from previous months. The most active area, on the SW slope of the central cone, was surrounded by abundant sulfur deposits and emitted high-temperature gases. Incandescence was periodically observed. During the last week of October, SO2 emissions were the highest since COSPEC monitoring began in April 1988 (figure 12). Although electronic tilt varied slightly, EDM and dry tilt measurements showed no significant changes.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 12. Daily rates of SO2 emissions (in metric tons/day) measured by COSPEC at Galeras, 5 April-October 1989. Courtesy of the Observatorio Vulcanológico de Colombia.

Geologic Background. Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. The dominantly andesitic complex has been active for more than 1 million years, and two major caldera collapse eruptions took place during the late Pleistocene. Long-term extensive hydrothermal alteration has contributed to large-scale edifice collapse on at least three occasions, producing debris avalanches that swept to the west and left a large horseshoe-shaped caldera inside which the modern cone has been constructed. Major explosive eruptions since the mid-Holocene have produced widespread tephra deposits and pyroclastic flows that swept all but the southern flanks. A central cone slightly lower than the caldera rim has been the site of numerous small-to-moderate historical eruptions since the time of the Spanish conquistadors.

Information Contacts: C. Carvajal, INGEOMINAS, Pasto.


Kanlaon (Philippines) — October 1989 Citation iconCite this Report

Kanlaon

Philippines

10.412°N, 123.132°E; summit elev. 2435 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Mild ash ejections to 1,200 m

Since 25 October, mildly explosive ash ejections, to as much as 1,200 m above the summit, have occurred almost daily. As of 3 November, 29 voluminous gray plumes had deposited ash over the entire crater area and the upper SW and S slopes. No significant seismicity preceded emissions, which were accompanied by small-amplitude explosion earthquakes and tremor episodes. Iseismicity;explosion earthquake Total sulfate concentrations of hot springs NW of the crater have increased since March, from 90 to 135 ppm in the aquapool, 300 to 365 ppm in the mudpool, and 180 to 250 ppm in the sulfur spring.

Geologic Background. Kanlaon volcano (also spelled Canlaon), the most active of the central Philippines, forms the highest point on the island of Negros. The massive andesitic stratovolcano is dotted with fissure-controlled pyroclastic cones and craters, many of which are filled by lakes. The largest debris avalanche known in the Philippines traveled 33 km SW from Kanlaon. The summit contains a 2-km-wide, elongated northern caldera with a crater lake and a smaller, but higher, historically active vent, Lugud crater, to the south. Historical eruptions, recorded since 1866, have typically consisted of phreatic explosions of small-to-moderate size that produce minor ashfalls near the volcano.

Information Contacts: PHIVOLCS.


Kilauea (United States) — October 1989 Citation iconCite this Report

Kilauea

United States

19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava flows into sea at three sites; breakouts from lava tubes

Kilauea's . . . eruption continued in October, with lava entering the sea at the Kailiili, Poupou, and Kupapau Point entries. Surface activity was concentrated between the lower Royal Gardens subdivision and the Wahaula area. During the first week of October, lava covered an additional several hundred meters of the Chain of Craters road. The flow reached the sea at the W edge of the Kailiili entry on the 6th, extending the bench a few hundred meters W. A surface lava breakout near the SE corner of the Royal Gardens kipuka entered the sea on 12 October ~250 m E of the former entry E of Kupapau Point (inactive since 23 August). This new entry remained active for only a week. Surface activity at higher elevations included an intermittently active breakout at the 580 m elevation that built a small parasitic shield on top of older flows. A surface flow that extended from 180 to 120 m elevation remained active throughout the month.

The level of Kupaianaha lava pond averaged 21-23 m below the rim during October. Activity at Pu`u `O`o was sporadically observed for the first time in more than a month on 15 October. Periods of spattering alternated with episodes in which lava ponded and flowed in channels across the crater floor.

Eruption tremor continued near Pu`u `O`o and Kupaianaha in October. Days when tremor had relatively steady amplitude were interrupted by successive minor amplitude changes lasting from <1 to several hours. Bursts of increased signals at Pu`u `O`o were associated with rockfalls on the unstable cone. Pronounced longer bursts, lasting ~10 minutes on 11 and 13 October, were apparently also produced by rockfalls. Swarms of shallow high-frequency microshocks near Kupaianaha lasted less than an hour and occurred against a background of variable-amplitude tremor, notably on 8 and 26 October. Three seismic bursts on 23 October were related to partial collapse of Kupaianaha's pond wall. Weak intermittent signals from coastal lava flows entering the sea were detected . . . . Intermediate-depth (5-10 km) long-period events and weak shallow tremor (< 5 km) occurred episodically beneath the summit region. The number of microearthquakes throughout the month was about average in the summit region and along the East rift zone.

Geologic Background. Kilauea, which overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano, has been Hawaii's most active volcano during historical time. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation extending back to only 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions that were interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity that lasted until 1924 at Halemaumau crater, within the summit caldera. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island.

Information Contacts: C. Heliker and R. Koyanagi, HVO.


Langila (Papua New Guinea) — October 1989 Citation iconCite this Report

Langila

Papua New Guinea

5.525°S, 148.42°E; summit elev. 1330 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Vulcanian explosion; ash to coast; night glow

"After 2 months of very weak activity, night glow was seen over Crater 2 on the nights of 7, 17, and 20 October, and steadily from the 24th to the 26th. Weak glow on the night of 30 October was followed on the 31st by a Vulcanian explosion that resulted in light ashfall on the coast, 10 km downwind. The amount of vapour released by this crater increased throughout September and October. Low rumbling noises and occasional discrete explosion sounds were heard. There was no sign of activity from Crater 3 . . . , apart from occasional wisps of white to greyish vapour. Seismicity increased at the beginning of the month from a background of a few tens to several hundreds of moderate-amplitude B-type events/day, occasionally merging into periods of sub-continuous tremor lasting several minutes."

