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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

All reports of volcanic activity published by the Smithsonian since 1968 are available through a monthly table of contents or by searching for a specific volcano. Until 1975, reports were issued for individual volcanoes as information became available; these have been organized by month for convenience. Later publications were done in a monthly newsletter format. Links go to the profile page for each volcano with the Bulletin tab open.

Information is preliminary at time of publication and subject to change.

Recently Published Bulletin Reports

Sheveluch (Russia) New whaleback dome extruded in late September 2020; intermittent explosions

Erta Ale (Ethiopia) Thermal anomalies persist in the summit crater during May-September 2020

Merapi (Indonesia) Eruptions in April and June 2020 produced ash plumes and ashfall

Semeru (Indonesia) Ash plumes, lava flows, avalanches, and pyroclastic flows during March-August 2020

Kavachi (Solomon Islands) Discolored water plumes observed in satellite imagery during early September 2020

Krakatau (Indonesia) Eruption ends in mid-April 2020, but intermittent thermal anomalies continue

Raung (Indonesia) Eruptions confirmed during 2012- 2013; lava fills inner crater in November 2014-August 2015

Klyuchevskoy (Russia) Strombolian activity, gas-and-steam and ash plumes, and a lava flow during June-early July 2020

Fuego (Guatemala) Ongoing explosions, ash plumes, lava flows, and lahars during April-July 2020

Nishinoshima (Japan) Major June-July eruption of lava, ash, and sulfur dioxide; activity declines in August 2020

Turrialba (Costa Rica) New eruptive period on 18 June 2020 consisted of ash eruptions

Etna (Italy) Effusive activity in early April; frequent Strombolian explosions and ash emissions during April-July 2020



Sheveluch (Russia) — November 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Sheveluch

Russia

56.653°N, 161.36°E; summit elev. 3283 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


New whaleback dome extruded in late September 2020; intermittent explosions

The ongoing eruption at Sheveluch continued during May-October 2020, characterized by lava dome growth, strong fumarolic activity, and several explosions that generated plumes of resuspended ash. Activity waned between November 2019 and April 2020 (BGVN 45:05), and this less intense level of activity continued during the reporting period (table 15). The volcano is monitored by the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT). The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) throughout.

Notable explosions took place on 13 June, 28 June, 2 August, 24 August, and 7-9 October 2020 (table 15), sending ash plumes more than 1 km above the summit that drifted to distances of between 75 and 310 km. Some of the plumes were described by KVERT as being composed of re-suspended ash. On 28 September a large dacitic block of lava, a “whaleback” dome, was first seen being extruded from the eastern part of the larger lava dome in the summit crater (figure 55); it was given the name “Dolphin” by KVERT.

Table 15. Explosions, ash plumes, and extrusive activity at Sheveluch during May-October 2020. Dates and times are UTC, not local. VONA is Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation. Data courtesy of KVERT and the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC).

Dates Plume altitude Drift Distance and Direction Remarks
13 Jun 2020 5 km 120 km NE Webcam captured an explosion. VONA issued.
28 Jun 2020 -- 140 km E Plume of re-suspended ash. VONA issued.
02 Aug 2020 4.5 km SE, E Moderate explosion produced a small ash plume.
24 Aug 2020 -- 75 km ESE Plume of resuspended ash.
28 Sep 2020 -- -- A new lava block extruded from the E part of the lava dome was first visible.
07-09 Oct 2020 -- 310 km SE Plume of re-suspended ash. VONAs issued.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 55. Photo of the Sheveluch summit showing the new lava block (referred to as “Dolphin”) being extruded in eastern part the lava dome on 28 September 2020. Photo by Yu. Demyanchuk; courtesy of IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.

According to KVERT, a thermal anomaly was identified from the lava dome in the summit crater (figure 56) in satellite images every day during the reporting period, except for several days in August and September when weather clouds obscured the view. During the reporting period, thermal anomalies, based on MODIS satellite instruments analyzed using the MODVOLC algorithm, recorded hotspots from 2-13 days per month; after June, the number of days with hotspots gradually diminished every month. The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) volcano hotspot detection system, also based on analysis of MODIS data, detected frequent anomalies. NASA recorded high levels of sulfur dioxide above or near Sheveluch during several scattered days in May and June by the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) aboard the Copernicus Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite, but very little drift was observed.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 56. Photo showing typical fumarolic activity from the lava dome at Sheveluch on 18 September 2020. Photo by Yu. Demyanchuk; courtesy of IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.

Geologic Background. The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 km3 volcano is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (IVS FEB RAS), 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/eng/); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/).


Erta Ale (Ethiopia) — October 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Erta Ale

Ethiopia

13.6°N, 40.67°E; summit elev. 613 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Thermal anomalies persist in the summit crater during May-September 2020

Erta Ale is an active basaltic volcano in Ethiopia, containing multiple active pit craters in the summit and southeastern caldera. Volcanism has been characterized by lava flows and large lava flow fields since 2017. This report describes continued thermal activity in the summit caldera during May through September 2020 using information from various satellite data.

Volcanism at Erta Ale was relatively low from May to early August 2020. Across all satellite data, thermal anomalies were identified for a total of 2 days in May, 7 days in June, 4 days in July, 11 days in August, and 15 days in September. Beginning in early June and into September 2020 the Sentinel-2 MODIS Thermal Volcanic Activity graph provided by the MIROVA system identified a small cluster of thermal anomalies in the summit area after a brief hiatus from early January 2020 (figure 99). By mid-August, a small pulse of thermal activity was detected by the MIROVA (Middle Infrared Observation of Volcanic Activity) system. Many of these thermal anomalies were seen in Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery on clear weather days from June to September.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 99. A small cluster of thermal anomalies were detected in the summit area of Erta Ale (red dots) during June-September 2020 as recorded by the Sentinel-2 MODIS Thermal Volcanic Activity data (bands 12, 11, 8A). Courtesy of MIROVA.

On 12 June a minor thermal anomaly was observed in the S pit crater; a larger anomaly was detected on 17 June in the summit caldera where there had been a previous lava lake (figure 100). In mid-August, satellite data showed thermal anomalies in both the N and S pit craters, but by 5 September only the N crater showed elevated temperatures (figure 101). The thermal activity in the N summit caldera persisted through September, based on satellite data from NASA VIIRS and Sentinel Hub Playground.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 100. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery of Erta Ale on 17 June 2020 showing a strong thermal anomaly in the summit caldera. Sentinel-2 satellite image with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 101. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery of Erta Ale showing thermal anomalies in the N and S pit craters on 21 (top left), 26 (top right), and 31 (bottom left) August 2020. On 5 September (bottom right) only the anomaly in the N crater remained. Sentinel-2 satellite image with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Erta Ale is an isolated basaltic shield that is the most active volcano in Ethiopia. The broad, 50-km-wide edifice rises more than 600 m from below sea level in the barren Danakil depression. Erta Ale is the namesake and most prominent feature of the Erta Ale Range. The volcano contains a 0.7 x 1.6 km, elliptical summit crater housing steep-sided pit craters. Another larger 1.8 x 3.1 km wide depression elongated parallel to the trend of the Erta Ale range is located SE of the summit and is bounded by curvilinear fault scarps on the SE side. Fresh-looking basaltic lava flows from these fissures have poured into the caldera and locally overflowed its rim. The summit caldera is renowned for one, or sometimes two long-term lava lakes that have been active since at least 1967, or possibly since 1906. Recent fissure eruptions have occurred on the N flank.

Information Contacts: MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); NASA Worldview (URL: https://worldview.earthdata.nasa.gov/).


Merapi (Indonesia) — October 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Merapi

Indonesia

7.54°S, 110.446°E; summit elev. 2910 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruptions in April and June 2020 produced ash plumes and ashfall

Merapi, located just north of the city of Yogyakarta, Indonesia, is a highly active stratovolcano; the current eruption began in May 2018. Volcanism has recently been characterized by lava dome growth and collapse, small block-and-ash flows, explosions, ash plumes, ashfall, and pyroclastic flows (BGVN 44:10 and 45:04). Activity has recently consisted of three large eruptions in April and June, producing dense gray ash plumes and ashfall in June. Dominantly, white gas-and-steam emissions have been reported during April-September 2020. The primary reporting source of activity comes from Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG, the Center for Research and Development of Geological Disaster Technology, a branch of PVMBG), the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), and the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC).

Activity at Merapi dominantly consisted of frequent white gas-and-steam emissions that generally rose 20-600 m above the crater (figure 95). On 2 April an eruption occurred at 1510, producing a gray ash plume that rose 3 km above the crater, and accompanied by white gas-and-steam emissions up to 600 m above the crater. A second explosion on 10 April at 0910 generated a gray ash plume rising 3 km above the crater and drifting NW, accompanied by white gas-and-steam emissions rising 300 m above the crater (figure 96). Activity over the next six weeks consisted primarily of gas-and-steam emissions.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 95. Gas-and-steam emissions were frequently observed rising from Merapi as seen on 3 April (left) and 4 August (right) 2020. Courtesy of BPPTKG.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 96. Webcam image showed an ash plume rising 3 km above the crater of Merapi at 0917 on 10 April 2020. Courtesy of BPPTKG and MAGMA Indonesia.

On 8 June PVMBG reported an increase in seismicity. Aerial photos from 13 June taken using drones were used to measure the lava dome, which had decreased in volume to 200,000 m3, compared to measurements from 19 February 2020 (291,000 m3). On 21 June two explosions were recorded at 0913 and 0927; the first explosion lasted less than six minutes while the second was less than two minutes. A dense, gray ash plume reached 6 km above the crater drifting S, W, and SW according to the Darwin VAAC notice and CCTV station (figure 97), which resulted in ashfall in the districts of Magelang, Kulonprogo, and as far as the Girimulyo District (45 km). During 21-22 June the gas-and-steam emissions rose to a maximum height of 6 km above the crater. The morphology of the summit crater had slightly changed by 22 June. Based on photos from the Ngepos Post, about 19,000 m3 of material had been removed from the SW part of the summit, likely near or as part of the crater rim. On 11 and 26 July new measurements of the lava dome were taken, measuring 200,000 m3 on both days, based on aerial photos using drones. Gas-and-steam emissions continued through September.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 97. Webcam image showed an ash plume rising 6 km above the crater of Merapi at 0915 on 21 June 2020. Courtesy of BPPTKG.

Geologic Background. Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately north of the major city of Yogyakarta. It is the youngest and southernmost of a volcanic chain extending NNW to Ungaran volcano. Growth of Old Merapi during the Pleistocene ended with major edifice collapse perhaps about 2,000 years ago, leaving a large arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Subsequent growth of the steep-sided Young Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent activity, began SW of the earlier collapse scarp. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated lands on the western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities.

Information Contacts: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG), Center for Research and Development of Geological Disaster Technology (URL: http://merapi.bgl.esdm.go.id/, Twitter: @BPPTKG); Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/).


Semeru (Indonesia) — October 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Semeru

Indonesia

8.108°S, 112.922°E; summit elev. 3657 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash plumes, lava flows, avalanches, and pyroclastic flows during March-August 2020

Semeru in eastern Java, Indonesia, has been erupting almost continuously since 1967 and is characterized by ash plumes, pyroclastic flows, lava flows and lava avalanches down drainages on the SE flanks. The Alert Level has remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) since May 2012, and the public reminded to stay outside of the general 1-km radius from the summit and 4 km on the SSE flank. This report updates volcanic activity from March to August 2020, using primary information from the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), and satellite data.

Activity at Semeru consisted of dominantly dense white-gray ash plumes rising 100-600 m above the crater, incandescent material that was ejected 10-50 m high and descended 300-2,000 from the summit crater, and lava flows measuring 500-1,000 m long. Two pyroclastic flows were also observed, extending 2.3 km from the summit crater in March and 2 km on 17 April.

During 1-2 March gray ash plumes rose 200-500 m above the crater, accompanied by incandescent material that was ejected 10-50 m above the Jonggring-Seloko Crater. Lava flows reaching 500-1,000 m long traveled down the Kembar, Bang, and Kobokan drainages on the S flank. During 4-10 March ash plumes up to 200 m high were interspersed with 100-m-high white gas-and-steam plumes. At the end of a 750-m-long lava flow on the S flank, a pyroclastic flow that lasted 9 minutes traveled as far as 2.3 km. During 25-31 March incandescent material found at the end of the lava flow descended 700-950 m from the summit crater (figure 42).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery showed lava avalanches descending the SSE flank on 26 March 2020. Images using short-wave infrared (SWIR, bands 12, 8A, 4) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Incandescent material continued to be observed in April, rising 10-50 m above the Jonggring-Seloko Crater. Some incandescent material descended from the ends of lava flows as far as 700-2,000 m from the summit crater. Dense white-gray ash plumes rose 100-600 m above the crater drifting N, SE, and SW. During 15-21 April incandescent lava flows traveled 500-1,000 m down the Kembar, Bang, and Kobokan drainages on the S flank. On 17 April at 0608 a pyroclastic flow was observed on the S flank in the Bang drainage measuring 2 km (figure 43). During 22-28 April lava blocks traveled 300 m from the end of lava flows in the Kembar drainage.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 43. A pyroclastic flow at Semeru on 17 April 2020 moving down the S flank toward Besuk Bang. Photo has been color corrected. Courtesy of PVMBG.

Similar activity continued in May, with incandescent material from lava flows in the Kembar and Kobokan drainages descending a maximum distance of 2 km during 29 April-12 May, and 200-1,200 m in the Kembar drainage during 13-27 May, accompanied by dense white-gray ash plumes rising 100-500 m above the crater drifting in different directions. White gas-and-steam plumes rose 300 m above the crater on 26-27 May. Dense white-to-gray ash plumes were visible most days during June, rising 100-500 m above the crater and drifting in various directions. During 3-9 June incandescent material from lava flows descended 200-1,600 m in the Kembar drainage.

Activity in July had decreased slightly and consisted of primarily dense white-gray ash plumes that ranged from 200-500 m above the crater and drifted W, SW, N, and S. Weather conditions often prevented visual observations. On 7 July an ash plume at 0633 rose 400 m drifting W. Similar ash activity was observed in August rising 200-500 m above the crater. On 14 and 16 August a Darwin VAAC advisory stated that white-gray ash plumes rose 300-400 m above the crater, drifting W and WSW; on 16 August a thermal anomaly was observed in satellite imagery. MAGMA Indonesia reported ash plumes were visible during 19-31 August and rose 200-400 m above the crater, drifting S and SW.

Hotspots were recorded by MODVOLC on 11, 6, and 7 days during March, April, and May, respectively, with as many as four pixels in March. Thermal activity decreased to a single hotspot in July and none in August. The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) system recorded numerous thermal anomalies at the volcano during March-July; a lower number was recorded during August (figure 44). The NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide page showed high levels of sulfur dioxide above or near Semeru on 18, 24-25, and 29-31 March, and 9 April.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 44. Thermal anomalies at Semeru detected during March-June 2020. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The steep-sided volcano, also referred to as Mahameru (Great Mountain), rises above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia (Multiplatform Application for Geohazard Mitigation and Assessment in Indonesia), PVMBG, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Kavachi (Solomon Islands) — October 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Kavachi

Solomon Islands

8.991°S, 157.979°E; summit elev. -20 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Discolored water plumes observed in satellite imagery during early September 2020

Kavachi is an active submarine volcano in the SW Pacific, located in the Solomon Islands south of Gatokae and Vangunu islands. Volcanism has been characterized by phreatomagmatic explosions that ejected steam, ash, and incandescent bombs. The previous report described discolored water plumes extending from a single point during early 2018 and April 2020 (BGVN 45:05); similar activity was recorded for this current reporting period covering May through September 2020 and primarily using satellite data.

Activity at Kavachi is most frequently observed through satellite images and typically consists of discolored submarine plumes. On 2 September 2020 a slight yellow discoloration in the water was observed extending E from a specific point (figure 22). Similar faint plumes continued to be recorded on 5, 7, 12, and 17 September, each of which seemed to be drifting generally E from a point source above the summit where previous activity has occurred. On 7 September the discolored plume was accompanied by white degassing and possibly agitated water on the surface at the origin point (figure 22).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 22. Sentinel-2 satellite images of a discolored plume (light yellow) at Kavachi beginning on 2 September (top left) and continuing through 17 September 2020 (bottom right). The light blue circle on the 7 September image highlights the surface degassing and source of the discolored water plume. The white arrow on the bottom right image is pointing to the faint discolored plume. Images with “Natural color” rendering (bands 4, 3, 2); courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Named for a sea-god of the Gatokae and Vangunu peoples, Kavachi is one of the most active submarine volcanoes in the SW Pacific, located in the Solomon Islands south of Vangunu Island. Sometimes referred to as Rejo te Kvachi ("Kavachi's Oven"), this shallow submarine basaltic-to-andesitic volcano has produced ephemeral islands up to 1 km long many times since its first recorded eruption during 1939. Residents of the nearby islands of Vanguna and Nggatokae (Gatokae) reported "fire on the water" prior to 1939, a possible reference to earlier eruptions. The roughly conical edifice rises from water depths of 1.1-1.2 km on the north and greater depths to the SE. Frequent shallow submarine and occasional subaerial eruptions produce phreatomagmatic explosions that eject steam, ash, and incandescent bombs. On a number of occasions lava flows were observed on the ephemeral islands.

Information Contacts: Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Krakatau (Indonesia) — October 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Krakatau

Indonesia

6.102°S, 105.423°E; summit elev. 155 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruption ends in mid-April 2020, but intermittent thermal anomalies continue

Krakatau, located in the Sunda Strait between Indonesia’s Java and Sumatra Islands, experienced a major caldera collapse around 535 CE, forming a 7-km-wide caldera ringed by three islands. Presently, the caldera is underwater, except for three surrounding islands (Verlaten, Lang, and Rakata) and the active Anak Krakatau that was constructed within the 1883 caldera and has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927. On 22 December 2018, a large explosion and flank collapse destroyed most of the 338-m-high island of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) and generated a deadly tsunami (BGVN 44:03). A larger explosion in December 2019 produced the beginnings of a new cone above the surface of crater lake (BGVN 45:02). The previous report (BGVN 45:06) described activity that included Strombolian explosions, ash plumes, and crater incandescence. This report updates information from June through September 2020 using information primarily from Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, also known as Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) and satellite data.

A VONA notice from PVMBG reported that the last eruptive event at Krakatau was reported on 17 April 2020, though the eruptive column was not observed. Activity after that was relatively low through September 2020, primarily intermittent diffuse white gas-and-steam emissions, according to PVMBG. No activity was reported during June-August, except for minor seismicity. During 11-13, 16, and 18 September, the CCTV Lava93 webcam showed intermittent white gas-and-steam emissions rising 25-50 m above the crater.

