Activity for the week of 11 February-17 February 2004
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
| Mariana Islands (USA)
| 16.35°N, 145.67°E
| Elevation 790 m
During 13-17 February, volcanic seismicity at Anatahan was at low background levels. There were no apparent eruption signals or precursory events. In addition, tremor and seismic-energy release were at very low levels.
Source: Emergency Management Office of the Commonwealth of the Mariana Islands and United States Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program
| 19.514°N, 103.62°W
| Elevation 3850 m
The Universidad de Colima reported that as of 10 February about five explosions occurred at Colima daily, which was slightly more than during the previous few months. Ash columns rose 2-3 km above the crater and predominately drifted NE and ENE. A significant explosion on 9 February at 0958 produced a plume to ~3.6 km above the volcano that drifted NE. According to the Washington VAAC, during 12-17 February ash plumes were sometimes visible on satellite imagery at a maximum height of ~3 km above the crater.
Sources: Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Sicily (Italy)
| 37.748°N, 14.999°E
| Elevation 3295 m
On 10 February, video footage showed ash emissions from Etna's Bocca Nuova and Northeast craters. Gas was emitted from Southeast and Voragine craters.
Source: Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)
| 14.473°N, 90.88°W
| Elevation 3763 m
INSIVUMEH reported that during 11-16 February several moderate-to-strong explosions occurred at Fuego, producing gas-and-ash plumes to 1.6 km above the crater. Incandescent avalanches traveled a maximum distance of 1 km down several ravines, including Trinidad and Taniluyá to the SW, Seca to the W, Ceniza, and Lajas. During 11-12 February, ash fell in the villages of Panimaché and Sangre de Cristo. According to the Washington VAAC, on 14 February ash was visible on satellite imagery at a height of ~3.5 km above the volcano.
Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
| 54.049°N, 159.443°E
| Elevation 1513 m
Seismicity was above background levels at Karymsky during 6-13 February, with 30-190 shallow earthquakes occurring per day. Based on interpretations of seismic data, four possible ash-and-gas explosions produced plumes to ~6.5 km a.s.l. on 10 February. According to data from the Airport Meteorological Center in Yelizovo, on 9 and 12 February pilots saw ash plumes that rose to ~5.5 km a.s.l. Karymsky remained at Concern Color Code Orange.
Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), United Press International, IRIB News
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
During 12-17 February, lava flows and incandescence were sometimes visable in Pu`u `O`o's crater, the rootless shield complex (an area ~0.5 km SW of Pu`u `O`o), and the upper area of the Mother's Day lava tube (SW of Pu`u `O`o). Weak background tremor occurred at Kilauea's summit along with a few long-period earthquakes. Tremor at Pu`u `O`o was at moderate-to-low levels. Small deflation and inflation events occurred at the summit and at Pu`u `O`o.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.056°N, 160.642°E
| Elevation 4754 m
During 6-13 February, seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi, with ~225 shallow M 1.25-2 earthquakes recorded during the week. The amount of spasmodic tremor decreased during the report period. In addition, gas-and-steam plumes rose ~700 m above the volcano. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| South Sandwich Islands (UK)
| 58.445°S, 26.374°W
| Elevation 1370 m
Satellite imagery from 7 December 2003 showed that low-level ash emission and lava effusion had persisted steadily at Montagu Island (Mount Belinda) for the past 2 years. A NE-trending, 2-km-long lava flow was emplaced on the summit ice shelf in July 2003, and ash continued to blanket the eastern side of the island. The automated MODVOLC satellite monitoring system indicated that total heat output from the volcano reached its highest intensity in October 2003.
Source: Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts Team
| El Salvador
| 13.434°N, 88.269°W
| Elevation 2130 m
According to a news article, a tectonic earthquake near San Miguel on the evening of 8 February caused landslides within the crater and on the volcano's flanks. One of the landslides threatened retention walls in the community of Carretos near the volcano. Citizens feared that heavy rains in the future could mix with the landslide material and overload the retention walls, causing them to fail.
Source: La Prensa Grafica
| 14.757°N, 91.552°W
| Elevation 3745 m
During 11-16 February, small-to-moderate explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced ash plumes to a maximum height of 1.4 km above the volcano. In addition, avalanches of volcanic material traveled down the volcano's SW flank. Explosions on 16 February deposited fine ash up to 12 km SW of the volcano.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.653°N, 161.36°E
| Elevation 3283 m
During 6-13 February, seismicity was above background levels at Shiveluch. A large number of weak shallow earthquakes and one to three M1.5-2.3 earthquakes were recorded daily at depths of 0-5 km beneath the active lava dome. Spasmodic tremor was recorded all week. Based on interpretations of seismic data, one to three ash-and-gas explosions occurred per day, sending ash to 4-6 km a.s.l. Visual and video observations revealed ash plumes rising to ~5 km a.s.l. on 10 February. Shiveluch remained at Concern Color Code Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| 16.72°N, 62.18°W
| Elevation 915 m
Volcanic and seismic activity at Soufrière Hills remained at low levels during 6-13 February. The seismic network recorded one volcano-tectonic earthquake and three hybrid earthquakes. Sulfur-dioxide flux was low and relatively constant at 350-450 metric tons per day.
Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)
| 1.467°S, 78.442°W
| Elevation 5023 m
During 11-16 February, small-to-moderate explosions at Tungurahua produced steam, gas, and ash plumes to ~1 km above the volcano. On 11 February an avalanche of incandescent volcanic blocks traveled ~1 km down the volcano's flank.
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.