Geologic Background. Langila, one of the most active volcanoes of New Britain, consists of a group of four small overlapping composite basaltic-andesitic cones on the lower eastern flank of the extinct Talawe volcano. Talawe is the highest volcano in the Cape Gloucester area of NW New Britain. A rectangular, 2.5-km-long crater is breached widely to the SE; Langila volcano was constructed NE of the breached crater of Talawe. An extensive lava field reaches the coast on the north and NE sides of Langila. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded since the 19th century from three active craters at the summit of Langila. The youngest and smallest crater (no. 3 crater) was formed in 1960 and has a diameter of 150 m.

Information Contacts: C. McKee, RVO.


Manam (Papua New Guinea) — October 1989 Citation iconCite this Report

Manam

Papua New Guinea

4.08°S, 145.037°E; summit elev. 1807 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent vapor release; decreasing seismicity

"Activity has been low and decreasing steadily since the last mild eruptive period in February. The only visible sign of activity was the intermittent release of thin plumes of white vapour from both Southern and Main Craters. Seismicity has decreased progressively since August, both in the number of events (down to <500 events/day at the end of the month) and in amplitude (now at the lowest background level since July-August 1987). The radial tiltmeter . . . has been showing a low, flat trend since July."

Geologic Background. The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys" channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centers are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern, and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during much of the past century into the SE valley. Frequent historical eruptions, typically of mild-to-moderate scale, have been recorded since 1616. Occasional larger eruptions have produced pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached flat-lying coastal areas and entered the sea, sometimes impacting populated areas.

Information Contacts: P. de Saint-Ours and C. McKee, RVO.


Poas (Costa Rica) — October 1989 Citation iconCite this Report

Poas

Costa Rica

10.2°N, 84.233°W; summit elev. 2708 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continued thermal activity from crater lake; sulfur flows

Thermal activity continued, with the same characteristics as in previous months. The level of the hot crater lake varied. Its water contained a high concentration of mud and sulfur as yellow scum in suspension. Thixotropic mud on the surrounding terraces maintained temperatures of 30-40°C. Small fumaroles around the lake had a maximum temperature of 92°C. The hot area in the SE quadrant persisted, with mud and sulfur cones, patches of mud, and fumaroles (figure 23, top). All of the N sector contained castle-like features and cones of mud and sulfur, while a molten sulfur lake was the source of occasional flows several meters long and a few centimeters thick (figure 23, center and bottom). Fumaroles on the remnants of the 1953-55 [dome] emitted water-dominated vapor in equilibrium with the surrounding atmosphere; temperatures varied between 60° and 92°C. Volcanic microseismicity totaled 4,163 events for a daily mean of 278 during the 15 days that station VPS-2 was operational (figure 24). Almost 500 microearthquakes were recorded on the 2nd.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 23. Sketch by Gerardo Soto of the SE (top) and NE (center) quadrants of the hot crater lake at Poás, showing gas emission, a molten sulfur lake, sulfur/mud flows, and various morphologic features. A cross-section of one of the sulfur/mud flows is shown at bottom.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 24. Number of seismic events/day recorded 1-8, 17-18, and 20-24 October 1989 by station VPS-2. Courtesy of Mario Fernández.

Geologic Background. The broad, well-vegetated edifice of Poás, one of the most active volcanoes of Costa Rica, contains three craters along a N-S line. The frequently visited multi-hued summit crater lakes of the basaltic-to-dacitic volcano, which is one of Costa Rica's most prominent natural landmarks, are easily accessible by vehicle from the nearby capital city of San José. A N-S-trending fissure cutting the 2708-m-high complex stratovolcano extends to the lower northern flank, where it has produced the Congo stratovolcano and several lake-filled maars. The southernmost of the two summit crater lakes, Botos, is cold and clear and last erupted about 7500 years ago. The more prominent geothermally heated northern lake, Laguna Caliente, is one of the world's most acidic natural lakes, with a pH of near zero. It has been the site of frequent phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions since the first historical eruption was reported in 1828. Eruptions often include geyser-like ejections of crater-lake water.

Information Contacts: G. Soto, Mario Fernández, and Héctor Flores, Univ de Costa Rica.


Rabaul (Papua New Guinea) — October 1989 Citation iconCite this Report

Rabaul

Papua New Guinea

4.271°S, 152.203°E; summit elev. 688 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Seismicity increases slightly; no new deformation

"Seismicity increased slightly in October. A total of 346 events was recorded, compared to monthly totals of 100-200 in the last 10 months. The largest daily event total was 83, recorded on the 24th, when earthquakes occurred in rapid succession for ~2 hours. A similar swarm with a total of 67 events occurred 20-21 October, all with ML <2. No events were felt, and only five were large enough be recorded by the entire network and located. Two events occurred in the NW and one in the S part of the caldera seismic zone. The remaining two events appeared to originate from the E part of the region bounded by the caldera fault. Ground deformation readings in October showed no significant change."

Geologic Background. The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbor utilized by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

Information Contacts: C. McKee, RVO.


Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) — October 1989 Citation iconCite this Report

Nevado del Ruiz

Colombia

4.892°N, 75.324°W; summit elev. 5279 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Seismic energy release declines

In October, seismic energy release and the number of high- and low-frequency events decreased to the lowest level since early 1988 (figure 35). High-frequency events were centered under and N of the crater. Tremor was unstable during October, with frequencies oscillating between 5 and 1.8 Hz during the first days of the month. Near the end of the month, tremor frequency reached 1.6 Hz with a reduced displacement of 0.38 cm2. SO2 emission ranged from 174 to 2,648 t/d, averaging 1,345 t/d during the month. Deformation measurements (electronic and dry-tilt) showed no significant changes.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 35. Daily seismic energy release (low- and high-frequency events) at Ruiz, July 1985-October 1989. Courtesy of INGEOMINAS.

Geologic Background. Nevado del Ruiz is a broad, glacier-covered volcano in central Colombia that covers more than 200 km2. Three major edifices, composed of andesitic and dacitic lavas and andesitic pyroclastics, have been constructed since the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern cone consists of a broad cluster of lava domes built within the caldera of an older edifice. The 1-km-wide, 240-m-deep Arenas crater occupies the summit. The prominent La Olleta pyroclastic cone located on the SW flank may also have been active in historical time. Steep headwalls of massive landslides cut the flanks. Melting of its summit icecap during historical eruptions, which date back to the 16th century, has resulted in devastating lahars, including one in 1985 that was South America's deadliest eruption.