The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) graph of MODIS thermal anomaly data showed intermittent hotspots within 5 km of the crater from May through September (figure 113). Some of these thermal hotspots were also detected in Suomi NPP/VIIRS sensor data. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery showed faint thermal anomalies in the crater during June; no thermal activity was detected after June (figure 114).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 113. Intermittent thermal activity at Anak Krakatau from 13 October 2019-September 2020 shown on a MIROVA Low Radiative Power graph. The power of the thermal anomalies decreased after activity in April but continued intermittently through September. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 114. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showing a faint thermal anomaly in the crater during 1 (left) and 11 (right) June 2020. Sentinel-2 satellite images with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 or 535 CE, formed a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this ancestral volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan, and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan, and left only a remnant of Rakata. This eruption, the 2nd largest in Indonesia during historical time, caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of devastating tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40 km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); NASA Worldview (URL: https://worldview.earthdata.nasa.gov/).


Raung (Indonesia) — September 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Raung

Indonesia

8.119°S, 114.056°E; summit elev. 3260 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruptions confirmed during 2012- 2013; lava fills inner crater in November 2014-August 2015

A massive stratovolcano in easternmost Java, Raung has over sixty recorded eruptions dating back to the late 16th Century. Explosions with ash plumes, Strombolian activity, and lava flows from a cinder cone within the 2-km-wide summit crater have been the most common activity. Visual reports of activity have often come from commercial airline flights that pass near the summit; Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM) has installed webcams to monitor activity in recent years. An eruption in 2015 produced a large volume of lava within the summit crater and formed a new pyroclastic cone in the same location as the previous one. Confirmation and details of eruptions in 2012, 2013, and 2014-2015 are covered in this report with information provided by PVMBG, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), several sources of satellite data, and visitors to the volcano.

Newly available visual and satellite information confirm eruptions at Raung during October 2012-January 2013, June-July 2013, and extend the beginning of the 2015 eruption back to November 2014. The 2015 eruption was the largest in several decades; Strombolian activity was reported for many months and fresh lava flows covered the crater floor. Raung was quiet after the 2015 eruption ended in August of that year until July 2020.

Eruption during October 2012-January 2013. A MODVOLC thermal alert appeared inside the summit crater of Raung on 14 October 2012, followed by another four alerts on 16 October. Multiple daily alerts were reported on many days through 8 November, most within the main crater. Single alerts appeared on 29 November and 1 December 2012 (figure 9). PVMBG raised the Alert Level on 17 October from 1 to 2 due to increased seismicity and raised it further to Level 3 on 22 October. A local news report by Aris Yanto indicted that a minor Strombolian eruption occurred inside the crater on 19 October. Strombolian activity was also observed inside the inner crater on 5 November 2012 by visitors (figure 10); they reported loud rumbling sounds that could be heard up to 15 km from the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 9. Thermal activity at Raung during October and November 2012 included multiple days of multi-pixel anomalies, with almost all activity concentrated within the summit crater. Strombolian activity was observed on 5 November. Image shows all pixels from 23 September-1 December 2012. Courtesy of MODVOLC.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 10. Strombolian activity was observed inside the inner crater of Raung on 5 November 2012 by visitors. They reported loud rumbling sounds that could be heard up to 15 km from the crater. Photo by Galih, courtesy of Volcano Discovery.

The Darwin VAAC issued an advisory of an eruption plume to 9.1 km altitude reported at 0237 UTC on 8 November 2012. In a second advisory about two hours later they noted that an ash plume was not visible in satellite imagery. A press article released by the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (PVMBG) indicated that gray ash plumes were observed on 6 January 2013 that rose 300 m above the summit crater rim. Incandescence was observed around the crater and thundering explosions were heard by nearby residents.

Eruption during June-July 2013. Two MODVOLC thermal alerts were measured inside the summit crater on 29 June 2013. A photo taken on 21 July showed minor Strombolian activity at the inner crater (figure 11). A weak SO2 anomaly was detected in the vicinity of Raung by the OMI instrument on the Aura satellite on 27 July. Thermal alerts were recorded on 29 and 31 July. When Google Earth imageryrom 14 March 2011 created by Maxar Technologies is compared with imagery from 29 July 2013 captured by Landsat/Copernicus, dark tephra is filling the inner crater in the 2013 image; it was not present in 2011 (figure 12).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 11. Strombolian activity was observed inside the inner crater at the summit of Raung on 21 July 2013. Photo by Agus Kurniawan, courtesy of Volcano Discovery.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 12. Satellite imagery from Google Earth showing the eroded pyroclastic cone inside the summit crater of Raung on 14 March 2011 (left) and 29 July 2013 (right). Dark tephra deposits filling the inner crater in the 2013 image were not present in 2011. The crater of the pyroclastic cone is 200 m wide; N is to the top of the images. Courtesy of Google Earth.

Eruption during November 2014-August 2015. Information about this eruption was previously reported (BGVN 41:12), but additional details are provided here. Landsat-8 imagery from 28 October 2014 indicated clear skies and little activity within the summit crater. Local observers reported steam plumes beginning in mid-November (figure 13). MODVOLC thermal alerts within the summit crater were issued on 28 and 30 November, and then 15 alerts were issued on seven days in December. Thermal Landsat-8 imagery from cloudy days on 29 November and 15 December indicated an anomaly over the area of the pyroclastic cone inside the summit crater (figure 14).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 13. Local observers reported steam plumes at Raung beginning in mid-November 2014; this one was photographed on 17 November 2014. Courtesy of Volcano Discovery.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. Satellite evidence of new eruptive activity at Raung first appeared on 29 November 2014. The true color-pansharpened Landsat-8 image of Raung from 28 October 2014 (left) shows the summit crater and an eroded pyroclastic cone with its own crater (the inner crater) with no apparent activity. Although dense meteoric clouds on 29 November (center) and 15 December 2014 (right) blocked true color imagery, thermal imagery indicated a thermal anomaly from the center of the pyroclastic cone on both dates. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

In January 2015 the MODVOLC system identified 25 thermal anomalies in MODIS data, with a peak of eight alerts on 8 January. Visitors to the summit crater on 6 January witnessed explosions from the inner crater approximately every 40 minutes that produced gas and small amounts of ash and tephra. They reported lava flowing continuously from the inner crater onto the larger crater floor, and incandescent activity was seen at night (figure 15). Landsat-8 images from 16 January showed a strong thermal anomaly covering an area of fresh lava (figure 16).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. Visitors to the summit crater of Raung on 6 January 2015 witnessed explosions from the inner crater approximately every 40 minutes that produced abundant gas and small amounts of ash and tephra. Lava was flowing continuously from the inner crater onto the larger crater floor, and incandescent activity was observed at night. Photos by Sofya Klimova, courtesy of Volcano Discovery.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. On a clear 16 January 2015, Landsat-8 satellite imagery revealed fresh lava flows NW of the pyroclastic cone within the summit crater at Raung. A strong thermal anomaly matches up with the dark material, suggesting that it flowed NW from within the pyroclastic cone. Left image is true color-pansharpened rendering, right image is thermal rendering. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Satellite images were obscured by meteoric clouds during February 2015, but PVMBG reported gray and brown plumes rising 300 m multiple times and incandescence and rumbling on 14 February. Visitors to the summit crater during the second half of February reported Strombolian activity with lava fountains from the inner crater, at times as frequently as every 15 minutes (figure 17). Loud explosions and rumbling were heard 10-15 km away. MODVOLC thermal alerts stopped on 25 February and did not reappear until late June.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. A report issued on 25 February 2015 from visitors to the summit of Ruang noted large Strombolian explosions with incandescent ejecta and lava flowing across the crater floor. The fresh lava on the crater floor covered a noticeably larger area than that shown in early January (figure 15). Photo by Andi, courtesy of Volcano Discovery.

PVMBG raised the Alert Level to 2 in mid-March 2015. Weak thermal anomalies located inside and NW of the pyroclastic cone were present in satellite imagery on 21 March. PVMBG reported gray and brown emissions during March, April, and May rising as high as 300 m above the crater. Landsat imagery from 22 April showed a small emission inside the pyroclastic cone, and on 8 May showed a clearer view of the fresh black lava NW and SW of the pyroclastic cone (figure 18).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Fresh lava was visible in Landsat-8 satellite imagery in April and May 2015 at Raung. A small emission was present inside the pyroclastic cone at the summit of Raung on 22 April 2015 (left). Fresh dark material is also evident in the SW quadrant of the summit crater that was not visible on 16 January 2015. A clear view on 8 May 2015 also shows the extent of the fresh black material around the pyroclastic cone (right). The summit crater is 2 km wide. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Nine MODVOLC thermal alerts appeared inside the summit crater on 21 June 2015 after no alerts since late February, suggesting an increase in activity. The Darwin VAAC issued the first ash advisory for 2015 on 24 June noting an aviation report of recent ash. The following day the Ujung Pandang Meteorological Weather Office (MWO) reported an ash emission drifting W at 3.7 km altitude. The same day, 25 June, Landsat-8 imagery clearly showed a new lava flow on the W side of the crater and a strong thermal anomaly. The thermal data showed a point source of heat widening SW from the center of the crater and a second point source of heat that appeared to be inside the pyroclastic cone. A small ash plume was visible over the cone (figure 19). Strombolian activity and ash plumes were reported by BNPB and PVMBG in the following days. On 26 June the Darwin VAAC noted the hotspot had remained visible in infrared imagery for several days. PVMBG reported an ash emission to 3 km altitude on 29 June.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. A new lava flow and strong thermal anomaly appeared inside the summit crater of Raung on 25 June 2015 in Landsat-8 imagery. The new flow was visible on the W side of the crater. The darker area extending SW from the rising ash plume is a shadow. The thermal data showed a point source of heat widening SW from the center of the crater and spreading out in the SW quadrant and a second point source of heat on the flank of the pyroclastic cone. Left image is True color-pansharpened rendering, and right image is thermal rendering. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Activity increased significantly during July 2015 (BGVN 41:12). Ash plumes rose as high as 6.7 km altitude and drifted hundreds of kilometers in multiple directions, forcing multiple shutdowns at airports on Bali and Lombok, as well as Banyuwangi and Jember in East Java. The Darwin VAAC issued 152 ash advisories during the month. Ashfall was reported up to 20 km W during July and 20-40 km SE during early August. Visitors to the summit in early July observed a new pyroclastic cone growing inside the inner crater from incandescent ejecta and dense ash emissions (figure 20). Landsat-8 imagery from 11 July showed a dense ash plume drifting SE, fresh black lava covering the 2-km-wide summit caldera floor, and a very strong thermal anomaly most intense at the center near the pyroclastic cone and cooler around the inner edges of the crater (figure 21). On 12 July, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite captured a view of an ash-and-gas plume drifting hundreds of kilometers SE from Raung (figure 22).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. A new pyroclastic cone was growing inside the inner crater at the summit of Raung when photographed by Aris Yanto in early July 2015. Courtesy of Volcano Discovery.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. Landsat-8 imagery of Raung during July 2015 indicated dense ash emissions and a large thermal anomaly caused by fresh lava. On 11 July a dense ash plume drifted SE and a strong thermal anomaly was centered inside the summit crater. The 2-km-wide crater floor was covered with fresh lava (compare with 25 June image in figure 19). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 22. On 12 July 2015 the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite captured a natural-color view of a plume of ash and volcanic gases drifting hundreds of kilometers SE from Raung. Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory.

A satellite image on 20 July showed fresh incandescent lava covering the floor of the summit crater and a dense ash plume drifting N from the summit (figure 23). Incandescent ejecta emerged from two vents on the new pyroclastic cone inside the inner crater on 26 July (figure 24). On 27 July a dense ash plume was visible again in satellite imagery drifting NW and the hottest part of the thermal anomaly was in the SE quadrant of the crater (figure 25). Substantial SO2 plumes were recorded by the OMI instrument on the Aura satellite during July and early August 2015 (figure 26).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 23. A satellite image of the summit of Raung on 20 July 2015 showed fresh, incandescent lava covering the floor of the summit crater and a dense ash plume drifting N from the summit. Thermal activity on the NE flank was likely the result of incandescent ejecta from the crater causing a fire. Image created by DigitalGlobe, captured by WorldView3, courtesy of Volcano Discovery.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 24. Incandescent ejecta emerged from two vents on the new pyroclastic cone growing inside the inner crater of Raung on 26 July 2015. Photo by Vianney Tricou, used with permission, courtesy of Volcano Discovery.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 25. Landsat-8 imagery of Raung during July 2015 indicated dense ash emissions and large thermal anomalies from fresh lava. The 2-km-wide crater floor was fully covered with fresh lava by 11 July. On 27 July the dense ash plume was drifting NW and the highest heat was concentrated in the SE quadrant of the crater. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 26. Substantial plumes of sulfur dioxide from Raung were measured by the OMI instrument on the AURA satellite during July and August 2015. The first plumes were measured in mid-June; they intensified during the second half of July and the first week of August, but had decreased by mid-August. Wind directions were highly variable throughout the period. The date is recorded above each image. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Page.

Significant ash emissions continued into early August 2015 with numerous flight cancellations. The Darwin VAAC reported ash plumes rising to 5.2 km altitude and extending as far as 750 km SE during the first two weeks in August (figure 27). Satellite imagery indicated a small ash plume drifting W from the center of the crater on 12 August and weak thermal anomalies along the E and S rim of the floor of the crater (figure 28). The summit crater was covered with fresh lava on 14 August when viewed by visitors, and ash emissions rose a few hundred meters above the crater rim from a vent in the SW side of the pyroclastic cone (figure 29). The visitors observed pulsating ash emissions rising from the SW vent on the large double-crater new cinder cone. The larger vent to the NE was almost entirely inactive except for two small, weakly effusive vents on its inner walls.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 27. A dense ash plume drifted many kilometers S from Raung on 2 August 2015 in this view from nearly 100 km W. Incandescence at the summit indicated ongoing activity from the major 2015 eruption. In the foreground is Lamongan volcano whose last known eruption occurred in 1898. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 28. Landsat-8 satellite imagery of Raung indicated a small ash plume drifting W from the center of the crater on 12 August 2015. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 29. The summit crater of Raung on 14 August 2015 was filled with fresh lava from an eruption that began in November 2014. Ash emissions from a vent in the side of the newly grown pyroclastic cone within the crater rose a few hundred meters above the crater rim. Courtesy of Volcano Discovery.

The lengthy sequence of multiple daily VAAC reports that began in late June ended on 16 August 2015 with reports becoming more intermittent and ash plume heights rising to only 3.7-3.9 km altitude. Multiple discontinuous eruptions to 3.9 km altitude were reported on 18 August. The plumes extended about 100 km NW. The last report of an ash plume was from an airline on 22 August noting a low-level plume 50 km NW. Two MODVOLC alerts were issued that day. By 28 August only a very small steam plume was present at the center of the crater; the southern half of the edge of the crater floor still had small thermal anomalies (figure 30). The last single MODVOLC thermal alerts were on 29 August and 7 September. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 on 24 August 2015, and further lowered to 1 on 20 October 2016.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 30. By 28 August 2015 only a very small steam plume was present at the center of the summit crater of Raung, and the southern half of the edge of the crater floor only had weak thermal anomalies from cooling lava. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Raung, one of Java's most active volcanoes, is a massive stratovolcano in easternmost Java that was constructed SW of the rim of Ijen caldera. The unvegetated summit is truncated by a dramatic steep-walled, 2-km-wide caldera that has been the site of frequent historical eruptions. A prehistoric collapse of Gunung Gadung on the W flank produced a large debris avalanche that traveled 79 km, reaching nearly to the Indian Ocean. Raung contains several centers constructed along a NE-SW line, with Gunung Suket and Gunung Gadung stratovolcanoes being located to the NE and W, respectively.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), National Disaster Management Agency, Graha BNPB - Jl. Scout Kav.38, East Jakarta 13120, Indonesia (URL: http://www.bnpb.go.id/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/);Google Earth (URL: https://www.google.com/earth/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); NASA Earth Observatory, EOS Project Science Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/, https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/86213/eruption-of-raung-volcano); Tom Pfeiffer, Volcano Discovery (URL: http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/); Aris Yanto (URL: https://www.exploredesa.com/2012/11/mount-raung-produce-of-vulcanic-ash-plume-and-continue-eruption/); DigitalGlobe (URL: https://www.maxar.com/, https://twitter.com/Maxar/status/875449111398547457); Øystein Lund Andersen (URL: https://twitter.com/OysteinVolcano/status/1194879946042142726, http://www.oysteinlundandersen.com).


Klyuchevskoy (Russia) — September 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Klyuchevskoy

Russia

56.056°N, 160.642°E; summit elev. 4754 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strombolian activity, gas-and-steam and ash plumes, and a lava flow during June-early July 2020

Klyuchevskoy is a frequently active stratovolcano located in northern Kamchatka. Historical eruptions dating back 3,000 years have included more than 100 flank eruptions with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks. The previous report (BGVN 45:06) described ash plumes, nighttime incandescence, and Strombolian activity. Strombolian activity, ash plumes, and a strong lava flow continued. This report updates activity from June through August 2020 using weekly and daily reports from the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory (VAAC), and satellite data.

Moderate explosive-effusive activity continued in June 2020, with Strombolian explosions, frequent gas-and-steam emissions that contained some amount of ash, and an active lava flow. On 1 June a gas-and-steam plume containing some ash extended up to 465 km SE and E. The lava flow descended the SE flank down the Apakhonchich chute (figure 43). Occasionally, phreatic explosions accompanied the lava flow as it interacted with snow. Intermittent ash plumes, reported throughout the month by KVERT using video and satellite data and the Tokyo VAAC using HIMAWARI-8 imagery, rose to 5.5-6.7 km altitude and drifted in different directions up to 34 km from the volcano. On 12 and 30 June ash plumes rose to a maximum altitude of 6.7 km. On 19 June, 28-30 June, and 1-3 July some collapses were detected alongside the lava flow as it continued to advance down the SE flank.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 43. Gray ash plumes (left) and a lava flow descending the Apakhonchich chute on the SE flank, accompanied by a dark ash plume and Strombolian activity (right) were observed at the summit of Klyuchevskoy on 10 June 2020. Courtesy of E. Saphonova, IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.