Information Contacts: C. Carvajal, INGEOMINAS, Manizales.


St. Helens (United States) — October 1989 Citation iconCite this Report

St. Helens

United States

46.2°N, 122.18°W; summit elev. 2549 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Earthquakes in magma conduit

A marked increase in local seismicity began 19 October and continued for ~10 days. The number of locatable events detected by CVO's PC seismic acquisition system averaged only ~0.7/day through 18 October, then rose to 7/day through the end of the month; 11 shocks were recorded on the most active day, the 29th (figure 39). All of the events were small; the strongest, on 11 October at 0448 and 29 October at 0253, had coda magnitudes of 1.6 and 1.5 respectively. Epicenters were generally in the summit area (figure 40), with focal depths ranging from 1.6 to 11 km (figure 41), involving the entire magma conduit. The earthquakes were similar to A-type events, with well-defined S phases, in contrast to the August seismicity (SEAN 14:08), which was characterized by multiple monochromatic events without S phases. Seismicity declined at the end of October, and remained quiet as of mid-November. No associated changes in surface activity or deformation were detected.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 39. Space-time plot of foci for earthquakes ("A" and "B" quality) at Mt. St. Helens recorded by CVO's PC seismic data acquisition system, 1 September-31 October 1989. Courtesy of E. Endo.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 40. Epicenters of earthquakes at Mt. St. Helens detected by the USGS, 1 September-31 October 1989. Courtesy of E. Endo.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. N-S and E-W cross-sections of earthquake hypocenters at Mt. St. Helens, 1 September-31 October 1989. Courtesy of E. Endo.

Similar episodes of increased seismicity have been recorded at least eight times since late 1987. Most have lasted a few days to about a week and have included up to a few dozen small shocks, some of which were usually as deep as 10-12 km. The October activity was the longest and included the largest number of events of the post-1987 seismic episodes.

Geologic Background. Prior to 1980, Mount St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mount St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. Prior to 2200 years ago, tephra, lava domes, and pyroclastic flows were erupted, forming the older St. Helens edifice, but few lava flows extended beyond the base of the volcano. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the north flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

Information Contacts: E. Endo, CVO; Stephen Malone, Geophysics Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 USA.


Stromboli (Italy) — October 1989 Citation iconCite this Report

Stromboli

Italy

38.789°N, 15.213°E; summit elev. 924 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Frequent incandescent tephra ejection similar to 1988

During 5 October fieldwork, Open Univ geologists noted that morphology of the active craters appeared similar to that of late 1988. Crater 1 (see figure 2) was the most active, with two open vents at about the same positions as [1-1] and [1-3], both containing magma at or near the surface. Vent [1-1], which had developed a deeper intracrater, erupted at a mean interval of ~8 minutes [see also 15:08], often ejecting incandescent tephra over the crater's NE rim, and occasionally over the SE rim. Bombs rose as much as 150 m above the rim. Explosions from vent [1-3] were less frequent and less powerful. Crater 3 was also active, with eruptions at an average of once every 45 minutes, ejecting glowing bombs obliquely to the W, into adjoining Crater 2.

Geologic Background. Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at this volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterized its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small island is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period took place between about 13,000 and 5,000 years ago. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5,000 years ago due to a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild Strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded for more than a millennium.

Information Contacts: C. Oppenheimer, Open Univ.


Supply Reef (United States) — October 1989 Citation iconCite this Report

Supply Reef

United States

20.13°N, 145.1°E; summit elev. -8 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Twenty-one hours of volcanic seismicity

An intense episode of apparent submarine volcanism was recorded 21-22 September by an 11-channel hydrophone array on Wake Island, an ocean bottom seismometer off Japan's Boso Peninsula, and the Polynesian Seismic Network's Pomariorio station, on Rangiroa atoll. Strong activity began at about 1100 and peaked between 1230 and 1520, with several hundred distinct events detected before the episode ended abruptly at about 0755 the next morning. During the activity, continuous noise levels in the SOFAR channel remained at least 20 dB above normal ambient values, at frequencies of 5-30 Hz. T-Phase arrivals at the three sites were used to determine a rough location for the activity at 21.9°N, 145.9°E, with a typical potential error of about ± 100 km [but see 14:12]. However, the calculated position is displaced >200 km E of the northern Marianas volcanic arc, falling on the W edge of the trench.

The nearest known submarine volcanic site is . . . Farallon de Pajaros (Uracas) at 20.53°N, 144.90°E. Activity was last reported from the area on 2 September 1985, when a 3-km zone of discolored water near the 1969 eruption site (about 30 km S of Farallon de Pajaros) was observed from an aircraft. Between 2 August and 5 September 1985, the Polynesian Seismic Network's Rangiroa station recorded 109 T-Phase events, with characteristics typical of submarine eruptions, originating from the NW Pacific. However, no other seismic stations were known to have recorded the activity and a precise location was impossible.

Reference. McCreery, C., Oliveria, F., and Walker, D., 1989, Submarine volcano: EOS, v. 70, p. 1466.

Geologic Background. Supply Reef is a conical submarine volcano in the northern Mariana Islands that rises to within 8 m of the surface. The andesitic seamount lies about 10 km NW of the Maug Islands, the emergent summit of a submarine volcano that is joined to Supply Reef by a low saddle at a depth of about 1800 m. Supply Reef was mapped as Quaternary; living corals on the crater rim suggest that it is either dormant or extinct (Corwin, 1971). Several submarine eruptions have been detected by sonar signals originating from points very approximately located at distances of 15-25 km NW.

Information Contacts: D. Walker, Univ of Hawaii; J. Talandier, LDG, Tahiti; Y. Sawada, JMA.


Taal (Philippines) — October 1989 Citation iconCite this Report

Taal

Philippines

14.002°N, 120.993°E; summit elev. 311 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Increased seismicity; main crater inflation

Since July, seismicity at Taal has increased from background level to a maximum of 126 volcanic earthquakes/week, with at least three events recorded daily. Epicenters clustered around the main crater and about 2 km NE (near Pinagulbuan), migrating from 9 to 5 km depth, 18 August-2 October. Precise leveling and dry tilt surveys suggest inflation of the main crater and the 1965 eruption site, while a water tube tiltmeter has measured inflation of the main crater area since May.