During 1-3 July moderate Strombolian activity was observed, accompanied by gas-and-steam emissions containing ash and a continuous lava flow traveling down the Apakhonchich chute on the SE flank. On 1 July a Tokyo VAAC advisory reported an ash plume rising to 6 km altitude and extending SE. On 3 July the activity sharply decreased. KVERT reported there was some residual heat leftover from the lava flow and Strombolian activity that continued to cool through at least 13 July; KVERT also reported frequent gas-and-steam emissions, which contained a small amount of ash through 5 July, rising from the summit crater (figure 44). The weekly KVERT report on 16 July stated that the eruption had ended on 3 July 2020.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 44. Fumarolic activity continued in the summit crater of Klyuchevskoy on 7 July 2020. Courtesy of KSRS ME, Russia, KVERT.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data shows frequent and strong thermal activity within 5 km of the summit crater from March through June followed by a sharp and sudden decline in early July (figures 45). A total of six weak thermal anomalies were detected between July and August. According to the MODVOLC thermal algorithm, a total of 111 thermal alerts were detected at or near the summit crater from 1 June to 1 July, a majority of which were due to the active lava flow on the SE flank and Strombolian explosions in the crater. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery frequently showed the active lava flow descending the SE flank as a strong thermal anomaly, sometimes even through weather clouds (figure 46). These thermal anomalies were also recorded by the Sentinel-2 MODIS Thermal Volcanic Activity data on a MIROVA graph, showing a strong cluster during June to early July, followed by a sharp decrease and then a hiatus in activity (figure 47).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 45. Thermal activity at Klyuchevskoy was frequent and strong during February through June 2020, according to the MIROVA graph (Log Radiative Power). Activity sharply decreased during July through August with six low-power thermal anomalies. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 46. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images show the strong and persistent lava flow (bright yellow-orange) originating from the summit crater at Klyuchevskoy from 1 June through 1 July 2020. The lava flow was active in the Apakhonchich chute on the SE flank. Sentinel-2 satellite images with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 47. Strong clusters of thermal anomalies were detected in the summit at Klyuchevskoy (red dots) during January through June 2020, as recorded by the Sentinel-2 MODIS Thermal Volcanic Activity data (bands 12, 11, 8A). Activity sharply decreased during July through August with few low-power thermal anomalies. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. Klyuchevskoy (also spelled Kliuchevskoi) is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. It rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of the 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Fuego (Guatemala) — September 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Fuego

Guatemala

14.473°N, 90.88°W; summit elev. 3763 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ongoing explosions, ash plumes, lava flows, and lahars during April-July 2020

Fuego, located in Guatemala, is a stratovolcano that has been erupting since 2002 with historical eruptions dating back to 1531. Volcanism is characterized by major ashfalls, pyroclastic flows, lava flows, and lahars. The previous report (BGVN 45:04) described recent activity that included multiple ash explosions, block avalanches, and intermittent lava flows. This report updates activity from April through July 2020 that consisted of daily explosions, ash plumes, block avalanches ashfall, intermittent lava flows, and lahars. The primary source of information comes from the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanología, Meteorología e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and various satellite data.

Summary of activity during April-July 2020. Daily activity throughout April-July 2020 was characterized by multiple hourly explosions, ash plumes that rose to a maximum of 4.9 km altitude, incandescent pulses that reached 600 m above the crater, block avalanches into multiple drainages, and ashfall affecting nearby communities (table 21). The highest rate of explosions occurred on 2 and 3 April and 2 May with up to 16 explosions per hour. White degassing occurred frequently during the reporting period, rising to a maximum altitude of 4.5 km and drifting in multiple directions. Intermittent lava flows were observed each month in the Seca (Santa Teresa) and Ceniza drainages (figure 132); the number of flows decreased in June through July, which is represented in the MIROVA analysis of MODIS satellite data, where the strength and frequency of thermal activity slightly decreased (figure 133). Occasional lahars were detected descending several drainages on the W and SE flanks, sometimes carrying tree branches and large blocks up to 1 m in diameter.

Table 21. Activity summary by month for Fuego with information compiled from INSIVUMEH daily reports.

Month Number of explosions per hour Ash plume heights (km) Ash plume distance (km) and direction Drainages affected by block avalanches Villages reporting ashfall
Apr 2020 5-16 4.3-4.9 km 8-20 km E, NE, SE, W, NW, SW, S, N Taniluyá, Ceniza, Las Lajas, Trinidad, Seca, Honda, and Santa Teresa Morelia, Panimaché I and II, Sangre de Cristo, Santa Sofía, Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa, Las Cruces Quisache, La Rochela, Ceylan, and Osuna
May 2020 4-16 4.3-4.9 km 10-17 km S, SW, W, N, NE, E, SE Trinidad, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Las Lajas, Santa Teresa, Seca, and Honda Panimaché I, La Rochela, Ceilán, Morelia, San Andrés Osuna, Finca Palo Verde, Santa Sofía, Seilán, San Pedro Yepocapa, Alotenango, Ciudad Vieja, San Miguel Dueñas, and Antigua Guatemala
Jun 2020 3-15 4.2-4.9 km 10-25.9 km E, SE, S, N, NE, W, SW, NW Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, Santa Teresa and Honda San Pedro Yepocapa, Sangre de Cristo, Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Finca Palo Verde, El Porvenir, Yucales, Santa Emilia, Santa Sofía
Jul 2020 1-15 4-4.9 km 10-24 km W, NW, SW, S, NE Trinidad, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Honda, Las Lajas, Seca, and Santa Teresa Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Santa Sofía, Finca Palo Verde, Sangre de Cristo, San Pedro Yepocapa, and El Porvenir
Figure (see Caption) Figure 132. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images of Fuego between 9 April 2020 and 13 July 2020 showing lava flows (bright yellow-orange) traveling generally S and W from the summit crater. Some lava flows were accompanied by gas emissions (9 April, 9 May, and 24 May 2020). Sentinel-2 satellite images with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 133. Thermal activity at Fuego was persistent and strong from 16 September through late May 2020, according to the MIROVA graph (Log Radiative Power). From early to mid-June activity seemed to stop briefly before resuming again at a lower rate. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Activity during April-May 2020. Activity in April 2020 consisted of 5-16 explosions per hour, generating ash plumes that rose 4.3-4.9 km altitude and drifted 8-20 km in multiple directions. Ashfall was reported in Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Las Cruces Quisache (8 km NW), La Rochela, Ceylan, Osuna (12 km SW). The Washington VAAC issued multiple aviation advisories for a total of six days in April. Intermittent white gas-and-steam emissions reached 4.1-4.5 km altitude drifting in multiple directions. Incandescent ejecta was frequently observed rising 75-400 m above the crater; material ejected up to 600 m above the crater on 11 April. These constant explosions produced block avalanches that traveled down the Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Las Lajas (SE), Trinidad (S), Seca (W), Honda, and Santa Teresa (W) drainages. Effusive activity was reported on 6-13 and 15 April from the summit vent, traveling 150-800 m down the Ceniza drainage, accompanied by block avalanches in the front of the flow up to 1 km. Crater incandescence was also observed.

On 19-20 April a new lava flow descended the Ceniza drainage measuring 200-400 long, generating incandescent block avalanches at the front of the flow that moved up to 1 km. On 22 April lahars descended the Honda, Las Lajas, El Juté (SE), Trinidad, Ceniza, Taniluyá, Mineral, and Seca drainages and tributaries in Guacalate, Achiguate, and Pantaleón. During the evening of 23 April the rate of effusive activity increased; observatory staff observed a second lava flow in the Seca drainage was 170 m long and incandescent blocks from the flow traveled up to 600 m. Two lava flows in the Ceniza (130-400 m) and Seca (150-800 m) drainages continued from 23-28 April and had stopped by 30 April. On 30 April weak and moderate explosions produced ash plumes that rose 4.5-4.7 km altitude drifting S and SE, resulting in fine ashfall in Panimaché I, Morelia, Santa Sofía (figure 134).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 134. Photo of a small ash plume rising from Fuego on 30 April 2020. Photo has been slightly color corrected. Courtesy of William Chigna, CONRED.

During May 2020, the rate of explosion remained similar, with 4-16 explosions per hour, which generated gray ash plumes that rose 4.3-4.9 km altitude and drifted 10-17 km generally W and E. Ashfall was observed in Panimaché I, La Rochela, Ceilán, Morelia, San Andrés Osuna, Finca Palo Verde, Santa Sofía, Seilán, San Pedro Yepocapa, Alotenango (8 km ENE), Ciudad Vieja (13.5 km NE), San Miguel Dueñas (10 km NE), and Antigua Guatemala (18 km NE). The Washington VAAC issued volcanic ash advisory notices on six days in May. White gas-and-steam emissions continued, rising 4-4.5 km altitude drifting in multiple directions. Incandescent ejecta rose 100-400 m above the crater, accompanied by some crater incandescence and block avalanches in the Trinidad, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Las Lajas, Santa Teresa, Seca, and Honda drainages that moved up to 1 km and sometimes reached vegetated areas.

During 8-11 May a new 400 m long lava flow was detected in the Ceniza drainage, accompanied by constant crater incandescence and block avalanches traveling up to 1 km, according to INSIVUMEH. On 8 and 17 May moderate to strong lahars descended the Santa Teresa and Mineral drainages on the W flank and on 21 May they descended the Las Lajas drainage on the E flank and the Ceniza drainage on the SW flank. During 20-24 May a 100-400 m long lava flow was reported in the Ceniza drainage alongside degassing and avalanches moving up to 1 km and during 25-26 May a 150 m long lava flow was reported in the Seca drainage.

Activity during June-July 2020. The rate of explosions in June 2020 decreased slightly to 3-15 per hour, generating gray ash plumes that rose 4.2-4.9 km altitude and drifted 10-26 km in multiple directions (figure 135). As a result, intermittent ashfall was reported in San Pedro Yepocapa, Sangre de Cristo, Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Finca Palo Verde, El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Yucales (12 km SW), Santa Emilia, Santa Sofia, according to INSIVUMEH. VAAC advisories were published on eight days in June. Degassing persisted in the summit crater that rose 4.1-4.5 km altitude extending in different directions. Crater incandescence was observed occasionally, as well as incandescent pulses that rose 100-300 m above the crater. Block avalanches were observed descending the Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, Santa Teresa, and Honda drainages, which could sometimes carry blocks up to 1 km in diameter.

On 2 June at 1050 a weak to moderate lahar was observed in the Las Lajas drainage on the SE flank. On 5 June, more lahars were detected in the Seca and Mineral drainages on the W flanks. A new lava flow was detected on 12 June, traveling 250 m down the Seca drainage on the NW flank, and accompanied by constant summit crater incandescence and gas emissions. The flow continued into 14 June, lengthening up to 300 m long. On 24 June weak and moderate explosions produced ash plumes that rose 4.3-4.7 km altitude drifting W and SW (figure 135). On 29 June at 1300 a weak lahar was reported in the Seca, Santa Teresa, and Mineral drainages on the W flank.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 135. Examples of small ash plumes at Fuego on 15 (left) and 24 (right) June 2020. Courtesy of William Chigna, CONRED.

Daily explosions and ash plumes continued through July 2020, with 1-15 explosions per hour and producing consistent ash plumes 4-4.9 km altitude drifting generally W for 10-24 km. These explosions resulted in block avalanches that descended the Trinidad, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Honda, Las Lajas, Seca, and Santa Teresa drainages. The number of white gas emissions decrease slightly compared to previous months and 4-4.4 km altitude. VAAC advisories were distributed on twenty different days in July. Incandescent ejecta was observed rising 100-350 m above the crater. Occasional ashfall was observed in Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Santa Sofía, Finca Palo Verde, Sangre de Cristo, San Pedro Yepocapa, and El Porvenir, according to INSIVUMEH.

On 4 July in the early morning, a lava flow began in the Seca drainage, which also produced some fine ash particles that drifted W. The lava flow continued into 5 July, measuring 150 m long. On the same day, weak to moderate lahars traveled only 20 m, carrying tree branches and blocks measuring 30 cm to 1 m. On 14, 24, and 29 July more lahars were generated in the Las Lajas drainages on the former date and both the Las Lajas and El Jute drainages on the two latter dates.

Geologic Background. Volcán Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is also one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between Fuego and Acatenango to the north. Construction of Meseta dates back to about 230,000 years and continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene. Collapse of Meseta may have produced the massive Escuintla debris-avalanche deposit, which extends about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at the mostly andesitic Acatenango. Eruptions at Fuego have become more mafic with time, and most historical activity has produced basaltic rocks. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hydrologia (INSIVUMEH), Unit of Volcanology, Geologic Department of Investigation and Services, 7a Av. 14-57, Zona 13, Guatemala City, Guatemala (URL: http://www.insivumeh.gob.gt/); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); William Chigna, CONRED (URL: https://twitter.com/william_chigna).


Nishinoshima (Japan) — September 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Nishinoshima

Japan

27.247°N, 140.874°E; summit elev. 25 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Major June-July eruption of lava, ash, and sulfur dioxide; activity declines in August 2020

Japan’s Nishinoshima volcano, located about 1,000 km S of Tokyo in the Ogasawara Arc, erupted above sea level in November 2013 after 40 years of dormancy. Activity lasted through November 2015 and returned during mid-2017, continuing the growth of the island with ash plumes, ejecta, and lava flows. A short eruptive event in July 2018 produced a small lava flow and vent on the side of the pyroclastic cone. The next eruption of ash plumes, incandescent ejecta, and lava flows began in early December 2019, resulting in significant growth of the island. This report covers the ongoing activity from March-August 2020 when activity decreased. Information is provided primarily from Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) monthly reports and the Japan Coast Guard (JCG), which makes regular overflights to make observations.

Renewed eruptive activity that began on 5 December 2019 continued during March-August 2020 but appeared to wane by the end of August. Major lava flows covered all sides of the island, with higher levels of activity during late June and early July. Ash emissions increased significantly during June and produced dense black ash plumes that rose up to 6 km altitude in early July. Explosive activity produced lightning and incandescent jets that rose 200 m and large bombs that fell to the base of the pyroclastic cone. Lava flow activity diminished at the end of July. Ash emissions decreased throughout August and appeared to cease after 27 August 2020. The MIROVA plot clearly reflects the high levels of thermal activity between December 2019 and August 2020 (figure 80); this event was reported by JMA as the largest eruption recorded to date. Sulfur dioxide emissions were very high during late June through early August, producing emissions that drifted across much of the western Pacific region.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 80. The MIROVA plot of thermal activity at Nishinoshima from 14 October 2019 through August 2020 indicates the high levels between early December 2019 and late July 2020 that resulted from the eruption of numerous lava flows on all flanks of the pyroclastic cone, significantly enlarging the island. Courtesy of MIROVA.

The Japan Coast Guard (JCG) conducted overflights of Nishinoshima on 9 and 15 March 2020 (figure 81). During both visits they observed eruptive activity from the summit crater, including ash emissions that rose to an altitude of approximately 1,000 m and lava flowing down the N and SE flanks (figure 82). Large ejecta was scattered around the base of the pyroclastic cone. The lava flowing north had reached the coast and was producing vigorous steam as it entered the water on 9 March; whitish gas emissions were visible on the N flank of the cone at the source of the lava flow (figure 83). On 9 March yellow-green discolored water was noted off the NE shore. The lava flow on the SE coast produced a small amount of steam at the ocean entry point and a strong signal in thermal imagery on 15 March (figure 84). Multiple daily MODVOLC thermal alerts were issued during 1-10, 17-24, and 27-30 March. Landsat-8 visual and thermal imagery on 30 March 2020 confirmed that thermal anomalies on the N and SE flanks of the volcano continued.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 81. The Japan Coast Guard conducted an overflight of Nishinoshima on 9 March 2020 and observed ash emissions rising 1,000 m above the summit and lava flowing into the ocean off the N flank of the island. Courtesy of Japan Coast Guard (JCG) and JMA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 82. Lava flows at Nishinoshima during February and March 2020 were concentrated on the N and SE flanks. The areas in blue indicate topographical changes due to lava flows and pyroclastic deposits from the previous measurement. The growth of the SE-flank flow decreased during March while the N-flank flow rate increased significantly. Left image shows changes between 14 and 28 February and right image shows the differences between 28 February and 13 March. The correlated image analysis uses ALOS-2 / PALSAR-2 and is carried out with the cooperation of JAXA through the activities of the Satellite Analysis Group of the Volcano Eruption Prediction Liaison Committee. The software was developed by the Japan National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention and uses the technical data C1-No 478 of the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. Courtesy of JAXA and JMA (Volcanic activity commentary material on Nishinoshima, March 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 83. Vigorous steam emissions on the N flank of Nishinoshima on 9 March 2020 were caused by the active flow on the N flank. Whitish steam and gas midway up the flank indicated the outlet of the flow. Ash emissions rose from the summit crater and drifted E. Courtesy of Japan Coast Guard and JMA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 84. Infrared imagery from 15 March 2020 at Nishinoshima showed the incandescent lava flow on the SE flank (foreground), blocks of ejecta scattered around the summit and flanks of the pyroclastic cone, and the active N-flank flow (left). Courtesy of Japan Coast Guard and JMA.

Ash emissions were not observed at Nishinoshima during JCG overflights on 6, 16, and 19 April 2020, but gas-and-steam emissions were noted from the summit crater, and a yellow discoloration interpreted by JMA to be sulfur precipitation was observed near the top of the pyroclastic cone. The summit crater was larger than during previous visits. Steam plumes seen each of those days on the N and NE coasts suggested active ocean entry of lava flows (figure 85). A lava flow was observed emerging from the E flank of the cone and entering the ocean on the E coast on 19 and 29 April (figure 86). During the overflight on 29 April observers noted lava flowing southward from a vent on the E flank of the pyroclastic cone. A narrow, brown, ash plume was visible on 29 April at the summit crater rising to an altitude of about 1,500 m. Thermal observations indicated continued flow activity throughout the month. Multiple daily MODVOLC thermal alerts were recorded during 2-6, 10-11, 17-23, and 28-30 April. Significant growth of the pyroclastic cone occurred between early February and late April 2020 (figure 87).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 85. Multiple entry points of lava flowed into the ocean producing jets of steam along the N flank of Nishinoshima on 6 April 2020. Courtesy of JCG and JMA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 86. Lava flowed down the E flank of Nishinoshima from a vent below the summit on 19 April 2020. The ocean entry produced a vigorous steam plume (left). Courtesy of JCG.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 87. The pyroclastic cone at Nishinoshima grew significantly in size between 4 February (left), 9 March (middle), and 19 April 2020 (right). View is to the E. Courtesy of JMA and JCG.

Infrared satellite imagery from 17 May 2020 showed a strong thermal anomaly at the summit and hot spots on the NW flank indicative of flows. Visible imagery confirmed emissions at the summit and steam plumes on the NW flank (figure 88). Gray ash plumes rose to about 1,800 m altitude on 18 May during the only overflight of the month made by the Japan Coast Guard. In addition, white gas emissions rose from around the summit area and large blocks of ejecta were scattered around the base of the pyroclastic cone (figure 89). Steam from ocean-entry lava on the N flank was reduced from previous months, but a new flow moving NW into the ocean was generating a steam plume and a strong thermal signature. Multi-pixel thermal alerts were measured by the MODVOLC system on 1-3, 9-10, 13-15, 18, and 26-30 May. Sulfur dioxide emissions had been weak and intermittent from March through early May 2020 but became more persistent during the second half of May. Although modest in size, the plumes were detectible hundreds of kilometers away from the volcano (figure 90).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 88. Landsat-8 satellite imagery of Nishinoshima from 17 May 2020 confirmed continued eruptive activity. Visible imagery showed emissions at the summit and steam plumes on the NW flank (left) and infrared imagery showed a strong thermal anomaly at the summit and anomalies on the NW flank indicative of lava flows (right). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 89. Lava continued to enter the ocean at Nishinoshima during May 2020. A new lava flow on the NW flank produced a strong steam plume at an ocean entry (left) on 18 May 2020. In addition to a light gray plume of gas and ash, steaming blocks of ejecta were visible on the flanks of the pyroclastic cone. The strong thermal signature of the NW-flank flow in infrared imagery that same day showed multiple new lobes flowing to the ocean (right). Courtesy of JCG and JMA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 90. Small but distinct SO2 emissions from Nishinoshima were recorded by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite during the second half of May 2020. The plumes drifted tens to hundreds of kilometers away from the volcano in multiple directions as the wind directions changed. Nishinoshima is about 1,000 kilometers S of Tokyo. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

Activity increased significantly during June 2020. Satellite imagery from 2 June revealed two intense thermal anomalies at the summit indicating a new crater, and lava flows active on the NW and NE flanks, all showing gas or steam emissions (figure 91). Dense brown and gray ash emissions were observed rising from the summit crater during JCG overflights on 7 and 15 June (figure 92). Plumes reached at least 1,500 m altitude, and ejecta reached the base of the pyroclastic cone. Between 5 and 19 June the lava flow on the WNW coast slowed significantly, while the flows to the N and E became significantly more active (figure 93). The Tokyo VAAC reported the first ash plume since mid-February on 12 June rose to 2.1 km and drifted NE. On 14 June they reported an ash plume extending E at 2.7 km altitude. Dense emissions continued to drift N and E at 2.1-2.7 km altitude until the last week of the month. The JCG overflight on 19 June observed darker ash emissions than two weeks earlier that drifted at least 180 km NE (figure 94) and incandescent tephra that exploded from the enlarged summit area where three overlapping craters trending E-W had formed.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 91. Landsat-8 satellite imagery on 2 June 2020 confirmed ongoing activity at Nishinoshima. Lava produced ocean-entry steam on the NE coast; a weak plume on the NW coast suggested reduced activity in that area (left). In addition, a dense steam plume drifted E from the summit, while a fainter plume adjacent to it also drifted E. The infrared image (right) indicated two intense anomalies at the summit, and weaker anomalies from lava flows on the NW and NE flanks. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 92. Lava flows at Nishinoshima entered the ocean on the N and NE coasts (left) on 7 June 2020, and dense, gray ash emissions rose to at least 1,500 m altitude. Courtesy of JCG.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 93. The lava flow on the WNW coast of Nishinoshima slowed significantly in early June 2020, while the flows to the N and E covered large areas of those flanks between 5 and 19 June. The areas in blue indicate topographical changes due to lava flows and pyroclastic deposits from the previous measurement. Left image shows the differences between 22 May and 5 June and right image shows changes between 5 and 19 June. The correlated image analysis uses ALOS-2 / PALSAR-2 and is carried out with the cooperation of JAXA through the activities of the Satellite Analysis Group of the Volcano Eruption Prediction Liaison Committee. The software was developed by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention and uses the technical data C1-No 478 of the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. Courtesy of JAXA and JMA (Volcanic activity commentary material on Nishinoshima, June 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 94. Ash emissions and explosive activity at Nishinoshima increased significantly during the second half of June. Dense black ash rose to 2.4 km altitude and drifted at least 180 km to the NE on 19 June 2020. Vigorous white steam plumes rose from the ocean on the E flank where a lava flow entered the ocean. Courtesy of JCG.

The Tokyo VAAC reported ash emissions that rose to 4.6 km altitude and drifted NE on 25 June. For the remainder of the month they rose to 2.7-3.9 km altitude and drifted N and NE. By the time of the JCG overflight on 29 June, the new crater that had opened on the SW flank had merged with the summit crater (figure 95). Dense black ash emissions rose to 3.4 km altitude and drifted NE, lava flowed down the SW flank into the ocean producing violent steam explosions, and incandescent tephra was scattered at least 200 m from the base of the pyroclastic cone from ongoing explosive activity (figure 96). Multiple layers of recent flow activity were visible along the SW coast (figure 97). Yellow-green discolored water encircled the entire island with a width of 1,000 m.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 95. The new crater on the SW flank of Nishinoshima had merged with the summit crater by 29 June 2020. Courtesy of JCG and JMA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 96. Dense black ash emissions rose to 3.4 km altitude and drifted NE from the summit of Nishinoshima on 29 June 2020. Lava flowed down the SW flank into the ocean producing steam explosions, and incandescent tephra was scattered at least 200 m from the base of the pyroclastic cone from ongoing explosive activity at the summit (inset). Courtesy of JCG.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 97. Different textures of lava flows were visible along the SW flank of Nishinoshima on 29 June 2020. The active flow appeared dark brown and blocky, and produced steam explosions at the ocean entry site (right). Slightly older, brownish-red lava (center) still produced steam along the coastline. Courtesy of JCG.

MODVOLC thermal alerts reached their highest levels of the period during June 2020 with multi-pixel alerts recorded on most days of the month. Sulfur dioxide emissions increased steadily throughout June to the highest levels recorded for Nishinoshima; by the end of the month plumes of SO2 were drifting thousands of kilometers across the Pacific Ocean and being captured in complex atmospheric circulation currents (figure 98).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 98. Sulfur dioxide emissions at Nishinoshima increased noticeably during the second half of June 2020 as measured by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite. Atmospheric circulation currents produced long-lived plumes that drifted thousands of kilometers from the volcano. Nishinoshima is 1,000 km S of Tokyo. Courtesy of NASA Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

By early July 2020, satellite data indicated that the NE quadrant of the island was covered with ash, and a large amount of new lava had flowed down the SW flank, creating fans extending into the ocean (figure 99). The Tokyo VAAC reported ash emissions that rose to 3.7-4.9 km altitude and drifted N during 1-6 July. The altitude increased to 6.1 km during 8 and 9 July, and ranged from 4.6-6.1 km during 10-14 July while the drift direction changed to NE. The marine meteorological observation ship "Ryofu Maru" reported on 11 July that dense black ash was continuously erupting from the summit crater and drifting W at 1,700 m altitude or higher. They observed large volcanic blocks scattered around the base of the pyroclastic cone, and ash falling from the drifting plume. During the night of 11 July incandescent lava and volcanic lightning rose to about 200 m above the crater rim (figure 100).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 99. By early July 2020, satellite data from Nishinoshima indicated that the NE quadrant of the island was covered with ash, and a large amount of new lava had flowed down the SW flank creating fans extending into the ocean. The areas in blue indicate topographical changes due to lava flows and pyroclastic deposits from the previous measurement. Left image shows differences between 5 and 19 June and the right image shows changes between 19 June and 3 July that included abundant ashfall on the NE flank. The correlated image analysis uses ALOS-2 / PALSAR-2 and is carried out with the cooperation of JAXA through the activities of the Satellite Analysis Group of the Volcano Eruption Prediction Liaison Committee. The software was developed by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention and uses the technical data C1-No 478 of the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. Courtesy of JAXA and JMA (Volcanic activity commentary material on Nishinoshima, June 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 100. High levels of activity were observed at Nishinoshima by crew members aboard the marine meteorological observation ship "Ryofu Maru” on 11 July 2020. Abundant ash emissions filled the sky and tephra fell out of the ash cloud for several kilometers downwind (left, seen from 6 km NE). Incandescent explosions rose as much as 200 m into the night sky (right, seen from 4 km E). Courtesy of JMA.

During 16-26 July 2020 the Tokyo VAAC reported ash emissions at 3.7-5.2 km altitude that drifted primarily N and NE. The vessel "Keifu Maru" passed Nishinoshima on 20 July and crewmembers observed continuing emissions from the summit of dense, black ash. JCG observed an ash plume rising to at least 2.7 km altitude during their overflight of 20 July. A large dome of fresh lava was visible on the SW flank of the island (figure 101). Lower ash emissions from 2.4-3.7 km altitude were reported by the Tokyo VAAC during 27-29 July, but the altitude increased to 5.5-5.8 km during the last two days of the month. During an overflight on 30 July by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, dark and light gray ash emissions rose to 3.0 km altitude, but no flowing lava or large bombs were observed. They also noted thick deposits of brownish-gray ash on the N side of the island (figure 102).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 101. JCG observed an ash plume at Nishinoshima rising to at least 2.7 km altitude during their overflight of 20 July 2020. A large dome of fresh lava was visible on the SW flank of the island. Courtesy of JCG.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 102. Ash emissions changed from dark to light gray on 30 July 2020 at Nishinoshima as seen during an overflight by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention. Thick brownish-gray ash was deposited over the lava on the N side of the island. Courtesy of JMA (Information on volcanic activity in Nishinoshima, July 2020).

JMA reported a sharp decrease in the lava eruption rate during July with thermal anomalies decreasing significantly mid-month. Multiple daily MODVOLC thermal alerts were recorded during the first half of the month but were reduced to two or three per day during the last third of July. Throughout July, SO2 emissions were the highest recorded in modern times for Nishinoshima. High levels of emissions were measured daily, producing streams with high concentrations of SO2 that were caught up in rotating wind currents and drifted thousands of kilometers across the Pacific Ocean (figure 103).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 103. Complex atmospheric wind patterns carried the largest SO2 plumes recorded from Nishinoshima thousands of kilometers around the western Pacific Ocean during July 2020. Nishinoshima is about 1,000 km S of Tokyo. Top and bottom left images both show 6 July but at different scales. Courtesy of NASA Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

Thermal activity was greatly reduced during August 2020. Only one or two MODVOLC alerts were issued on 11, 18, 20, 21, 29, and 30 August, and no fresh lava flows were observed. The Tokyo VAAC reported ash emissions daily from 1-20 August. Plume heights were 4.9-5.8 km altitude during 1-4 August after which they dropped to 3.9 km altitude through 15 August. A brief pulse to 4.6 km altitude was recorded on 16 August, but then they dropped to 3.0 km or lower through the end of the month and became intermittent. The last ash emission was reported at 2.7 km altitude drifting W on 27 August.

No eruptive activity was observed during the Japan Coast Guard overflights on 19 and 23 August. High temperatures were measured on the inner wall of the summit crater on 19 August (figure 104). Steam plumes rose from the summit crater to about 2.5 km altitude during both visits (figure 105). Yellow-green discolored water was present on 23 August around the NW and SW coasts. No lava flows were observed, and infrared cameras did not measure any surface thermal anomalies outside of the crater. Very high levels of SO2 emissions were measured through 12 August when they began to noticeably decrease (figure 106). By the end of the month, only small amounts of SO2 were measured in satellite data.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 104. A strong thermal anomaly was still present inside the newly enlarged summit crater at Nishinoshima on 19 August 2020. Courtesy of JCG.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 105. Only steam plumes were observed rising from the summit crater of Nishinoshima during the 23 August 2020 overflight by the Japan Coast Guard. Courtesy of JCG.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 106. Sulfur dioxide emissions remained very high at Nishinoshima until 12 August 2020 when they declined sharply. Circulating air currents carried SO2 thousands of kilometers around the western Pacific region. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

Geologic Background. The small island of Nishinoshima was enlarged when several new islands coalesced during an eruption in 1973-74. Another eruption that began offshore in 2013 completely covered the previous exposed surface and enlarged the island again. Water discoloration has been observed on several occasions since. The island is the summit of a massive submarine volcano that has prominent satellitic peaks to the S, W, and NE. The summit of the southern cone rises to within 214 m of the sea surface 9 km SSE.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html); Japan Coast Guard (JCG), Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department, 3-1-1, Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8932, Japan (URL: https://www1.kaiho.mlit.go.jp/GIJUTSUKOKUSAI/kaiikiDB/kaiyo18-e1.htm); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency-Earth Observation Research Center (JAXA-EORC), 7-44-1 Jindaiji Higashi-machi, Chofu-shi, Tokyo 182-8522, Japan (URL: http://www.eorc.jaxa.jp/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/).


Turrialba (Costa Rica) — September 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Turrialba

Costa Rica

10.025°N, 83.767°W; summit elev. 3340 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


New eruptive period on 18 June 2020 consisted of ash eruptions

Turrialba is a stratovolcano located in Costa Rica that overlooks the city of Cartago. Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2,200 m summit depression that is breached to the NE. Activity described in the previous report primarily included weak ash explosions and minor ash emissions (BGVN 44:11). This reporting period updates information from November 2019-August 2020; volcanism dominantly consists of ash emissions during June-August, based on information from daily and weekly reports by the Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA) and satellite data.

Volcanism during November 2019 through mid-June was relatively low, dominated by low SO2 emissions (100-300 tons/day) and typical low seismic tremors. A single explosion was recorded at 1850 on 7 December 2019, and two gas-and-steam plumes rose 800 m and 300 m above the crater on 25 and 27 December, respectively. An explosion was detected on 29 January 2020 but did not result in any ejecta. An overflight during the week of 10 February measured the depth of the crater (140 m); since the previous measurements made in February 2019 (220 m), the crater has filled with 80 m of debris due to frequent collapses of the NW and SE internal crater walls. Beginning around February and into at least early May 2020 the Sentinel-2 MODIS Thermal Volcanic Activity graph provided by the MIROVA system detected a small cluster of thermal anomalies (figure 52). Some of these anomalies were faintly registered in Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery during 10 and 25 April, with a more distinct anomaly occurring on 15 May (figure 53).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 52. A small cluster of thermal anomalies were detected in the summit area of Turrialba (red dots) during February-May 2020 as recorded by the Sentinel-2 MODIS Thermal Volcanic Activity data (bands 12, 11, 8A). Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 53. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery detected minor gas-and-steam emissions (left) and a weak thermal anomaly (right) in the summit crater at Turrialba on 11 January and 15 May 2020, respectively. Sentinel-2 atmospheric penetration (bands 12, 11, 8A) images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

On 18 June activity increased, which marked the start of a new eruptive period that produced ash emissions rising 100 m above the crater rim at 1714, 1723, and 1818. The next morning, 19 June, two more events at 1023 and 1039 resulted in ash emissions rising 100 m above the crater. During 23-26 June small ash emissions continued to occur each day, rising no higher than 100 m above the crater. A series of small ash eruptions that rose 100 m above the crater occurred during 28 and 29 June; four events were recorded at 0821, 1348, 1739, and 2303 on 28 June and five more were recorded at 0107, 0232, 0306, 0412, and 0818 on 29 June. The two events at 0107 and 0412 were accompanied by ballistics ejected onto the N wall of the crater, according to OVSICORI-UNA.

Almost daily ash emissions continued during 1-7 July, rising less than 100 m above the crater; no ash emissions were observed on 3 July. On 6 July, gas-and-steam and ash emissions rose hundreds of meters above the crater at 0900, resulting in local ashfall. Passive gas-and-steam emissions with minor amounts of ash were occasionally visible during 9-10 July. On 14 July an eruptive pulse was observed, generating brief incandescence at 2328, which was likely associated with a small ash emission. Dilute ash emissions at 1028 on 16 July preceded an eruption at 1209 that resulted in an ash plume rising 200 m above the crater. Ash emissions of variable densities continued through 20 July rising as high as 200 m above the crater; on 20 July incandescence was observed on the W wall of the crater. An eruptive event at 0946 on 29 July produced an ash plume that rose 200-300 m above the crater rim. During 30-31 July a series of at least ten ash eruptions were detected, rising no higher than 200 m above the crater, each lasting less than ten minutes. Some incandescence was visible on the SW wall of the crater during this time.

On 1 August at 0746 an ash plume rose 500 m above the crater. During 4-5 August a total of 19 minor ash emissions occurred, accompanied by ash plumes that rose no higher than 200 m above the crater. OVSICORI-UNA reported on 21 August that the SW wall of the crater had fractured; some incandescence in the fracture zone had been observed the previous month. Two final eruptions were detected on 22 and 24 August at 1253 and 2023, respectively. The eruption on 24 August resulted in an ash plume that rose to a maximum height of 1 km above the crater.

Geologic Background. Turrialba, the easternmost of Costa Rica's Holocene volcanoes, is a large vegetated basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano located across a broad saddle NE of Irazú volcano overlooking the city of Cartago. The massive edifice covers an area of 500 km2. Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2200 m summit depression that is breached to the NE. Most activity originated from the summit vent complex, but two pyroclastic cones are located on the SW flank. Five major explosive eruptions have occurred during the past 3500 years. A series of explosive eruptions during the 19th century were sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Fumarolic activity continues at the central and SW summit craters.

Information Contacts: Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), Apartado 86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica (URL: http://www.ovsicori.una.ac.cr/, https://www.facebook.com/OVSICORI/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Etna (Italy) — September 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Etna

Italy

37.748°N, 14.999°E; summit elev. 3320 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Effusive activity in early April; frequent Strombolian explosions and ash emissions during April-July 2020

Etna, located on the island of Sicily, Italy, is a stratovolcano that has had historical eruptions dating back 3,500 years. Its most recent eruptive period began in September 2013 and has continued through July 2020, characterized by Strombolian explosions, lava flows, and ash plumes. Activity has commonly originated from the summit areas, including the Northeast Crater (NEC), the Voragine-Bocca Nuova (or Central) complex (VOR-BN), the Southeast Crater (SEC, formed in 1978), and the New Southeast Crater (NSEC, formed in 2011). The newest crater, referred to as the "cono della sella" (saddle cone), emerged during early 2017 in the area between SEC and NSEC. Volcanism during this reporting period from April through July 2020 includes frequent Strombolian explosions primarily in the Voragine and NSEC craters, ash emissions, some lava effusions, and gas-and-steam emissions. Information primarily comes from weekly reports by the Osservatorio Etneo (OE), part of the Catania Branch of Italy's Istituo Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologica (INGV).