Geologic Background. Taal is one of the most active volcanoes in the Philippines and has produced some of its most powerful historical eruptions. Though not topographically prominent, its prehistorical eruptions have greatly changed the landscape of SW Luzon. The 15 x 20 km Talisay (Taal) caldera is largely filled by Lake Taal, whose 267 km2 surface lies only 3 m above sea level. The maximum depth of the lake is 160 m, and several eruptive centers lie submerged beneath the lake. The 5-km-wide Volcano Island in north-central Lake Taal is the location of all historical eruptions. The island is composed of coalescing small stratovolcanoes, tuff rings, and scoria cones that have grown about 25% in area during historical time. Powerful pyroclastic flows and surges from historical eruptions have caused many fatalities.

Information Contacts: PHIVOLCS.


Ulawun (Papua New Guinea) — October 1989 Citation iconCite this Report

Ulawun

Papua New Guinea

5.05°S, 151.33°E; summit elev. 2334 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Weak-moderate vapor emission

"The low level of activity . . . continued in October. The only visible sign of activity was the steady emission of a weak-moderate white vapour plume from the summit crater. The seismicity has been at background level with <50 small-amplitude B-type events/day."

Geologic Background. The symmetrical basaltic-to-andesitic Ulawun stratovolcano is the highest volcano of the Bismarck arc, and one of Papua New Guinea's most frequently active. The volcano, also known as the Father, rises above the north coast of the island of New Britain across a low saddle NE of Bamus volcano, the South Son. The upper 1000 m is unvegetated. A prominent E-W escarpment on the south may be the result of large-scale slumping. Satellitic cones occupy the NW and E flanks. A steep-walled valley cuts the NW side, and a flank lava-flow complex lies to the south of this valley. Historical eruptions date back to the beginning of the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions were mildly explosive until 1967, but after 1970 several larger eruptions produced lava flows and basaltic pyroclastic flows, greatly modifying the summit crater.

Information Contacts: C. McKee, RVO.


Vulcano (Italy) — October 1989 Citation iconCite this Report

Vulcano

Italy

38.404°N, 14.962°E; summit elev. 500 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fumaroles deposit sulfur

Geologists from Ruhr Univ visited Vulcano on 20 September and observed it from nearby Lipari Island on 19 and 21 September. During the afternoon of 19 September, strong gas emission occurred from the N part of Fossa Grande Crater, site of Vulcano's last eruption in 1888-1890. Gases were generally driven W by strong winds, but a white plume occasionally rose 300 m above the crater. Strong fumarolic activity occurred from numerous vents and fissures during the 20 September visit. Most of the activity was concentrated in the crater's N sector, but some occurred from the outer N flank and the inner S crater rim. Activity was most intense from a fissure that cut the crater rim along a roughly N-S trend. Just inside the crater, the fissure was up to 0.5 m wide and 1 m deep, with sharp edges coated with sulfur sublimates. Gases escaped with a hissing noise at the most active points. The volume of visible steam seemed to decrease during the afternoon, probably because of a decrease in humidity. Steam emission was still somewhat reduced when viewed from Lipari Island the next day.

During field studies 27-28 September and 3-4 October, Open Univ geologists noted that fumaroles seemed little changed from their previous visit in October-November 1988 (13:11). The fumarole fissure, ~ 40 m long, that crossed the N rim of the crater, was substantially deeper in places, perhaps from the loss of rock particles ejected by the pressurized gas flow. Gas temperatures along the fissure were generally about 275°C, with the highest value, 407°, at a vent on the crater's NE rim. Solid sulfur was abundant near fumaroles, as loose masses of yellow crystals, thin-walled tubules and cups containing drops of acid solution, and sulfur stalactites a few centimeters long within recessed vents. Liquid sulfur was also present, commonly as yellow, orange, or red droplets and dribbles, although one vent had produced a molten sulfur flow ~2 m long, and another contained a pool of liquid sulfur ~ 10 cm in diameter, with a temperature of 115.2°C.

Geologic Background. The word volcano is derived from Vulcano stratovolcano in Italy's Aeolian Islands. Vulcano was constructed during six stages during the past 136,000 years. Two overlapping calderas, the 2.5-km-wide Caldera del Piano on the SE and the 4-km-wide Caldera della Fossa on the NW, were formed at about 100,000 and 24,000-15,000 years ago, respectively, and volcanism has migrated to the north over time. La Fossa cone, active throughout the Holocene and the location of most of the historical eruptions, occupies the 3-km-wide Caldera della Fossa at the NW end of the elongated 3 x 7 km island. The Vulcanello lava platform forms a low, roughly circular peninsula on the northern tip of Vulcano that was formed as an island beginning in 183 BCE and was connected to Vulcano in about 1550 CE. Vulcanello is capped by three pyroclastic cones and was active intermittently until the 16th century. The latest eruption from Vulcano consisted of explosive activity from the Fossa cone from 1898 to 1900.

Information Contacts: B. Behncke, Ruhr Univ, Germany; C. Oppenheimer, Open Univ.


White Island (New Zealand) — October 1989 Citation iconCite this Report

White Island

New Zealand

37.52°S, 177.18°E; summit elev. 321 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Tephra ejections; possible new vent

Phreatic block and ash ejections have continued since ... fieldwork on 31 July (SEAN 14:07). Small explosion-type earthquakes recorded 20 and 29 August, and periods of high-amplitude tremor in early-mid-September probably marked ejections of new lithic blocks, lapilli, and ash found on the crater floor in October. On 11 September, the crew of a fishing boat reported two dark mushroom clouds rising 500 m above the summit. This eruption coincided with low-amplitude tremor, but no discrete earthquakes were recorded.