Summary of activity during April-July 2020. Degassing of variable intensity is typical activity from all summit vents at Etna during the reporting period. Intra-crater Strombolian explosions and ash emissions that rose to a maximum altitude of 5 km on 19 April primarily originated from the Voragine (VOR) and New Southeast Crater (NSEC) craters. At night, summit crater incandescence was occasionally visible in conjunction with explosions and degassing. During 18-19 April small lava flows were observed in the VOR and NSEC craters that descended toward the BN from the VOR Crater and the upper E and S flanks of the NSEC. On 19 April a significant eruptive event began with Strombolian explosions that gradually evolved into lava fountaining activity, ejecting hot material and spatter from the NSEC. Ash plumes that were produced during this event resulted in ashfall to the E of Etna. The flows had stopped by the end of April; activity during May consisted of Strombolian explosions in both the VOR and NSEC craters and intermittent ash plumes rising 4.5 km altitude. On 22 May Strombolian explosions in the NSEC produced multiple ash plumes, which resulted in ashfall to the S. INGV reported that the pit crater at the bottom of BN had widened and was accompanied by degassing. Explosions with intermittent ash emissions continued during June and July and were primarily focused in the VOR and NSEC craters; mild Strombolian activity in the SEC was reported in mid-July.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data shows multiple episodes of thermal activity throughout the reporting period (figure 296). In early April, the frequency and power of the thermal anomalies began to decrease through mid-June; in July, they had increased in power again but remained less frequent compared to activity in January through March. According to the MODVOLC thermal algorithm, a total of seven alerts were detected in the summit craters during 10 April (1), 17 April (1), 24 April (2), 10 July (1), 13 July (1), and 29 July (1) 2020. These thermal hotspots were typically registered during or after a Strombolian event. Frequent Strombolian activity contributed to distinct SO2 plumes that drifted in different directions (figure 297).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 296. Multiple episodes of varying thermal activity at Etna from 14 October 2019 through July 2020 were reflected in the MIROVA data (Log Radiative Power). In early April, the frequency and power of the thermal anomalies decreased through mid-June. In July, the thermal anomalies increased in power, but did not increase in frequency. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 297. Distinct SO2 plumes from Etna were detected on multiple days during April to July 2020 due to frequent Strombolian explosions, including, 24 April (top left), 9 May (top right), 25 June (bottom left), and 21 July (bottom right) 2020. Captured by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel 5P satellite, courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

Activity during April-May 2020. During April, INGV reported Strombolian explosions that produced some ash emissions and intra-crater effusive activity within the Voragine Crater (VOR) and abundant degassing from the New Southeast Crater (NSEC), Northeast Crater (NEC), and from two vents on the cono della sella (saddle cone) that were sometimes accompanied by a modest amount of ash (figure 298). At night, summit crater incandescence was observed in the cono della salla. The Strombolian activity in the VOR built intra-crater scoria cones while lava flows traveled down the S flank of the largest, main cone. On 18 April effusive activity from the main cone in the VOR Crater traveled 30 m toward the Bocca Nuova (BN) Crater; the pit crater at the bottom of the BN crater had widened compared to previous observations. A brief episode of Strombolian explosions that started around 0830 on 19 April in the NSEC gradually evolved into modest lava fountaining activity by 0915, rising to 3 km altitude and ejecting bombs up to 100 m (figure 299). A large spatter deposit was found 50 m from the vent and 3-4 small lava flows were descending the NSEC crater rim; two of these summit lava flows were observed at 1006, confined to the upper E and S flanks of the cone. Around 1030, one or two vents in the cono della sella produced a gas-and-steam and ash plume that rose 5 km altitude and drifted E, resulting in ashfall on the E flank of Etna in the Valle del Bove, as well as between the towns of Zafferana Etnea (10 km SE) and Linguaglossa (17 km NE). At night, flashes of incandescence were visible at the summit. By 1155, the lava fountaining had gradually slowed, stopping completely around 1300. The NEC continued to produce gas-and-steam emissions with some intra-crater explosive activity. During the week of 20-26 April, Strombolian activity in the VOR intra-crater scoria cone ejected pyroclastic material several hundred meters above the crater rim while the lava flows had significantly decreased, though continued to travel on the E flank of the main cone. Weak, intra-crater Strombolian activity with occasional ash emissions and nightly summit incandescence were observed in the NSEC (figure 300). By 30 April there were no longer any active lava flows; the entire flow field had begun cooling. The mass of the SO2 emissions varied in April from 5,000-15,000 tons per day.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 298. Photos of Strombolian explosions at Etna in the Voragine Crater (top left), strong degassing at the Northeast Crater (NEC) (top right), and incandescent flashes and Strombolian activity in the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) seen from Tremestieri Etneo (bottom row) on 10 April 2020. Photos by Francesco Ciancitto (top row) and Boris Behncke (bottom row), courtesy of INGV.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 299. Strombolian activity at Etna’s “cono della sella” of the NSEC crater on 19 April 2020 included (a-b) lava fountaining that rose 3 km altitude, ejecting bomb-sized material and a spatter deposit captured by the Montagnola (EMOV) thermal camera. (c-d) An eruptive column and increased white gas-and-steam and ash emissions were captured by the Montagnola (EMOV) visible camera and (e-f) were also seen from Tremestieri Etneo captured by Boris Behncke. Courtesy of INGV (Report 17/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 13/04/2020 – 19/04/2020, data emissione 21/04/2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 300. Webcam images showing intra-crater explosive activity at Etna in the Voragine (VOR) and New Southeast Crater (NSEC) on 24 April 2020 captured by the (a-b) Montagnola and (c) Monte Cagliato cameras. At night, summit incandescence was visible and accompanied by strong degassing. Courtesy of INGV (Report 18/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 20/04/2020 – 26/04/2020, data emissione 28/04/2020).

Strombolian explosions produced periodic ash emissions and ejected mild, discontinuous incandescent material in the VOR Crater; the coarse material was deposited onto the S flank of BN (figure 301). Pulsating degassing continued from the summit craters, some of which were accompanied by incandescent flashes at night. The Strombolian activity in the cono della sella occasionally produced reddish ash during 3-4 May. During 5 and 8 May, there was an increase in ash emissions at the NSEC that drifted SSE. A strong explosive event in the VOR Crater located E of the main cone produced a significant amount of ash and ejected coarse material, which included blocks and bombs measuring 15-20 cm, that fell on the W edge of the crater, as well as on the S terrace of the BN Crater (figure 302).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 301. Photos of Strombolian explosions and summit incandescence at Etna on 4 May (left) and during the night of 11-12 May. Photos by Gianni Pennisi (left) and Boris Behncke (right, seen from Tremestieri Etneo). Courtesy of INGV.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 302. A photo on 5 May (left) and thermal image on 8 May (right) of Strombolian explosions at Etna in the Voragine Crater accompanied by a dense, gray ash plume. Photo by Daniele Andronico. Courtesy of INGV (Report 20/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 04/05/2020 – 10/05/2020, data emissione 12/05/2020).

On 10 May degassing continued in the NSEC while Strombolian activity fluctuated in both the VOR and NSEC Craters, ejecting ballistics beyond the crater rim; in the latter, some of the blocks fell back in, accumulated on the edge, and rolled down the slopes (figure 303). During the week of 11-17 May, eruptive activity at the VOR Crater was the lowest observed since early March; there were 4-5 weak, low intensity pulses not accompanied by bombs or ashfall in the VOR Crater. Degassing continued in the BN Crater. The crater of the cono della sella had widened further N following collapses due to the Strombolian activity, which exposed the internal wall.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 303. Map of the summit craters of Etna showing the active vents, the area of cooled lava flows (light green), and the location of the widening pit crater in the Bocca Nuova (BN) Crater (light blue circle) updated on 9 May 2020. The base is modified from a 2014 DEM created by Laboratorio di Aerogeofisica-Sezione Roma 2. Black hatch marks indicate the crater rims: BN = Bocca Nuova, with NW BN-1 and SE BN-2; VOR = Voragine; NEC = North East Crater; SEC = South East Crater; NSEC = New South East Crater. Red circles indicate areas with ash emissions and/or Strombolian activity, yellow circles indicate steam and/or gas emissions only. Courtesy of INGV (Report 29/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 06/07/2020 – 12/07/2020, data emissione 14/07/2020).

On 18 May an ash plume from the NSEC rose 4.5 km altitude and drifted NE. Strombolian explosions on 22 May at the NSEC produced multiple ash plumes that rose 4.5 km altitude and drifted S and SW (figure 304), depositing a thin layer of ash on the S slope, and resulting in ashfall in Catania (27 km S). Explosions from the VOR Crater had ejected a deposit of large clasts (greater than 30 cm) on the NE flank, between the VOR Crater and NEC on 23 May. INGV reported that the pit crater in the BN continued to widen and degassing was observed in the NSEC, VOR Crater, and NEC. During the week of 25-31 May persistent visible flashes of incandescence at night were observed, which suggested there was intra-crater Strombolian activity in the SEC and NSEC. The mass of the SO2 plumes varied between 5,000-9,000 tons per day.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 304. Photo of repeated Strombolian activity and ash emissions rising from Etna above the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) on 22 May 2020 seen from Zafferana Etnea on the SE flank at 0955 local time. Photo by Boris Behncke, INGV.

Activity during June-July 2020. During June, moderate intra-crater Strombolian activity with intermittent ash emissions continued in the NSEC and occurred more sporadically in the VOR Crater; at night, incandescence of variable intensity was observed at the summit. During the week of 8-14 June, Strombolian explosions in the cono della sella generated some incandescence and rare jets of incandescent material above the crater rim, though no ash emissions were reported. On the morning of 14 June a sequence of ten small explosions in the VOR Crater ejected incandescent material just above the crater rim and produced small ash emissions. On 25 June an overflight showed the developing pit crater in the center of the BN, accompanied by degassing along the S edge of the wall; degassing continued from the NEC, VOR Crater, SEC, and NSEC (figure 305). The mass of the SO2 plumes measured 5,000-7,000 tons per day, according to INGV.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 305. Aerial photo of Etna from the NE during an overflight on 25 June 2020 by the Catania Coast Guard (2 Nucleo Aereo della Guardia Costiera di Catania) showing degassing of the summit craters. Photo captured from the Aw139 helicopter by Stefano Branca. Courtesy of INGV (Report 27/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 22/06/2020 – 28/06/2020, data emissione 30/06/2020).

Similar modest, intra-crater Strombolian explosions in the NSEC, sporadic explosions in the VOR Crater, and degassing in the BN, VOR Crater, and NEC persisted into July. On 2 July degassing in the NEC was accompanied by weak intra-crater Strombolian activity. Intermittent weak ash emissions and ejecta from the NSEC and VOR Crater were observed during the month. During the week of 6-12 July INGV reported gas-and-steam emissions continued to rise from the vent in the pit crater at the bottom of BN (figure 306). On 11 July mild Strombolian activity, nighttime incandescence, and degassing was visible in the SEC (figure 307). By 15 July there was a modest increase in activity in the NSEC and VOR Craters, generating ash emissions and ejecting material over the crater rims while the other summit craters were dominantly characterized by degassing. On 31 July an explosion in the NSEC produced an ash plume that rose 4.5 km altitude.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 306. Photos of the bottom of the Bocca Nuova (BN) crater at Etna on 8 July 2020 showing the developing pit crater (left) and degassing. Minor ash emissions were visible in the background at the Voragine Crater (right). Both photos by Daniele Andronico. Courtesy of INGV (Report 29/2020, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 06/07/2020 – 12/07/2020, data emissione 14/07/2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 307. Mild Strombolian activity and summit incandescence in the “cono della sella” (saddle vent) at the Southeast crater (SEC) of Etna on 11 July 2020, seen from Piano del Vescovo (left) and Piano Vetore (right). Photo by Boris Behncke, INGV.

Geologic Background. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BCE. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello stratovolcano, truncated by several small calderas, was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur, sometimes simultaneously. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more summit craters. Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by Strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank.

Information Contacts: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma 2, 95123 Catania, Italy (URL: http://www.ct.ingv.it/it/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Boris Behncke, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma 2, 95123 Catania, Italy.

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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network - Volume 26, Number 08 (August 2001)

Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman

Etna (Italy)

Strombolian activity during May and June 2001

Fuego (Guatemala)

Seismic activity during April and December, eruption in September 2000

Jackson Segment (Undersea Features)

Additional investigations show no evidence of April eruption

Karymsky (Russia)

Increased seismicity from December 2000 through September 2001

Lopevi (Vanuatu)

June 2001 lavas, debris avalanches, <= 1.5 m ashfall, and 7.5-km-high plume

Mayon (Philippines)

Two main episodes in 2001; quiet seen in late August

Okmok (United States)

Small earthquake swarm during 11-15 May 2001

Popocatepetl (Mexico)

Steam-and-ash emissions, periods of dome growth during 2001

Semeru (Indonesia)

Continuous seismic activity, plumes to ~11.6 km

Sheveluch (Russia)

Eruption on 15 July, pyroclastic flows and explosion on 23 August 2001



Etna (Italy) — August 2001 Citation iconCite this Report

Etna

Italy

37.748°N, 14.999°E; summit elev. 3320 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strombolian activity during May and June 2001

During 14-20 May 2000, lava emission continued from the N fissure of the Southeast Crater (SEC). At about 1900 on 17 May there was an increase in the intensity of Strombolian activity and lava began to flow in several directions, forming two sub-parallel tongues toward the E. On 18 May observers noted that the lava flow emerged from a single vent at 3,156 m elevation, with an effusion rate of 2.5-4.5 m3/s. A short distance below the effusive vent, the flow divided into three branches: one to the NE, whose front flowed at about 2,700 m and reached a distance of about 1 km from the vent; the central branch flowing to the E, widest of the three with some points wider than 20 m; and one to the S, flowing below 3,000 m elevation at about 700 m from the vent. The farthest lava front was estimated to reach ~2,700 m elevation, 1.2 km from the vent. During this period, the Bocca Nuova (BN) crater continued to degas, accompanied by occasional emissions of brown ash. Also noted were a further deepening and widening of the internal crater in the BN's SE quadrant.

During 21-27 May, lava flows from the N fissure of SEC continued intermittent and variably intense Strombolian activity. Sporadic emissions of brownish-reddish ash came from the N crater of BN. Problems with surveillance cameras precluded continuous observation of the summit craters; however, on the morning of 24 May, renewed explosive activity was seen. Observations from Belevedere showed three hornitos on the N flank of the SEC, which emitted pulsing pressurized gas. The lava flow was active and well fed, with branches of ~1.5-2 km in length.

Activity at SEC increased considerably during 28 May-3 June. On 28 May, the presence of a small cinder cone, possibly having formed slowly over recent months, was discovered at the base of Northeast Crater (NEC), occupying about 2/3 of the crater floor and at least 20 m high.

At SEC, evidence of Strombolian activity was masked by discrete flows of gas and steam. The active lava field on the N flank, emerged from a main vent at about 3155 m elevation, which fed two principal flows, one to the E and one to the NE (then turning E). The latter flow formed a lava tube and then re-emerged ~100 m downstream from a small tumulus from which spewed other lava flows, the longest of which extended more than 1.5 km. The S-most branch also initially flowed partly inside a lava tube.

During the evening of 28 May, between 2222 and 2242, Strombolian activity at SEC rose sharply, with ejecta reaching as high as 50 m above the crater rim and with materials occasionally falling on other flanks of the cone. Lava flow rates on 29 and 30 May were estimated at 6-8 m3/s. Temperatures measured using a K-type (Cr/Al) thermocouple showed a maximum temperature on the inside of an expansion bulb to be of 1,065°C at 5 cm depth. Intense degassing continued at SEC for the next several days.

On the evening of 3 June two sub-parallel lava flows descended to the E, of which the northernmost was the longest and reached at least 2,600 m elevation. A few hundred meters ahead of its front, a small branch flowed N but stopped soon after. The other flow was directed toward the Valle del Bove and its advances were discontinuous. Further deepening of the two interior Voragine vents was observed. Eruptive activity was not continuous.

The W rim of BN had a very warm fissure that ran to the N. The N vent was much widened, but it was not possible to observe the base. During observations, gas explosions occurred about every 15 minutes, but it was not possible to observe the fall of ejecta. The S vent had also widened and deepened. On its SE flank, a small semi-circular vent emitted rumbling explosions every 3-10 minutes, accompanied by mostly blue-colored gas mixed with brown ash.

Although intense degassing did not permit views of the interior of the NEC, an apparently recent fissure on the N side of the cone was very warm.

During 4-10 June, two episodes of lava fountaining occurred at the SEC. The first began during the night of 5-6 June, with modest Strombolian activity at the SEC's secondary vent. At 2136 on 6 June, Strombolian activity at the secondary vent reached a frequency of about one explosion per minute, which in successive hours included the main vent as well. The activity eventually climaxed at 0145 on 7 June, when the secondary vent produced a lava fountain whose altitude reached 50 m. Falling to the ground, the stream of lava formed a primary lava flow, which immediately divided into three branches and stopped at about 3,000 m elevation. A second stream flowed to the N before turning E, reaching 2,600 m and superimposing in part on earlier lava flows. The eruptive episode concluded about 0340, with copious ash emissions from the SEC and the BN.

On the night of 8-9 June, a new eruptive episode occurred at the SEC, also beginning with Strombolian activity at 2011 at the principal and secondary vents. The activity evolved into lava fountains which reached a maximum altitude of about 200 m at the principal vent and about 80 m at the secondary vent. The strong activity continued until about 0322 and was accompanied by sustained lava emissions from the secondary vent, which gave rise to two flows which spread to the E and N respectively, superimposing themselves over preceding lava flows.

Activity at the other craters during this period was characterized by continuous degassing at the Voragine and NEC, accompanied, as in the case of the BN, by frequent ash emissions in the SE sector of the crater.

Geologic Background. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BCE. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello stratovolcano, truncated by several small calderas, was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur, sometimes simultaneously. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more summit craters. Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by Strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank.

Information Contacts: Sistema Poseidon, a cooperative project supported by both the Italian and the Sicilian regional governments, and operated by several scientific institutions (URL: http://www.ct.ingv.it/en/chi-siamo/la-sezione.html).


Fuego (Guatemala) — August 2001 Citation iconCite this Report

Fuego

Guatemala

14.473°N, 90.88°W; summit elev. 3763 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Seismic activity during April and December, eruption in September 2000

Ash venting began at Fuego on 5 April 2000, followed by increased ash emissions and strong seismic signals during 7 and 8 April, according to the Guatemala Volcano Observatory and the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH) of Guatemala. On 8 April at 0215 a hot spot was visible in multi-spectral imagery. More hot spots were occasionally noted but there were no further reports of ash.