When geologists visited the crater 11 October, new, gray, fine ash covered the main crater floor. Since 31 July, 280 mm of new tephra had accumulated on 1978 Crater rim, and 115 mm at a site roughly 200 m to the SE. No fresh magma was detected. Impact crater shapes suggested that blocks ejected to ~150 m E and SE of 1978 Crater had originated from a new vent within Congress Crater. This crater, previously funnel-shaped with walls dipping steeply into Hitchhiker vent, had deepened since July and had a flat floor. Gullies deepened to the E (away from Hitchhiker), suggesting that a new vent was obscured from view beneath the E crater wall.

Donald Duck crater was slightly enlarged and emitted clouds of light yellow gas, the first seen at White Island. The crater rim was lightly dusted with fine (<0.5 mm) bubble walls and spherules of yellow sulfur. Ash from the vent had largely buried the June 1989 block field as far as 100 m SE. R.F. Crater appeared unchanged since 31 July, with a near-flat floor and black, fountaining, muddy water, briefly visible through vapor clouds.

Background seismicity was steady in August with as many as 7 A-type and 16 B-type events/day. On 2 September a sequence of >100 high-frequency events (M < 3.5) were located ~13 km W of White Island at l-2 km depth. Medium-frequency tremor was recorded throughout September. By late September, seismicity had decreased to <3 A- or B-type events/day, and continued at a low level throughout October.

Deflation of the Donald Mound-1978 Crater area, almost continuous since mid-1987, has apparently resumed after a possible brief pause in July. Fumarole temperatures and gas emission had generally decreased, with only one fumarole (Noisy Nellie) showing high-pressure discharge of clear dry gas.

Geologic Background. Uninhabited 2 x 2.4 km White Island, one of New Zealand's most active volcanoes, is the emergent summit of a 16 x 18 km submarine volcano in the Bay of Plenty about 50 km offshore of North Island. The island consists of two overlapping andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcanoes; the summit crater appears to be breached to the SE, because the shoreline corresponds to the level of several notches in the SE crater wall. Volckner Rocks, four sea stacks that are remnants of a lava dome, lie 5 km NNE. Intermittent moderate phreatomagmatic and strombolian eruptions have occurred throughout the short historical period beginning in 1826, but its activity also forms a prominent part of Maori legends. Formation of many new vents during the 19th and 20th centuries has produced rapid changes in crater floor topography. Collapse of the crater wall in 1914 produced a debris avalanche that buried buildings and workers at a sulfur-mining project.

Information Contacts: I. Nairn, P. Otway, and B. Scott, NZGS Rotorua.

Atmospheric Effects

The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found in this section.

Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989)  Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001)

Special Announcements

Special announcements of various kinds and obituaries.

Special Announcements

Additional Reports

Reports are sometimes published that are not related to a Holocene volcano. These might include observations of a Pleistocene volcano, earthquake swarms, or floating pumice. Reports are also sometimes published in which the source of the activity is unknown or the report is determined to be false. All of these types of additional reports are listed below by subregion and subject.

Kermadec Islands


Floating Pumice (Kermadec Islands)

1986 Submarine Explosion


Tonga Islands


Floating Pumice (Tonga)


Fiji Islands


Floating Pumice (Fiji)


Andaman Islands


False Report of Andaman Islands Eruptions


Sangihe Islands


1968 Northern Celebes Earthquake


Southeast Asia


Pumice Raft (South China Sea)

Land Subsidence near Ham Rong


Ryukyu Islands and Kyushu


Pumice Rafts (Ryukyu Islands)


Izu, Volcano, and Mariana Islands


Acoustic Signals in 1996 from Unknown Source

Acoustic Signals in 1999-2000 from Unknown Source


Kuril Islands


Possible 1988 Eruption Plume


Aleutian Islands


Possible 1986 Eruption Plume


Mexico


False Report of New Volcano


Nicaragua


Apoyo


Colombia


La Lorenza Mud Volcano


Pacific Ocean (Chilean Islands)


False Report of Submarine Volcanism


Central Chile and Argentina


Estero de Parraguirre


West Indies


Mid-Cayman Spreading Center


Atlantic Ocean (northern)


Northern Reykjanes Ridge


Azores


Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone


Antarctica and South Sandwich Islands


Jun Jaegyu

East Scotia Ridge


Additional Reports (database)

08/1997 (SEAN 22:08) False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption

False report of volcanism intended to exclude would-be gold miners

12/1997 (SEAN 22:12) False Report of Somalia Eruption

Press reports of Somalia's first historical eruption were likely in error

11/1999 (SEAN 24:11) False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption

UFO adherent claims new volcano in Sea of Marmara

05/2003 (SEAN 28:05) Har-Togoo

Fumaroles and minor seismicity since October 2002

12/2005 (SEAN 30:12) Elgon

False report of activity; confusion caused by burning dung in a lava tube



False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption (Philippines) — August 1997

False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption

Philippines

7.975°N, 123.23°E; summit elev. 1510 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


False report of volcanism intended to exclude would-be gold miners

In discussing the week ending on 12 September, "Earthweek" (Newman, 1997) incorrectly claimed that a volcano named "Mount Pinukis" had erupted. Widely read in the US, the dramatic Earthweek report described terrified farmers and a black mushroom cloud that resembled a nuclear explosion. The mountain's location was given as "200 km E of Zamboanga City," a spot well into the sea. The purported eruption had received mention in a Manila Bulletin newspaper report nine days earlier, on 4 September. Their comparatively understated report said that a local police director had disclosed that residents had seen a dormant volcano showing signs of activity.

In response to these news reports Emmanuel Ramos of the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) sent a reply on 17 September. PHIVOLCS staff had initially heard that there were some 12 alleged families who fled the mountain and sought shelter in the lowlands. A PHIVOLCS investigation team later found that the reported "families" were actually individuals seeking respite from some politically motivated harassment. The story seems to have stemmed from a local gold rush and an influential politician who wanted to use volcanism as a ploy to exclude residents. PHIVOLCS concluded that no volcanic activity had occurred. They also added that this finding disappointed local politicians but was much welcomed by the residents.

PHIVOLCS spelled the mountain's name as "Pinokis" and from their report it seems that it might be an inactive volcano. There is no known Holocene volcano with a similar name (Simkin and Siebert, 1994). No similar names (Pinokis, Pinukis, Pinakis, etc.) were found listed in the National Imagery and Mapping Agency GEOnet Names Server (http://geonames.nga.mil/gns/html/index.html), a searchable database of 3.3 million non-US geographic-feature names.