A news article from La Hora reported that a column of ash reached 1 km on 29 August 2000. According to the Guatemala Volcano Observatory, an eruption beginning on 6 September emitted an ash-and-steam plume that reached ~800 m. On 21 September a large amount of ash was emitted, blanketing nearby communities. Authorities considered evacuating residents and issued an Orange Alert for the area near the volcano.

Satellite imagery on 7 December showed an ash plume to the SW of the summit, extending 39 km and 11 km wide. According to ground observations the ash was centered at ~4.9 km elevation. INSIVUMEH reported that the volcano was producing loud rumbling sounds and a more significant eruption was likely. On 9 December 2000 satellite imagery confirmed a small eruption at about 1645. The eruption sent an ash cloud to ~4.5 km altitude, near the summit level. The ash cloud was initially dense, about 8 km wide, and drifted W and NW. By 2345, the cloud had dissipated and was no longer visible on satellite imagery. Occasional strong hot spots were visible on GOES-8 multi-spectral imagery throughout the day. That evening, volcanologists in Guatemala indicated that the volcano had become increasingly unstable with several explosions occurring within a few hours. Since then, no major activity has occurred.

Geologic Background. Volcán Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is also one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between Fuego and Acatenango to the north. Construction of Meseta dates back to about 230,000 years and continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene. Collapse of Meseta may have produced the massive Escuintla debris-avalanche deposit, which extends about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at the mostly andesitic Acatenango. Eruptions at Fuego have become more mafic with time, and most historical activity has produced basaltic rocks. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows.

Information Contacts: Otoniel Matías and Eddie Sánchez, Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Ministero de Communicaciones, Transporto, Obras Públicas y Vivienda, 7a. Av. 14-57, zona 13, Guatemala City 01013, Guatemala (URL: http://www.insivumeh.gob.gt/); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center, NOAA Satellite Services Division, NESDIS E/SP23, NOAA Science Center, Room 401, 5200 Auth Road, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: http://www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac/); La Hora (URL: http://www.lahora.com.gt/).


Jackson Segment (Undersea Features) — August 2001 Citation iconCite this Report

Jackson Segment

Undersea Features

42.15°N, 127.05°W; summit elev. -3100 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Additional investigations show no evidence of April eruption

After a 3-9 April 2001 seismic swarm that was traced to the Jackson Segment of the Gorda Ridge (BGVN 26:03), seismically inferred volcanism remained unconfirmed. The signals detected on 3 April 2001 were located on the S side of the segment, and continued through 9 April. During a six-day period instruments detected over 3,500 earthquakes; 548 epicenters were located. By 11 April seismic activity was at very low levels, possibly below the detection threshold of the T-phase monitoring system.

On 10 April, an NSF- and NOAA-funded response team departed on the ship RV New Horizon to search for mega-plumes from the event, but no plumes were detected. On 26 April the U.S. Coast Guard ship Healy conducted conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) probes and took dredge samples on the site. A report made available in late May indicated that investigations from the Healy also failed to find evidence of an eruption at the Jackson Segment and detected no significant thermal anomalies from hydrothermal plumes. Rocks recovered by dredge from the sea floor were clearly old. The entire segment was also resurveyed with multibeam sonar to compare with bathymetry collected before the earthquake swarm. The early April earthquake swarm may have indicated moving magma that never made it up to the sea floor to erupt.

Geologic Background. The Jackson Segment of the Gorda Ridge more than 200 km off the coast of Oregon lies immediately SSW of the North Gorda Ridge, the northermost of five segments forming the Gorda Ridge spreading center. The first recorded activity took place in April 2001, when volcanic seismicity was detected by hydroacoustic monitoring. The seismicity indicated possible dike propagation to the south and was similar to that which was documented at the time of the eruption of a submarine lava flow from the adjacent North Gorda Ridge segment in 1996. The 2001 activity originated from the central axial valley of the Jackson Segment, near the "narrowgate" on the southern part of the segment. Later surveys, however, revealed no evidence for submarine eruptive activity in April 2001.

Information Contacts: Bob Embley (NOAA/PMEL) and Jim Cowen (SOEST, Univ. of Hawaii), NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL), 2115 SE Osu Drive, Newport, OR 97365 USA (URL: https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/).


Karymsky (Russia) — August 2001 Citation iconCite this Report

Karymsky

Russia

54.049°N, 159.443°E; summit elev. 1513 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Increased seismicity from December 2000 through September 2001

Since the activity reported from June through mid-October 2000 (BGVN 25:09), the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) reported that seismic activity at Karymsky remained mostly at background levels, with a few episodes of increased seismicity.

On 20 December 2000 around 0915 shallow earthquakes under the volcano were accompanied by short-lived explosions. At 2150 the same day a pilot confirmed the presence of ash at the summit of the volcano and mud traces from melting snow on the edifice slopes. The Concern Color Code was increased from Green (volcano is dormant; normal seismicity and fumarolic activity) to Yellow (volcano is restless; eruption may occur) until 29 December.

On 2 and 28 February several shallow seismic events took place, including a 5-minute-long series of weak shallow earthquakes on 28 February. During March, small shallow earthquakes and one episode of weak high-frequency spasmodic tremor were registered. On 12 March a high-frequency signal lasted for 90 minutes. On 28 March, from 1205 to 1300, an intense series of earthquakes with magnitudes up to ~3 was registered. Several local low-frequency earthquakes occurred during the end of March and beginning of April. Around 20 April, more than 40 earthquakes with magnitudes up to ~2.5 occurred. Since then through at least September 2001, seismic activity at Karymsky has remained at background levels with the exception of 23 August, when 30 earthquakes were registered.

General Reference. Khrenov, A.P., and others, 1982, Eruptive activity of Karymsky Volcano over the period of 10 Years (1970-1980): Volcanology and Seismology, no. 4, p. 29-48. Tokarev, P.I., 1990, Eruptions and seismicity at Karymskii volcano in 1965-1986: Volcanology and Seismology, v. 11, p. 117-134 (in English).

Geologic Background. Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, located immediately south. The caldera enclosing Karymsky formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

Information Contacts: Olga Chubarova, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.


Lopevi (Vanuatu) — August 2001 Citation iconCite this Report

Lopevi

Vanuatu

16.507°S, 168.346°E; summit elev. 1413 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


June 2001 lavas, debris avalanches, <= 1.5 m ashfall, and 7.5-km-high plume

Lopevi erupted explosively on 8 June 2001, with additional eruptions at least through the 19th. The current eruptive period, which started in July 1998, continued during 1999 and 2000 (BGVN 24:02, 24:07, 25:04, and 26:06). This report covers June and July 2001.

The explosive eruption that began around 1100 on 8 June generated an eruptive plume, a lava flow on the NW flank, and two debris avalanches on the W flank (figure 12). During the explosive activity, a crater opened at ~200 m elevation on the NW flank along the SE-NW crack. The ash plume rose to ~7,500 m (as determined by NOAA satellite data analysis). The ash blew NW, carried by ~35-45 km/hour winds; tephra-fall deposits on Lopevi reached ~0.5-1.5 m thick. As much as 7 cm of ash fell on the E coast and middle of Paama Island, 5 km WNW with ~1,700 residents, reaching a thickness of 7 cm.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 12. Sketch map of Lopevi showing the location of June 2001 deposits on the NW and NNW flanks. One lava flow and two debris avalanche deposits date from the 8 June 2001 eruption. Farther N, two lava flows date from the 15 June 2001 eruption. Produced from an original map by A-J. Warden including observations by A-J. Warden and R. Priam (Archive Service de Mines); revised and updated by S. Wallez and D. Charley; drafted by A. Mabonlala. Courtesy of IRD.

About 11 hours after the eruption the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR-2) research instrument on the European Remote-Sensing Satellite (ERS-2) obtained data from which an image of the plume could be derived (figure 13). The instrument has infrared detection channels at ~11 and ~12 µm, which are used to discriminate ash from meteorological clouds. The image shows the temperature difference between the 11 and 12 µm channels. The greater this negative difference, the greater the likelihood that there is ash; larger negative differences usually mean more ash. A possible explanation of the complex plume structure shown on figure 13 is the presence of atmospheric water vapor, which would mask the ash signal over some parts of the plume. Water vapor has the opposite effect of ash on the image: a positive difference is created because water vapor tends to make the 11µm temperature larger than the 12 µm temperature.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 13. Lopevi ash plume as imaged by the ATSR-2 instrument on 8 June 2001 at 1134Z. The unlabeled island SW of the plume is Lopevi. The areas with the most ash are in the center of the shaded plume area. Courtesy of Fred Prata, CSIRO.

The 8 June explosion caused instability on the W flank that produced two debris avalanches-unsorted deposits composed of older material (figures 14 and 15). The smaller of the two avalanches was composed of fine gray debris. It occurred next to the lava flow from the NW-flank crater. The larger avalanche, which reached the sea, was beige in color and included basaltic lava fragments, unburned vegetation, and red and black scoria of the sort commonly found on the steep (45°) upper slopes. The scoria and other observations were consistent with this debris avalanche resulting from a partial collapse of the active cone. Aa lava from the NW-flank crater spread out along the coastline (figure 14) on the SW side of the 2000 lava flows (figure 16). This flow had cooled by the time of a field visit on 11 June.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. Lopevi's NW coastline showing the 8 June aa lavas and debris avalanches (barely visible); older lavas from 2000 also appear. The photograph was taken on 9 June 2001. Courtesy of S. Wallez.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. Lopevi's two W-flank debris avalanches produced during the 8 June 2001 eruption (photographed 9 June 2001). Courtesy of S. Wallez.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. Sub-vertical aerial photograph showing lava flows that reached the NNW coast of Lopevi during 2000. Additional lava flows from the June 2001 eruptions covered parts of the SW and NE areas of this delta. N is to the right. Courtesy of S. Wallez.

On a second visit during 14-17 June, geologists saw two new NW-flank flows, which they mapped and photographed (figures 12 and 17). Their guide said the lava flows were emplaced on 15 June 2001. These flows began at a height of ~400 m and added to a delta with a width of ~350 m at the coast.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. View of Lopevi from the ocean looking towards the NW coast towards the lava flows from 2000 and both 8 and 15 June 2001. Courtesy of S. Wallez.

According to United Nations reports, the strong SE trade winds had deposited ~18 cm of ash on Paama Island as of 20 June, and lesser ashfall on Ambrym and Malekula islands. The worst affected villages were Luli, Lulep, and Liro on Paama. Overall, it was estimated that 4,000-5,000 people were directly affected by the ashfall on Paama and SE Ambrym. The ashfall on Paama polluted open water-supplies, bringing the pH to 3-4, and caused darkness for a few hours beginning at about 1500 on 8 June. The 12 June report noted that the government of Vanuatu had approached the Australian High Commission in Port Vila and in response an Australian ship in the area, HMAS Kanimbla, was deployed to deliver drinking water from Red Cross stocks. The Vanuatu Red Cross Society provided water, blankets, and soap, as well as participating in assessment activities with government officials and scientists. The National Disaster Management Office reported to the UN that more ashfall occurred on the night of 19 June. As of 20 June sources of potable water had been identified, but there remained a shortage of cooking and wash water. As a precaution, 105 students and five teachers from Paama were evacuated to schools on other islands, but most residents remained and were occupied with clearing ash from roofs, water tanks, and gardens.

Geologic Background. The small 7-km-wide conical island of Lopevi, known locally as Vanei Vollohulu, is one of Vanuatu's most active volcanoes. A small summit crater containing a cinder cone is breached to the NW and tops an older cone that is rimmed by the remnant of a larger crater. The basaltic-to-andesitic volcano has been active during historical time at both summit and flank vents, primarily along a NW-SE-trending fissure that cuts across the island, producing moderate explosive eruptions and lava flows that reached the coast. Historical eruptions at the 1413-m-high volcano date back to the mid-19th century. The island was evacuated following major eruptions in 1939 and 1960. The latter eruption, from a NW-flank fissure vent, produced a pyroclastic flow that swept to the sea and a lava flow that formed a new peninsula on the western coast.

Information Contacts: Sandrine Wallez and Douglas Charley, Department of Geology, Mines & Water Resources (DGMWR), PMB 01, Port-Vila, Vanuatu; Michel Lardy, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Bondy, Paris, France; Fred Prata, Senior Principal Research Scientist, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Atmospheric Research, PB 1 Aspendale, Victoria 3195, Australia; United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), New York, NY 10017 USA (URL: https://reliefweb.int/).


Mayon (Philippines) — August 2001 Citation iconCite this Report

Mayon

Philippines

13.257°N, 123.685°E; summit elev. 2462 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Two main episodes in 2001; quiet seen in late August

Mayon has undergone two eruptive episodes thus far in 2001. The first episode began in January 2001 and involved a period of unrest that culminated in explosive eruptions on 24 and 29 June. The second episode took place on 20 July, climaxing on 26 July. Low-level lava spattering and active degassing continued for days after the latter climax but activity dropped in early August.

The stratovolcano was last reported on through 31 May 2001 (BGVN 26:05); the present report covers through mid-August 2001. The volcano's Alert Levels are discussed in more detail in the last section.

Precursors and minor explosive activity. Unrest during the year 2001 was first recognized on 8 January when the Lignon Hill Observatory (LHO) in Legaspi City (11.5 km SE of the summit) reported a blocky lava dome growing on top of the summit. Lava dome extrusions occurred before an explosive eruption the previous year, so the January 2001 dome was an ominous sign of renewed activity. From January to April 2001, the dome slowly grew and sporadic ash explosions accompanied or followed periods of seismic unrest. The hazard status was set at Alert Level 2, signifying the ascent of magma.

During the second week of May, LHO staff noticed that the growing summit lava dome overlapped the unconfined side of the SE crater rim. At 1752 on 11 May a minor explosion ejected ash and vapor to 50 m above the summit. A series of similar small explosions followed on 12 May that were likely triggered by magma intruding into the dome. As a result, the SE portion of the dome partially collapsed.

Subsequently, the SE flank of the dome facing the observatory glowed conspicuously and lava fragments began to detach from the summit lava dome. Rockfalls were episodic at first and it was not clear initially whether detaching lava was caused by instability of the growing dome or due to the effects of increased internal pressure.

In time, observations from Bonga, ~8 km SE of the summit, indicated that incandescent rockfalls were apparently caused by slowly ascending magma entering the dome. The magma was degassed but hot, presumably a remnant of magma erupted during 2000. PHIVOLCS later postulated that ascending magma punched an exit point on the SE flank of the growing lava dome. This material then spilled into the Bonga Gully, with hot lava boulders as big as trucks falling, rolling, and sliding to form a pyroclastic apron on slopes at 1,800-2,000 m elevation. Rockfall activity, monitored via the seismic network, progressively increased in frequency until magma discharge was sufficient to form a stubby lava flow on 17 June. By 20 June, the seismograms displayed more or less merging codas of high-frequency tremor, which suggested that lava extrusion dominated earlier rockfall activity. As seen earlier, the lava flow was thought to represent relatively fresh but still degassed magma.

Lava fills crater then extends 5 km. By 22 June, lava had already buried the summit dome and partially filled the crater. Lava was no longer exiting from a single patch at the side of the dome but from the whole breadth of the SE summit.

Episodes of conspicuous summit glow began on 23 June, and intensified to a pulsating light-yellow incandescence by early evening. The summit did not stay quiet for long because the crater began to vent voluminous gases and to shower spatter around the summit. COSPEC readings indicated an SO2 flux of ~7,000 metric tons per day (t/d), well above the baseline of ~500 t/d. At about 1909 on 23 June, a period of low-level lava fountaining began to feed lava flows that eventually descended from the summit elevation to ~500 m elevation-a distance of ~5 km.

When lava fountaining commenced the Alert Level rose from 3 to 4. This status meant that PHIVOLCS considered a hazardous eruption imminent, within hours to days. The corresponding Level 4 Bulletin carried with it a recommendation to evacuate areas within the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) and a 7-km-radius Extended Danger Zone (EDZ) in the SE sector. The EDZ provided a buffer zone to the Bonga Gully, which descends from near the crater mouth to the lower mid-slopes (~600 m elevation) to the SE, a distance of ~4 km. By 0100 on 24 June the PDZ and EDZ were fully evacuated through the efforts of a group called "Task Force Mayon," a military and civilian organization charged with implementing the evacuation of the danger zones. Temporary shelters received ~25,000 people.

At 0317 on 24 June a series of explosions fed an ash column that rose to ~1 km above the volcano's summit. A thin blanket of ash fell mainly on the northern half of the volcano in the vicinity of barangays (hamlets) Amtic and Tambo of Ligao City and San Vicente, San Antonio, Quinastillojan, Bantayan, Tabiguian, and Buang of Tabaco City.

First substantial pyroclastic flows. Although lava fountaining and small ash puffs signaled the start of explosive activity, it was not until 1245 on 24 June that the first major pyroclastic flow occurred. It followed the eastern branch of the Bonga Gully in the general direction of Barangay Buyuan. PHIVOLCS promptly raised the status to the highest Alert Level, 5, first verbally to provincial disaster-mitigation officials shortly after 1245, followed by an official bulletin released by 1300. Alert Level 5 provided a reminder that hazardous eruptions were taking place. Although the 1245 pyroclastic flow was short-lived and ran down to the middle slopes only (~700-1,000 m elevation), this again-elevated status emphasized that more explosive eruptions were expected.

At 1444 on 24 June, large explosions commenced and generated multiple pyroclastic flows around the cone. Ash clouds from the eruption column and pyroclastic flows enveloped the volcano in ash and rose to ~10 km altitude. Although the volcano seemed to disappear within its own eruption clouds, giving the impression of massive explosions that might have threatened the lowlands, the pyroclastic flows and lava flows were all contained within the PDZ, with maximum runouts to only ~5.5 km.

Considerable airfall ash blanketed the northern areas, particularly the cities of Ligao and Tabaco, but this was chiefly a function of wind velocity and direction, because the wind mostly comes from the SW this time of the year.

Eruptions continued until 1921 on 24 June when seismographs began to record diminishing eruption intensity as indicated by decreasing harmonic tremor amplitudes. However, sporadic explosive eruptions continued throughout the evening as LHO noted light ashfall in Legaspi up to about 2135 that day. Thereafter, during 25-28 June, Mayon remained quiet, although Alert Level 5 was maintained in anticipation of more explosions.

At around 1605 and 1702 on 29 June, Mayon erupted again and sent relatively small pyroclastic flows down the Bonga Gully to the SE. Over the period 30 June to 19 July, Mayon's apparent activity waned and the hazard status was eventually lowered to level 3 (which states that an eruption may still be expected within the coming weeks). Observations in support of reduced activity included a general deflation of the edifice, decreased seismic activity, lowered gas emission rates, and the disappearance of summit incandescence. The first eruptive episode ended and scientists inferred that intrusions into the cone had ceased.