The Manila Bulletin report suggested that Pinokis resides on the Zamboanga Peninsula. The Peninsula lies on Mindanao Island's extreme W side where it bounds the Moro Gulf, an arm of the Celebes Sea. The mountainous Peninsula trends NNE-SSW and contains peaks with summit elevations near 1,300 m. Zamboanga City sits at the extreme end of the Peninsula and operates both a major seaport and an international airport.

[Later investigation found that Mt. Pinokis is located in the Lison Valley on the Zamboanga Peninsula, about 170 km NE of Zamboanga City and 30 km NW of Pagadian City. It is adjacent to the two peaks of the Susong Dalaga (Maiden's Breast) and near Mt. Sugarloaf.]

References. Newman, S., 1997, Earthweek, a diary of the planet (week ending 12 September): syndicated newspaper column (URL: http://www.earthweek.com/).

Manila Bulletin, 4 Sept. 1997, Dante's Peak (URL: http://www.mb.com.ph/).

Simkin, T., and Siebert, L., 1994, Volcanoes of the world, 2nd edition: Geoscience Press in association with the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Tucson AZ, 368 p.

Information Contacts: Emmanuel G. Ramos, Deputy Director, Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Department of Science and Technology, PHIVOLCS Building, C. P. Garcia Ave., University of the Philippines, Diliman campus, Quezon City, Philippines.


False Report of Somalia Eruption (Somalia) — December 1997

False Report of Somalia Eruption

Somalia

3.25°N, 41.667°E; summit elev. 500 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Press reports of Somalia's first historical eruption were likely in error

Xinhua News Agency filed a news report on 27 February under the headline "Volcano erupts in Somalia" but the veracity of the story now appears doubtful. The report disclosed the volcano's location as on the W side of the Gedo region, an area along the Ethiopian border just NE of Kenya. The report had relied on the commissioner of the town of Bohol Garas (a settlement described as 40 km NE of the main Al-Itihad headquarters of Luq town) and some or all of the information was relayed by journalists through VHF radio. The report claimed the disaster "wounded six herdsmen" and "claimed the lives of 290 goats grazing near the mountain when the incident took place." Further descriptions included such statements as "the volcano which erupted two days ago [25 February] has melted down the rocks and sand and spread . . . ."

Giday WoldeGabriel returned from three weeks of geological fieldwork in SW Ethiopia, near the Kenyan border, on 25 August. During his time there he inquired of many people, including geologists, if they had heard of a Somalian eruption in the Gedo area; no one had heard of the event. WoldeGabriel stated that he felt the news report could have described an old mine or bomb exploding. Heavy fighting took place in the Gedo region during the Ethio-Somalian war of 1977. Somalia lacks an embassy in Washington DC; when asked during late August, Ayalaw Yiman, an Ethiopian embassy staff member in Washington DC also lacked any knowledge of a Somalian eruption.

A Somalian eruption would be significant since the closest known Holocene volcanoes occur in the central Ethiopian segment of the East African rift system S of Addis Ababa, ~500 km NW of the Gedo area. These Ethiopian rift volcanoes include volcanic fields, shield volcanoes, cinder cones, and stratovolcanoes.

Information Contacts: Xinhua News Agency, 5 Sharp Street West, Wanchai, Hong Kong; Giday WoldeGabriel, EES-1/MS D462, Geology-Geochemistry Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545; Ayalaw Yiman, Ethiopian Embassy, 2134 Kalorama Rd. NW, Washington DC 20008.


False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption (Turkey) — November 1999

False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption

Turkey

40.683°N, 29.1°E; summit elev. 0 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


UFO adherent claims new volcano in Sea of Marmara

Following the Ms 7.8 earthquake in Turkey on 17 August (BGVN 24:08) an Email message originating in Turkey was circulated, claiming that volcanic activity was observed coincident with the earthquake and suggesting a new (magmatic) volcano in the Sea of Marmara. For reasons outlined below, and in the absence of further evidence, editors of the Bulletin consider this a false report.

The report stated that fishermen near the village of Cinarcik, at the E end of the Sea of Marmara "saw the sea turned red with fireballs" shortly after the onset of the earthquake. They later found dead fish that appeared "fried." Their nets were "burned" while under water and contained samples of rocks alleged to look "magmatic."

No samples of the fish were preserved. A tectonic scientist in Istanbul speculated that hot water released by the earthquake from the many hot springs along the coast in that area may have killed some fish (although they would be boiled rather than fried).

The phenomenon called earthquake lights could explain the "fireballs" reportedly seen by the fishermen. Such effects have been reasonably established associated with large earthquakes, although their origin remains poorly understood. In addition to deformation-triggered piezoelectric effects, earthquake lights have sometimes been explained as due to the release of methane gas in areas of mass wasting (even under water). Omlin and others (1999), for example, found gas hydrate and methane releases associated with mud volcanoes in coastal submarine environments.

The astronomer and author Thomas Gold (Gold, 1998) has a website (Gold, 2000) where he presents a series of alleged quotes from witnesses of earthquakes. We include three such quotes here (along with Gold's dates, attributions, and other comments):

(A) Lima, 30 March 1828. "Water in the bay 'hissed as if hot iron was immersed in it,' bubbles and dead fish rose to the surface, and the anchor chain of HMS Volage was partially fused while lying in the mud on the bottom." (Attributed to Bagnold, 1829; the anchor chain is reported to be on display in the London Navy Museum.)

(B) Romania, 10 November 1940. ". . . a thick layer like a translucid gas above the surface of the soil . . . irregular gas fires . . . flames in rhythm with the movements of the soil . . . flashes like lightning from the floor to the summit of Mt Tampa . . . flames issuing from rocks, which crumbled, with flashes also issuing from non-wooded mountainsides." (Phrases used in eyewitness accounts collected by Demetrescu and Petrescu, 1941).

(C) Sungpan-Pingwu (China), 16, 22, and 23 August 1976. "From March of 1976, various large anomalies were observed over a broad region. . . . At the Wanchia commune of Chungching County, outbursts of natural gas from rock fissures ignited and were difficult to extinguish even by dumping dirt over the fissures. . . . Chu Chieh Cho, of the Provincial Seismological Bureau, related personally seeing a fireball 75 km from the epicenter on the night of 21 July while in the company of three professional seismologists."

Yalciner and others (1999) made a study of coastal areas along the Sea of Marmara after the Izmet earthquake. They found evidence for one or more tsunamis with maximum runups of 2.0-2.5 m. Preliminary modeling of the earthquake's response failed to reproduce the observed runups; the areas of maximum runup instead appeared to correspond most closely with several local mass-failure events. This observation together with the magnitude of the earthquake, and bottom soundings from marine geophysical teams, suggested mass wasting may have been fairly common on the floor of the Sea of Marmara.

Despite a wide range of poorly understood, dramatic processes associated with earthquakes (Izmet 1999 apparently included), there remains little evidence for volcanism around the time of the earthquake. The nearest Holocene volcano lies ~200 km SW of the report location. Neither Turkish geologists nor scientists from other countries in Turkey to study the 17 August earthquake reported any volcanism. The report said the fisherman found "magmatic" rocks; it is unlikely they would be familiar with this term.

The motivation and credibility of the report's originator, Erol Erkmen, are unknown. Certainly, the difficulty in translating from Turkish to English may have caused some problems in understanding. Erkmen is associated with a website devoted to reporting UFO activity in Turkey. Photographs of a "magmatic rock" sample were sent to the Bulletin, but they only showed dark rocks photographed devoid of a scale on a featureless background. The rocks shown did not appear to be vesicular or glassy. What was most significant to Bulletin editors was the report author's progressive reluctance to provide samples or encourage follow-up investigation with local scientists. Without the collaboration of trained scientists on the scene this report cannot be validated.

References. Omlin, A, Damm, E., Mienert, J., and Lukas, D., 1999, In-situ detection of methane releases adjacent to gas hydrate fields on the Norwegian margin: (Abstract) Fall AGU meeting 1999, Eos, American Geophysical Union.

Yalciner, A.C., Borrero, J., Kukano, U., Watts, P., Synolakis, C. E., and Imamura, F., 1999, Field survey of 1999 Izmit tsunami and modeling effort of new tsunami generation mechanism: (Abstract) Fall AGU meeting 1999, Eos, American Geophysical Union.

Gold, T., 1998, The deep hot biosphere: Springer Verlag, 256 p., ISBN: 0387985468.

Gold, T., 2000, Eye-witness accounts of several major earthquakes (URL: http://www.people.cornell.edu/ pages/tg21/eyewit.html).

Information Contacts: Erol Erkmen, Tuvpo Project Alp.


Har-Togoo (Mongolia) — May 2003

Har-Togoo

Mongolia

48.831°N, 101.626°E; summit elev. 1675 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fumaroles and minor seismicity since October 2002

In December 2002 information appeared in Mongolian and Russian newspapers and on national TV that a volcano in Central Mongolia, the Har-Togoo volcano, was producing white vapors and constant acoustic noise. Because of the potential hazard posed to two nearby settlements, mainly with regard to potential blocking of rivers, the Director of the Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Dr. Bekhtur, organized a scientific expedition to the volcano on 19-20 March 2003. The scientific team also included M. Ulziibat, seismologist from the same Research Center, M. Ganzorig, the Director of the Institute of Informatics, and A. Ivanov from the Institute of the Earth's Crust, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Geological setting. The Miocene Har-Togoo shield volcano is situated on top of a vast volcanic plateau (figure 1). The 5,000-year-old Khorog (Horog) cone in the Taryatu-Chulutu volcanic field is located 135 km SW and the Quaternary Urun-Dush cone in the Khanuy Gol (Hanuy Gol) volcanic field is 95 km ENE. Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic rocks are also abundant in the vicinity of the Holocene volcanoes (Devyatkin and Smelov, 1979; Logatchev and others, 1982). Analysis of seismic activity recorded by a network of seismic stations across Mongolia shows that earthquakes of magnitude 2-3.5 are scattered around the Har-Togoo volcano at a distance of 10-15 km.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Photograph of the Har-Togoo volcano viewed from west, March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

Observations during March 2003. The name of the volcano in the Mongolian language means "black-pot" and through questioning of the local inhabitants, it was learned that there is a local myth that a dragon lived in the volcano. The local inhabitants also mentioned that marmots, previously abundant in the area, began to migrate westwards five years ago; they are now practically absent from the area.

Acoustic noise and venting of colorless warm gas from a small hole near the summit were noticed in October 2002 by local residents. In December 2002, while snow lay on the ground, the hole was clearly visible to local visitors, and a second hole could be seen a few meters away; it is unclear whether or not white vapors were noticed on this occasion. During the inspection in March 2003 a third hole was seen. The second hole is located within a 3 x 3 m outcrop of cinder and pumice (figure 2) whereas the first and the third holes are located within massive basalts. When close to the holes, constant noise resembled a rapid river heard from afar. The second hole was covered with plastic sheeting fixed at the margins, but the plastic was blown off within 2-3 seconds. Gas from the second hole was sampled in a mechanically pumped glass sampler. Analysis by gas chromatography, performed a week later at the Institute of the Earth's Crust, showed that nitrogen and atmospheric air were the major constituents.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Photograph of the second hole sampled at Har-Togoo, with hammer for scale, March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

The temperature of the gas at the first, second, and third holes was +1.1, +1.4, and +2.7°C, respectively, while air temperature was -4.6 to -4.7°C (measured on 19 March 2003). Repeated measurements of the temperatures on the next day gave values of +1.1, +0.8, and -6.0°C at the first, second, and third holes, respectively. Air temperature was -9.4°C. To avoid bias due to direct heating from sunlight the measurements were performed under shadow. All measurements were done with Chechtemp2 digital thermometer with precision of ± 0.1°C and accuracy ± 0.3°C.