Activity during late July 2001. Mayon's eruptive episode during July 2001 was essentially a continuation of June's activity. On 20 July seismographs around the volcano recorded high-frequency, short-duration tremor associated with rockfalls. The number of seismically detected rockfalls had already declined from the pre-June 24 eruption level of more than 200 events per day to (by 19 July 2001) a post-eruption level of less than ~10 events per day. The latter number was attributed to unstable, freshly deposited lavas on steep upper slopes.

Scientists were alerted when the S-flank seismic station at ~800 m elevation registered an abrupt increase, from 5 rockfall events on 19 January to 48 events on 20 January. Over the same time period an upper seismic station (at 1,700 m elevation) recorded a jump from 25 to 142 events. Incandescent rockfalls became persistent.

Other striking changes soon occurred. On 21 July the SO2 flux tripled, to 7,400 t/d. The uppermost electronic tiltmeter (at 1,700 m elevation) fluctuated by ~20 µrad. Crater glow increased and rockfall occurrences peaked.

PHIVOLCS inferred that Mayon had again entered a mild eruptive stage. The character of unrest resembled activity observed between mid May and 20 June, prior to explosive eruptions on 24 June. Scientists recognized that an explosive and hazardous eruption could occur anytime. By 23 July, PHIVOLCS gave the Albay provincial government a notice of increasing unrest and by 25 July, the Municipal Mayors were informed of reactivation and possible explosive eruption of Mayon.

Overall, unrest was accelerating. On the morning on 25 July, the bulletin also added that the current extrusion of lava was clear evidence of eruption and that more explosive eruptions were expected. At 0418 on 25 July seismometers detected more or less continuous high-frequency tremor. Although clouds shrouded Mayon, volcanologists believed these signals indicated that a lava flow had extruded from the dome, an idea confirmed when observers saw a short lava tongue draping the SE slope just below the summit crater.

During 0219-0315 on 26 July, LHO staff saw mild lava fountaining that reached to ~70 m high. This prompted the return to Alert Level 4 at 0400 on 26 July and a rapid evacuation. During quiet times, farmers work portions of land within the 6-km-radius PDZ, but at Alert 4, people in this zone are required to evacuate as quickly as possible. As in the previous 24 June eruption, a 7-km-radius SE-flank EDZ was also declared (to include river gullies upstream of barangays Mabinit, Bonga, Buyuan and Matanag). But, lava fountaining declined at about 0400 and the volcano seemed quiet. This led some people to be initially lax, and some farmers viewed the lull as an opportunity to gather their livestock near the Bonga Gully. PHIVOLCS firmly advised not to proceed. This warning proved justified when at 0538 a brief burst from the crater sent an ash cloud to ~500 m above the summit. This was accompanied by a low-frequency type earthquake that lasted for about a minute. A lack of urgency towards evacuating may have been widespread. Legaspi City Mayor Rosal made the following admission, which appeared in The Philippine Star the next day. "We were surprised by its sudden explosion. We were told to evacuate last night but we did not know it would explode so fast."

At 0745 on 26 July there occurred another ash explosion with similar seismic signature. In retrospect, sequences of low-frequency seismic events were detected by the Mayon Resthouse station (780 m elevation) before the onset of explosive eruptions at 0756 on 26 July. These events were not detected at other stations or were obscured by high-frequency tremor associated with both lava flowing out at the uppermost elevations and lava fragments detaching from the advancing lava flow.

The 0756 eruption produced a turbulent head of steam and ash, followed by a column of roiling dark-gray ash clouds. The column convected to ~10 km altitude while pyroclastic flows descended the Bonga (SE flank) and Basud (E flank) gullies. Upper-level winds conveyed the topmost eruption column to the SW. Lower-level winds carried fine ash lofted upwards (elutriated) from pyroclastic flows to the SE. Accordingly, the main ashfall deposit reached ~7 mm or more in thickness to the SW (in Camalig); it included scoria up to 10 cm diameter and perhaps larger. Most scoria fragments broke up upon impact with hard surfaces such as concrete and asphalt, but scoria clasts that landed on softer ground were preserved. A second ashfall deposit occurred to the S, SE, and ESE (in Legazpi, Daraga, and Lidong, respectively), amounting to ~5 mm thickness during this initial eruption. Additional lighter ashfalls occurred to the S (in Daraga) and to the SW (in Guinobatan).

A brief helicopter flight over Albay Gulf looking at Legaspi and Santo Domingo showed the dark curtain of ash progressively blanketing these localities. Pyroclastic flows remained well within the PDZ, a fact used to conclude that additional areas were not endangered. Only small-volume pyroclastic flows were seen descending the S-flank regions (Mi-isi and Anoling gullies).

The eruption that began on 0756 on 26 July lasted for about an hour. Ash clouds remained suspended throughout the day, even when Typhoon Feria's rains swept over Mayon. At 1420 that day another episode of eruptions began. Although the suspended ash and rain clouds covered Mayon, harmonic tremor and booming sounds signified explosive discharge until about 1500. A third and final eruption episode occurred from 1749 until 1810. Like the second period of eruptions, ash and rain clouds obscured much of the volcano from Legaspi. From Santo Domingo, however, pyroclastic flows were seen descending the Basud Gully. A ground survey to Bonga, facing this gully in the SE indicated that very small pyroclastic flows were passing here, yet there were large pyroclastic flows to the E.

When the eruption cleared the following day, observers recognized that the septum between the Bonga and Basud Gullies near the summit had breached. It is therefore very likely that late-stage pyroclastic flows during the third eruptive episode were funneled through Basud and little material was channeled along the Bonga Gully. This demonstrates the high probability that subsequent flows will also affect the eastern sector and not just the SE. Fortunately, flow runouts remained within defined danger zones.

On 27 July Mayon entered an effusive state as lava from the summit fed a flow that eventually reached ~3.75 km to the SE at an elevation of ~650 m. This was smaller than the lava flow extruded in June; it traveled farther and eventually reached ~5.5 km down the SE slope at ~500 m elevation. Hazy conditions in the SE foothills were caused by ash-and-steam plumes from the summit and from pyroclastic-and lava-flow deposits. Seismicity remained active, with signals from sporadic explosions and persistent background tremor related to lava flows and other surface events. Numerous (206) discrete rockfall signatures, for example, were detected by the seismic network and many of these were visually confirmed from LHO. The resumption of rockfalls was interpreted to not result from another intrusion but from loosened lava debris on steep slopes.

The SO2 flux at 6,450 t/d remained very high on 27 July and even on the following days, SO2 emission rates varied between 3,265 and 9,915 t/d. Voluminous degassing coincided with loud roaring from the crater, which caused some residents of Santo Domingo, at least 8 km E of the crater, to evacuate. According to residents, the last time they heard the crater degas loudly was prior to the resurgence on 23 September 1984, so that they were troubled when they heard another explosive eruption after 26 July 2001. The concern was not at all unfounded. Although incandescence of the summit already diminished to faint conditions as observed from LHO, some low-level fountaining became evident on video cameras with night vision. The cameras clearly showed blobs of lava thrown 100 m above the crater rim. This new observation, along with elevated seismic and SO2 levels, and other monitored parameters, kept the alert status at Level 5.

Waning activity. It was not until there were clearer signals of gradual decline of activity that PHIVOLCS lowered the Alert Level 5 status to Level 4. A bulletin on 9 August 2001 explicitly noted the cessation of explosive eruptions.

After 10 August seismic activity decreased. Background tremor associated with active magma transport had stopped and rockfall occurrences had become insignificant. The number of low-frequency volcanic earthquakes occurring daily was still above baseline, up to 22 events, but this is not unusual after an eruption of Mayon and was probably related to shallow magma degassing. The SO2 fluxes, up to 6,600 t/d, were still very high, presumably for the same reason. Electronic tiltmeters supported the idea of substantial degassing, showing a general deflation episode following the 26 July eruption. In summary, while various monitoring parameters continued to show significant unrest of Mayon, the general trend was one of declining activity. This information may be used to eventually lower alerts over the volcano and allow the return of evacuees to their homes by the end of August 2001.

June and July eruptions compared. The eruptions in June appeared to be more voluminous and produced more lavas than tephra. The estimated volume of 15 x 106 m3 was in the ratio 2/3 lava and 1/3 pyroclastics. The June eruptions also produced pyroclastic flows that ran through many gullies radiating around the cone. The 26 July eruption produced roughly similar proportions of lava and tephra (namely, 5 x 106 m3 lava; 6 x 106 m3 tephra).

When the 26 July pyroclastic flows poured down the SE and E flanks, the low-altitude SE winds caused Legaspi City to be enveloped in ashfall. Legaspi City generally remains ash-free due to seasonal wind patterns. Not fully prepared to cope with ashfall, many residents panicked even though the threats to life were virtually nil. Phone lines jammed and vehicle traffic was backed up for several kilometers on the highway from Rawis, Legaspi City to Padang, and Santo Domingo. Busy communication networks also prevented PHIVOLCS from relaying real-time information by telephone to the central office in Quezon City. Fortunately, anticipation of explosive eruptions earlier that day meant that warnings to local and national authorities were already sent out. A notice to the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center in Tokyo was also made that morning.

Another marked difference between the June and July 2001 unrest was the time interval between perceived disquiet to the day of explosive eruption. The 24 June eruption was preceded by over a month of seemingly increasing rockfall activity. In a sense, rockfalls were an indicator of magma-discharge rates and the number of rockfalls per day progressively increased up until lava-flow extrusion. In contrast, the period between the onset of rockfalls and the 26 July eruption was barely a week, so that magma-discharge rates jumped abruptly before the onset of lava extrusion and explosive discharge.

Background provided by PHIVOLCS. The towering Mayon stratovolcano is famous for its highly conical shape and its symmetry. It is the most active volcano in the Philippines, with 47 historical eruptions since 1616. The typical eruption episode lasting from a few days to about a month produces a sequence of basaltic andesite lava flows, pyroclastic flows, and tephra falls. Based on geological studies on the nature and extent of deposits, a 6-km-radius "Permanent Danger Zone" (PDZ) has been defined to discourage people from permanently occupying hazardous areas.

Table 6 shows the Mayon warning scheme devised by PHIVOLCS. It is similar to the one employed at Pinatubo. Six alert levels provide the general activity status.

Table 6. A simplified version of the current warning scheme used at Mayon. Courtesy of PHIVOLCS.

Alert Level Meaning
0 Volcano is quiet; no eruption in foreseeable future
1 Little unrest, possibly of hydrothermal, magmatic or tectonic activity
2 Moderate unrest of magmatic origin; may lead to an eruption
3 High unrest; tendency towards an eruption within weeks
4 Eruption imminent within days
5 Hazardous eruption in progress

It has been suggested that Mayon erupts every 10 years, referring to the eruptions of 1928, 1938, and 1947. Then there were the eruptions of 1968 and 1978 as well as the interval between 1984 and 1993 events. Yet in recent years, it seems that this general periodicity has changed. The Millennium eruption, 24 February to 7 March 2000, occurred just 7 years after the 1993 outbursts. A similar period of repose is evident in the interval 1978-84. In fact, close inspection of the historical record suggests other intervals with eruption repose periods of less than 10 years.

Geologic Background. Beautifully symmetrical Mayon, which rises above the Albay Gulf NW of Legazpi City, is the Philippines' most active volcano. The structurally simple edifice has steep upper slopes averaging 35-40 degrees that are capped by a small summit crater. Historical eruptions date back to 1616 and range from Strombolian to basaltic Plinian, with cyclical activity beginning with basaltic eruptions, followed by longer term andesitic lava flows. Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks. Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the approximately 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often devastated populated lowland areas. A violent eruption in 1814 killed more than 1,200 people and devastated several towns.

Information Contacts: Ernesto Corpuz, Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, C.P. Garcia Ave., Univ. Philippines Campus, U.P. Diliman, 1101 Quezon City.


Okmok (United States) — August 2001 Citation iconCite this Report

Okmok

United States

53.43°N, 168.13°W; summit elev. 1073 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Small earthquake swarm during 11-15 May 2001

Since the February 1997 eruption (BGVN 22:04) until at least September 2001, Okmok has remained relatively quiet, with one period of increased seismic activity. On 11 May 2001, from about 0800 to at least 1700, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) detected a small earthquake swarm centered near the volcano. Earthquakes in the swarm had magnitudes ranging from ~2 to 3.6. The locations of the earthquakes could not be pinpointed because Okmok is not monitored by a local seismic network. AVO noted that the earthquakes may have been of volcanic origin, but swarms with similar characteristics are not uncommon at Aleutian arc volcanoes and do not necessarily lead to eruptive activity. The earthquake swarm ended by 15 May, and AVO has not reported any further activity at Okmok since then.

Geologic Background. The broad, basaltic Okmok shield volcano, which forms the NE end of Umnak Island, has a dramatically different profile than most other Aleutian volcanoes. The summit of the low, 35-km-wide volcano is cut by two overlapping 10-km-wide calderas formed during eruptions about 12,000 and 2050 years ago that produced dacitic pyroclastic flows that reached the coast. More than 60 tephra layers from Okmok have been found overlying the 12,000-year-old caldera-forming tephra layer. Numerous satellitic cones and lava domes dot the flanks of the volcano down to the coast, including 1253-m Mount Tulik on the SE flank, which is almost 200 m higher than the caldera rim. Some of the post-caldera cones show evidence of wave-cut lake terraces; the more recent cones, some of which have been active historically, were formed after the caldera lake, once 150 m deep, disappeared. Hot springs and fumaroles are found within the caldera. Historical eruptions have occurred since 1805 from cinder cones within the caldera.

Information Contacts: Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.


Popocatepetl (Mexico) — August 2001 Citation iconCite this Report

Popocatepetl

Mexico

19.023°N, 98.622°W; summit elev. 5393 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Steam-and-ash emissions, periods of dome growth during 2001

Following an episode of intense volcanic activity at Popocatépetl during December 2000 and January 2001 (BGVN 25:12) volcanic activity through September 2001 consisted of periods of small-to-moderate emissions of steam, gas, and ash, several ash cloud-producing eruptions, periods of many high-frequency volcanic earthquakes, and fumarolic activity. In addition, a new lava dome grew within the crater left after a lava dome was destroyed in December 2000.

The Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED) and the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) noted several small-to-moderate sized eruptions during the report period. Large eruptions are discussed below, and others are in table 14.

Table 14. Eruptions at Popocatépetl during February-August 2001 not discussed in the report, based on information from CENAPRED, Washington VAAC, and the México City Meteorological Watch Office via the Washington VAAC. All heights are approximate values above the volcano.

Date Time Description of activity
01 Feb 2001 1345 Narrow ash plume visible in GOES-8 imagery rose to ~1 km, drifted NNE
08 Feb 2001 1921 Small ash cloud rose to 2 km, drifted NE
09 Feb 2001 1400 Ash cloud rose to 2 km
11 Feb 2001 1338 Ash cloud rose to 2.5 km, drifted S
11 Feb 2001 1348 Ash cloud rose to 2.5 km, drifted S
06 May 2001 1205 Steam-and-ash cloud rose to 1.5 km
14 May 2001 0939 Steam-and-ash cloud rose to 1.5 km
26 May 2001 1122 Steam-and-ash emission rose to 1.5 km
01 Jun 2001 0804 Steam-and-ash cloud rose to 1.5 km
09 Jun 2001 0424 Small explosion, most intense phase lasted 30 seconds
11 Jun 2001 1100 Ash cloud rose to 2 km, drifted W
12 Jun 2001 1648 Eruption occurred with the most intense phase lasting 30 seconds, too cloudy to observe ash cloud
24 Jun 2001 0900 Small ash cloud rose to 0.5 km, drifted SW
01 Jul 2001 0912 Ash cloud rose to 800 m, drifted SSW
14 Jul 2001 1045 Steam-and-ash cloud rose to 2 km, drifted W
14 Jul 2001 2303 Eruption occurred, but too cloudy to assign a height to the ash cloud
14 Jul 2001 2341 Ash cloud rose to 0.5 km, drifted NW
24 Jul 2001 0900 Summit-level emission, drifted W
09 Aug 2001 2300 Ash cloud rose to 2 km
17 Aug 2001 1514 Ash cloud rose to 2 km

Volcanic Activity during late January-February 2001. As of late January Popocatépetl was at Alert Level Yellow Phase Three, with a 12-km-radius restricted area. During the end of January through February several moderate-to-small eruptions occurred at Popocatépetl. On 30 January during 1530-1545 a moderate ash emission was visible on CENAPRED's video camera rising to ~1.5 km above the volcano's summit. The ~9-km-wide moderately-dense ash cloud extended from the summit to the N and NE. An eruption on 15 February at 1542 produced an ash cloud that rose to 2.5 km above the summit and drifted to the ENE. The intense phase of the eruption lasted about 15 minutes. The ash cloud was tracked using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-8 (GOES-8) imagery as it drifted to the Gulf of México by 0102 the next day. The NOAA Operational Significant Event Imagery Support Team created a movie loop using images captured by GOES-8 that are available at http://www.osei.noaa.gov/.

New lava dome growth and destruction during March and April. Relatively low volcanic activity during the beginning of March consisted of small steam-and-ash emissions and periods of harmonic tremor. CENAPRED reported that beginning on 12 March volcanic activity rose to high levels, with harmonic tremor occurring for a cumulative hour and approximately 50 small emissions of steam, gas, and occasionally ash. An eruption at 2023 produced an ash column that rose 1 km above the summit and incandescent volcanic fragments were hurled up to 1 km away from the crater to the volcano's N flank.

On 13 March at 1953 another eruption produced an ash column that rose to 2 km. While flying over the volcano the same day CENAPRED personnel observed a new 100- to 150-m-diameter lava dome growing in the inner crater that was created after the December 2000 dome was destroyed. On both 14 and 15 March a cumulative hour-long period of harmonic tremor occurred and 55, and 73 emissions of steam, gas, and ash occurred, respectively. The lava dome was 200 m in diameter and about 40 m tall as of 15 March. On 16 March there was a larger number of volcanic emissions (95) than on the previous couple of days, but less harmonic tremor was registered (0.5 hour). Volcanic activity began to decrease on 17 March, with 38 emissions occurring and 15 minutes of harmonic tremor recorded.

During the remainder of March and early April volcanic activity related to the emplacement of the new lava dome occurred; there were episodes of harmonic tremor totaling up to 8 hours per day, a large amount of high-frequency tremor, an average of two tectono-volcanic earthquakes per day up to M 2.3, and fumarolic activity.