Inside the mouth of the first hole was 4-10-cm-thick ice with suspended gas bubbles (figure 5). The ice and snow were sampled in plastic bottles, melted, and tested for pH and Eh with digital meters. The pH-meter was calibrated by Horiba Ltd (Kyoto, Japan) standard solutions 4 and 7. Water from melted ice appeared to be slightly acidic (pH 6.52) in comparison to water of melted snow (pH 7.04). Both pH values were within neutral solution values. No prominent difference in Eh (108 and 117 for ice and snow, respectively) was revealed.

Two digital short-period three-component stations were installed on top of Har-Togoo, one 50 m from the degassing holes and one in a remote area on basement rocks, for monitoring during 19-20 March 2003. Every hour 1-3 microseismic events with magnitude <2 were recorded. All seismic events were virtually identical and resembled A-type volcano-tectonic earthquakes (figure 6). Arrival difference between S and P waves were around 0.06-0.3 seconds for the Har-Togoo station and 0.1-1.5 seconds for the remote station. Assuming that the Har-Togoo station was located in the epicentral zone, the events were located at ~1-3 km depth. Seismic episodes similar to volcanic tremors were also recorded (figure 3).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Examples of an A-type volcano-tectonic earthquake and volcanic tremor episodes recorded at the Har-Togoo station on 19 March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

Conclusions. The abnormal thermal and seismic activities could be the result of either hydrothermal or volcanic processes. This activity could have started in the fall of 2002 when they were directly observed for the first time, or possibly up to five years earlier when marmots started migrating from the area. Further studies are planned to investigate the cause of the fumarolic and seismic activities.

At the end of a second visit in early July, gas venting had stopped, but seismicity was continuing. In August there will be a workshop on Russian-Mongolian cooperation between Institutions of the Russian and Mongolian Academies of Sciences (held in Ulan-Bator, Mongolia), where the work being done on this volcano will be presented.

References. Devyatkin, E.V. and Smelov, S.B., 1979, Position of basalts in sequence of Cenozoic sediments of Mongolia: Izvestiya USSR Academy of Sciences, geological series, no. 1, p. 16-29. (In Russian).

Logatchev, N.A., Devyatkin, E.V., Malaeva, E.M., and others, 1982, Cenozoic deposits of Taryat basin and Chulutu river valley (Central Hangai): Izvestiya USSR Academy of Sciences, geological series, no. 8, p. 76-86. (In Russian).

Geologic Background. The Miocene Har-Togoo shield volcano, also known as Togoo Tologoy, is situated on top of a vast volcanic plateau. The 5,000-year-old Khorog (Horog) cone in the Taryatu-Chulutu volcanic field is located 135 km SW and the Quaternary Urun-Dush cone in the Khanuy Gol (Hanuy Gol) volcanic field is 95 km ENE. Analysis of seismic activity recorded by a network of seismic stations across Mongolia shows that earthquakes of magnitude 2-3.5 are scattered around the Har-Togoo volcano at a distance of 10-15 km.

Information Contacts: Alexei V. Ivanov, Institute of the Earth Crust SB, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia; Bekhtur andM. Ulziibat, Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulan-Bator, Mongolia; M. Ganzorig, Institute of Informatics MAS, Ulan-Bator, Mongolia.


Elgon (Uganda) — December 2005

Elgon

Uganda

1.136°N, 34.559°E; summit elev. 3885 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


False report of activity; confusion caused by burning dung in a lava tube

An eruption at Mount Elgon was mistakenly inferred when fumes escaped from this otherwise quiet volcano. The fumes were eventually traced to dung burning in a lava-tube cave. The cave is home to, or visited by, wildlife ranging from bats to elephants. Mt. Elgon (Ol Doinyo Ilgoon) is a stratovolcano on the SW margin of a 13 x 16 km caldera that straddles the Uganda-Kenya border 140 km NE of the N shore of Lake Victoria. No eruptions are known in the historical record or in the Holocene.

On 7 September 2004 the web site of the Kenyan newspaper The Daily Nation reported that villagers sighted and smelled noxious fumes from a cave on the flank of Mt. Elgon during August 2005. The villagers' concerns were taken quite seriously by both nations, to the extent that evacuation of nearby villages was considered.

The Daily Nation article added that shortly after the villagers' reports, Moses Masibo, Kenya's Western Province geology officer visited the cave, confirmed the villagers observations, and added that the temperature in the cave was 170°C. He recommended that nearby villagers move to safer locations. Masibo and Silas Simiyu of KenGens geothermal department collected ashes from the cave for testing.

Gerald Ernst reported on 19 September 2004 that he spoke with two local geologists involved with the Elgon crisis from the Geology Department of the University of Nairobi (Jiromo campus): Professor Nyambok and Zacharia Kuria (the former is a senior scientist who was unable to go in the field; the latter is a junior scientist who visited the site). According to Ernst their interpretation is that somebody set fire to bat guano in one of the caves. The fire was intense and probably explains the vigorous fuming, high temperatures, and suffocated animals. The event was also accompanied by emissions of gases with an ammonia odor. Ernst noted that this was not surprising considering the high nitrogen content of guano—ammonia is highly toxic and can also explain the animal deaths. The intense fumes initially caused substantial panic in the area.

It was Ernst's understanding that the authorities ordered evacuations while awaiting a report from local scientists, but that people returned before the report reached the authorities. The fire presumably prompted the response of local authorities who then urged the University geologists to analyze the situation. By the time geologists arrived, the fuming had ceased, or nearly so. The residue left by the fire and other observations led them to conclude that nothing remotely related to a volcanic eruption had occurred.

However, the incident emphasized the problem due to lack of a seismic station to monitor tectonic activity related to a local triple junction associated with the rift valley or volcanic seismicity. In response, one seismic station was moved from S Kenya to the area of Mt. Elgon so that local seismicity can be monitored in the future.

Information Contacts: Gerald Ernst, Univ. of Ghent, Krijgslaan 281/S8, B-9000, Belgium; Chris Newhall, USGS, Univ. of Washington, Dept. of Earth & Space Sciences, Box 351310, Seattle, WA 98195-1310, USA; The Daily Nation (URL: http://www.nationmedia.com/dailynation/); Uganda Tourist Board (URL: http://www.visituganda.com/).