On 16 April at 1948 a moderate eruption produced an ash cloud that rose to 4 km above the volcano's summit and drifted to the SW (figure 37, a and b). The eruption also sent incandescent volcanic fragments up to 2 km from the crater to the volcano's NE and NW flanks. The 40-second-long eruption destroyed the lava dome that had formed within the crater over the course of the previous several weeks. After the eruption the level of volcanic activity stabilized, with a relatively low number of gas, steam, and ash emissions and episodes of harmonic tremor. On 17 April a small lahar traveled down the Achupashal Gorge.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 37. For Popocatépetl, (a) a photograph showing the 16 April 2001eruption at 1949, and (b) thermal image of the 16 April eruption at an unstated time. In the thermal image, the ash cloud is visible rising to 4 km above the volcano's summit. Higher temperatures are represented by red and pink color shades in the area of fresh tephra deposition. The N flank of the volcano is shown. Hot material is visible on the upper NE and NW flanks of the volcano. Courtesy of CENAPRED.

Volcanic activity during late April-July. Following episodes of harmonic tremor during 28 April through early on 29 April a moderate eruption at 0819 produced an ash cloud that CENAPRED reported rose 2 km above the summit and quickly drifted to the ESE. A pilot reported that the ash cloud reached up to 3.5 km. The most intense phase of the eruption lasted approximately 1 minute. Extreme cloudiness obstructed clear views of the volcano, but scientist believe incandescent volcanic fragments were ejected during the eruption. Noise from the eruption was heard in San Pedro Benito Juárez (Puebla), 10 km SE of the volcano. By 0930 small amounts of ash fell in San Pedro Benito Juárez. Another small eruption occurred at 1310 and produced an ash cloud that rose 1.5-2 km above the volcano. After the eruptions volcanic activity returned to previous levels, with episodes of harmonic tremor and small volcanic emissions.

One of the many small eruptions during May occurred on the 13th at 2301 and ejected volcanic fragments up to 0.5 km away from the volcano's crater. Cloudy conditions prohibited observation of a possible accompanying ash cloud. The eruption was followed by an episode of harmonic tremor. A moderate-sized eruption on 31 May at 2136 sent incandescent material 2-3 km from the crater down the NE flank. The ash cloud produced from the eruption rose ~2 km above the volcano's summit and drifted to the W. The most intense phase of the eruption lasted approximately 1 minute. Harmonic tremor started about 90 seconds after the eruption began, and lasted about 5 hours. The following day a similar, but smaller, eruption at 0804 sent a steam-and-ash cloud to ~1.5 km.

Volcanic activity was relatively low in June, with small steam-and-ash emissions (table 4). CENAPRED reported that a moderate-sized eruption occurred on 3 July at 0410, which may have ejected incandescent volcanic fragments around the rim of the summit crater. Later that day, at 0648, a larger eruption produced an ash cloud that rose more than 4 km above the summit in a few minutes (figure 38). According to the Washington VAAC, at least three ash-producing eruptions occurred on 3 July; at 0425, 0648, and 0830. They reported that the 0425 eruption produced an ash cloud that was visible on GOES-8 imagery spreading in two directions at different heights; less than 1 km above the volcano one portion of the ash cloud drifted to the NW, and ~1-4 km above the summit it drifted to the SE (figure 39). Small amounts of ash fell NW of the volcano in the towns of San Pedro Nexapa, Amecameca, Tlalmanalco, San Rafael, Iztapaluc, and as far away as 35 km in Chalco.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 38. Photograph of an eruption of Popocatépetl taken on 3 July 2001 at 0657. The northern side of the volcano is shown. Courtesy of CENAPRED.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 39. Sketch showing the distributions of two portions of a Popocatépetl ash cloud in GOES-8 imagery on 3 July 2001at 0515. The enclosed hatched areas depict the location of volcanic ash. The portion of the ash cloud that drifted to the NW was ~ 1 km above the volcano and the portion that drifted to the SE, ~ 1-4 km above the volcano. Courtesy of Washington VAAC.

Based on information from pilot reports and ground observations, the Washington VAAC reported that the ash cloud was 9.3 km SE of México City airport (~65 km NE of the volcano) at 0930. Very light ash fell on runways at the Mexico City Airport, causing some airlines to briefly suspend takeoffs. CENAPRED's seismic data revealed that the explosive event lasted ~10 minutes, after which volcanism returned to low levels.

On 23 July CENAPRED reduced the Alert Level from Yellow Phase Three to Phase Two because volcanism was lower than it had been in December 2000 when the Alert Level was originally raised (BGVN 25:12). Under the new Alert Level, activity continued to be prohibited within a 12 km radius around the volcano, but controlled travel was permitted on the road between Santiago Xalitzintla (Puebla) ~10 km NE of the volcano and San Pedro Nexapa (State of México) ~12 km NW of the volcano, including Paso de Cortés.

New dome growth episode during August. A new episode of dome growth was first detected at Popocatépetl on 9 August when a significant increase in seismicity at the volcano lasted for about 24 hours. The seismicity was much lower than that detected in the interval beginning on 13 December 2000, a time when the highest amplitude tremor was recorded at Popocatépetl to date. A high-altitude flight took place on 10 August (sponsored by the Secretary of Communication and Transportation); it revealed that a new dome had been emplaced. It emerged at the bottom of the inner crater that formed after the December 2000 dome was destroyed (figures 40 and 41).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 40. Sketch of Popocatépetl's summit crater and the new lava dome as they appeared on 10 August 2001. Courtesy of CENAPRED and Instituto de Geofísica, UNAM.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. Photograph of Popocatépetl's new lava dome taken on 20 August 2001. Courtesy of CENAPRED and the Secretary of Communication and Transportation.

The lava dome's volume was estimated to be slightly more than 0.5 million cubic meters. Based on the assumption that the period of dome growth coincided with the period of maximum seismicity, the rate of growth was estimated to be 7-8 m3/s; less than 5% of the rates measured in December 2000. On 13 August the dome was 190 m in diameter and 30 m tall, about 5% the size of the December 2000 dome.

On 15 August at 1545 a new episode of high seismic activity began at the volcano. This episode was similar to the 9 August episode, but more steam-and-ash emissions with higher intensities occurred on 15 August. Seismicity further increased at 1800. The entire episode was attributed to a higher rate of lava extrusion. The waveforms and amplitudes of seismic signals were similar to those recorded on 13 December 2000; however, the total seismic energy release was about 30 % of the energy released on 13 December.

Small amounts of ash from the emissions fell NW and W of the volcano in San Pedro Nexapa, Amecameca, Ozumba, Atlautla, and San Juan Tehuiztitlán. Volcanic activity decreased on 16 August around 0115. During the night incandescence was seen at the summit and at 0538 incandescent fragments were ejected more than 500 m down the volcano's N flank.

After the August 15 increase in seismicity, seismic and volcanic activity returned to normal levels, with small volcanic emissions and periods of high-frequency and low-amplitude tremor. On 9 September during 0815-1605 an episode of frequent small- to moderate-sized eruptions began at Popocatépetl. The eruptions produced steam-and-ash emissions that rose to a maximum height of 1 km above the dome and drifted to the NW. During the night a small eruption sent incandescent fragments up to 200 m from the crater. Small amounts of ash fell in Ozumba (~15 km W of the volcano) and in Yecapixtla (~25 km SW of the volcano). Aerial photographs taken on 20 September revealed that the lava dome was visible within the crater.

Geologic Background. Volcán Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, rises 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 400 x 600 m wide crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas to the south. The modern volcano was constructed south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major Plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 CE, have occurred since the mid-Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since Pre-Columbian time.

Information Contacts: Carlos Valdés González, Roberto Quass Weppen, Gilberto Castelan, Enrique Guevara Ortiz, and Angel Gómez-Vázquez, Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres (CENAPRED), Av. Delfín Madrigal No.665. Coyoacan, México. D.F. 04360 (URL: https://www.gob.mx/cenapred/); Servando de la Cruz-Reyna, Instituto de Geofísica, UNAM. Cd. Universitaria. Circuito Institutos. Coyoácan. México, D.F. 04510 (URL: http://www.geofisica.unam.mx/); Washington VAAC, Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS E/SP23, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Road, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/); NOAA Operational Significant Events Imagery Support Team (OSEI), NOAA/NESDIS, World Weather Building, Room 510, 5200 Auth Road, Camp Springs, MD 20748 USA (URL: https://www.nnvl.noaa.gov/); Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Transportes, Xola Y Avenida Universidad, Cuerpo "C",Piso 1, Col. Navarte, Del. Benito Juarez, C. P. 03028, México (URL: http://www.sct.gob.mx/); Associated Press.


Semeru (Indonesia) — August 2001 Citation iconCite this Report

Semeru

Indonesia

8.108°S, 112.922°E; summit elev. 3657 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continuous seismic activity, plumes to ~11.6 km

From August 2000 through August 2001, activity at Semeru was characterized by continuous seismic activity and ash-and-steam plumes of varying heights above the summit. The Alert Level at Semeru remained at level 2 (on a scale of 1-4) throughout the report period.

The Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) reported volcanic ash plumes and clouds on several occasions throughout the year (table 5). The plumes ranged from ~4.6 to ~11.6 km altitude, and moved mainly SSE. On 8 July at 1503 a SE-drifting ash plume rose to ~2.5 km above the volcano. Ground-based reports prior to the eruption revealed that each day during 18-24 June Semeru emitted ash to ~0.6 km above the volcano.

Table 5. Summary of Volcanic Ash Advisories from the Darwin VAAC issued between August 2000 and August 2001. Note that heights are given in altitude. Semeru's summit lies at 3,767 m above sea level. Information sources include air reports (for example, routed via airlines, AIREPS), pilot reports (PIREPS), satellite data, and reports from ground observations), and information from the Meteorological and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia. Source date was provided by the Darwin VAAC.

Date Time Source Comment
19 Aug 2000 0653 PIREPS Possible smoke plume observed extending to ~10.6 km and moving S to SE.
19 Aug 2000 0812 PIREPS Possible smoke plume extending to ~4.6 km.
20 Aug 2000 0944 AIREP Smoke plume observed extending to ~7.3 km.
21 Aug 2000 0938 AIREP Smoke plume observed extending to ~7.3 km.
14 Sep 2000 1135 AIREP Stationary smoke plume at ~6 km.
10 Oct 2000 0333 AIREP Volcanic ash cloud at ~6 km and ascending.
10 Oct 2000 0433 AIREP Volcanic ash cloud at ~6 km and ascending.
10 Oct 2000 1030 AIREP Volcanic ash cloud at ~6 km and ascending.
11 Oct 2000 0216 AIREP Volcanic ash cloud at ~6 km and ascending.
11 Oct 2000 0435 AIREP Volcanic ash cloud at ~6 km, intermittent discharge extending to a maximum of 30 NM.
11 Oct 2000 0528 AIREP Volcanic ash cloud at ~6 km, intermittent discharge extending to a maximum of 30 NM.
11 Oct 2000 0925 AIREP Volcanic ash cloud at ~6 km, intermittent discharge extending to a maximum of 30 NM.
13 Oct 2000 0426 AIREP Volcanic ash cloud at ~6 to ~7.6 km drifting SW.
27 Oct 2000 0215 AIREP Volcanic ash cloud at ~7.6 km lasting for ~10 minutes.
30 Oct 2000 1055 AIREP Volcanic ash cloud at ~6 km.
11 Dec 2000 0508 AIREP Volcanic ash to ~7.6 km.
08 Jul 2001 0929 AIREP Ash plume reported to ~6 km drifting SE.
09 Jul 2001 0857 AIREP Ash plume to ~6 km drifting SE.
09 Jul 2001 2355 AIREP Volcanic ash at ~11.6 km.
09 Jul 2001 0857 AIREP Ash plume reported to ~6 km drifting SE.

Explosion earthquakes dominated the seismicity (table 6), and pyroclastic flows occurred 17 times between 31 July 2000 and 15 July 2001. The Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI) reported that a significant change in seismic activity occurred during 3-9 October 2000, when the number of explosion earthquakes increased to more than 700. A pyroclastic flow that reached the Kembar Besuki river, as far as 2,500 m from the summit, occurred on 2 October.

Table 6. Summary of seismicity at Semeru, 31 July 2000-15 July 2001. Ash plume heights are distances above the summit unless otherwise noted. Courtesy of the Volcanic Survey of Indonesia (VSI).

Date Deep Volcanic (A-type) Shallow Volcanic (B-type) Explosion Avalanche Tectonic Comment
31 Jul-07 Aug 2000 4 5 657 64 22 Five pyroclastic flows. Five pyroclastic-flow earthquakes. Four tremor events.
08 Aug-14 Aug 2000 5 4 584 43 13 Two pyroclastic flows; ash plume ~600 m. Two tremor events.
15 Aug-21 Aug 2000 2 -- 420 17 5 Ash plume ~600 m.
22 Aug-29 Aug 2000 23 1 542 27 21 Ash plume ~600 m. Three pyroclastic-flow earthquakes.
29 Aug-04 Sep 2000 23 1 542 27 21 Ash cloud ~600 m. Three pyroclastic-flow earthquakes.
05 Sep-11 Sep 2000 -- 2 594 8 -- Ashfall (105 events); white cloud to ~700 m.
12 Sep-18 Sep 2000 -- -- 623 -- -- Three pyroclastic flows; ashfall (72 events); ash plume to ~600 m. Two tremor events.
19 Sep-25 Sep 2000 -- 3 556 98 16 Ash plume to ~600 m.
26 Sep-02 Oct 2000 2 2 582 19 1 Thin white ash plume. One pyroclastic-flow earthquake. 79 tremor events.
03 Oct-09 Oct 2000 1 1 707 80 14 One pyroclastic flow.
10 Oct-16 Oct 2000 1 3 592 41 13 One pyroclastic flow; ash plume to ~600 m.
17 Oct-23 Oct 2000 3 -- 607 25 -- --
24 Oct-30 Oct 2000 42 1 592 22 7 Volcano covered by haze. Four tremor events.
31 Oct-06 Nov 2000 16 1 561 48 13 Ash plume to ~600 m.
28 Nov-04 Dec 2000 8 -- 483 24 2 Thick white fume 600 m above Jonggring Seloko crater.
05 Dec-11 Dec 2000 1 1 513 16 6 Two pyroclastic flows; thick white fume 600 m above Jonggring Seloko crater.
12 Dec-18 Dec 2000 2 -- 598 38 5 Volcano covered by smog.
19 Dec-25 Dec 2000 -- 1 319 22 2 --
26 Dec-01 Jan 2001 1 -- 559 98 7 White-gray ash plume to 600 m.
02 Jan-08 Jan 2001 6 -- 579 80 10 --
09 Feb-15 Feb 2001 29 1 693 80 4 --
13 Feb-19 Feb 2001 1 -- 519 29 1 No visual observations because of cloudy weather.
20 Feb-26 Feb 2001 3 -- 702 58 5 White-thin plume to ~100 m.
27 Feb-05 Mar 2001 -- -- 249 27 2 White-gray plumes to ~600 m.
06 Mar-12 Mar 2001 6 -- 303 31 -- --
12 Mar-18 Mar 2001 4 -- 349 10 3 --
19 Mar-23 Mar 2001 2 -- 259 -- 1 --
02 Apr-09 Apr 2001 28 -- 305 248 3 --
09 Apr-15 Apr 2001 -- -- 339 51 3 --
16 Apr-22 Apr 2001 -- -- 550 -- -- --
23 Apr-29 Apr 2001 12 1 759 157 4 --
30 Apr-06 May 2001 -- -- 782 96 7 --
07 May-13 May 2001 2 -- 670 113 7 --
14 May-20 May 2001 1 -- 616 143 2 --
28 May-03 Jun 2001 -- -- 396 115 3 --
04 Jun-10 Jun 2001 3 -- 430 75 5 --
11 Jun-17 Jun 2001 2 -- 361 81 4 --
18 Jun-24 Jun 2001 8 -- 346 62 3 --
25 Jun-01 Jul 2001 2 -- 331 37 2 --
02 Jul-08 Jul 2001 -- -- 299 30 6 --
09 Jul-15 Jul 2001 -- -- 687 57 11 --

During 27 March-1 April 2001, VSI personnel observed several lava avalanches that traveled to Kembar River valley as far as 750 m S of the summit. No seismic data were available because the seismometers broke on 24 March 2001. They were repaired on 1 April.

Geologic Background. Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The steep-sided volcano, also referred to as Mahameru (Great Mountain), rises above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano.

Information Contacts: Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/).


Sheveluch (Russia) — August 2001 Citation iconCite this Report

Sheveluch

Russia

56.653°N, 161.36°E; summit elev. 3283 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruption on 15 July, pyroclastic flows and explosion on 23 August 2001

During 14-16 July 2001, spasmodic volcanic tremor increased several times. On 15 July at 1803 a three-pixel anomaly was visible on AVHRR satellite imagery near the SW flank of the volcano and at 2100 a gas-and-steam plume was observed rising to 1.5 km above the dome. A moderate-sized eruption took place on 19 July at 1033. KVERT raised the level of concern from Yellow (volcano is restless; eruption may occur) to Orange (volcano is in eruption or eruption may occur at any time). The eruption produced an ash plume that rose 3 km above the lava dome.

After the eruption through 15 August, seismic activity remained above background levels, with many small earthquakes occurring within the volcano's edifice and many different seismic signals (explosion, avalanche, collapse) recorded locally. Gas-and-steam plumes rose from the summit level to ~2 km above the dome. One- to three-pixel anomalies were occasionally visible on AVHRR imagery near the SW flank of the volcano. The level of continuous spasmodic volcanic tremor increased on 28 and 30 July. On the night of 1 August ash fell in the town of Klyuchi, 46 km S of the volcano. On 11 August several thermal anomalies were recorded on satellite imagery, as well as a gas-and-steam plume that extended 75 km SE. On 15 August volcanic tremor decreased gradually to background levels, but increased again soon after. Pyroclastic flows traveled down the flanks of the volcano following an explosion on 23 August. The volcano remained at concern level Orange throughout August.

Geologic Background. The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 km3 volcano is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

Information Contacts: Olga Chubarova, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT); Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA; Anchorage Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), NOAA Alaska Aviation Weather Unit, 6930 Sand Lake Road, Anchorage, AK 99502-1845, USA (URL: http://vaac.arh.noaa.gov/); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center, Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/).

Atmospheric Effects

The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found in this section.

Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989)  Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001)

Special Announcements

Special announcements of various kinds and obituaries.

Special Announcements  Obituaries

Misc Reports

Reports are sometimes published that are not related to a Holocene volcano. These might include observations of a Pleistocene volcano, earthquake swarms, or floating pumice. Reports are also sometimes published in which the source of the activity is unknown or the report is determined to be false. All of these types of additional reports are listed below by subject.

Additional Reports  False Reports