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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 22 September-28 September 2004.


















 Activity for the week of 22 September-28 September 2004

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
St. Helens United States New

Asamayama Honshu (Japan) Ongoing
Colima Mexico Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Galeras Colombia Ongoing
Kerinci Indonesia Ongoing
Kikai Japan Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Manam Papua New Guinea Ongoing
Mauna Loa Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Nyiragongo DR Congo Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing
Spurr United States Ongoing
Tungurahua Ecuador Ongoing
Veniaminof United States Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  St. Helens  | United States  | 46.2°N, 122.18°W  | Elevation 2549 m

CVO issued a Notice of Volcanic Unrest for Mount St. Helens on 26 September. They reported that increased activity started when a swarm of very small, shallow earthquakes (less than M 1) began on the morning of 23 September. The swarm peaked by about mid-day on 24 September and slowly declined through the morning of the 25th. The character of the swarm then changed to include more than 10 larger earthquakes (M 2-2.8), the most in a 24-hour period since the last eruption in October 1986. In addition, the character of some of the earthquakes suggested the involvement of pressurized fluids (water and steam) or magma. The events continued through 27 September at shallow depths (less than 1.6 km) below the lava dome that formed in the crater between 1980 and 1986.

As of the 27th, seismicity had slowly increased throughout the day and the largest earthquake recorded was about M 1.5. CVO crews installed global positioning system (GPS) equipment to monitor any ground movement on the lava dome, the crater floor, and the volcano's slopes. Preliminary results from a gas flight on the 27th revealed that no magmatic gas was recorded around the lava dome.

Source: US Geological Survey Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Asamayama  | Honshu (Japan)  | 36.406°N, 138.523°E  | Elevation 2568 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruptions at Asama during 23-25 September produced plumes to unknown heights.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

Low-intensity volcanic activity continued at Colima through 27 September, with about two ash explosions occurring per day. The plumes produced from these explosions did not rise more than 2 km above the volcano and predominately drifted W.

Source: Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

On 26 September, satellite imagery showed a plume erupted from Dukono extending WNW at a height of ~3 km a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

Weak explosions at Fuego on 21 September produced white plumes to ~200 m above the volcano. During 25-26 September, several moderate explosions emitted incandescent lava bombs to heights of ~150 m and plumes to 600-900 m above the volcano. The explosions were accompanied by avalanches of volcanic material that traveled W to the head of Santa Teresa Ravine.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Galeras  | Colombia  | 1.22°N, 77.37°W  | Elevation 4276 m

During 23-27 September, tremor associated with ash-and-gas emissions was recorded at Galeras. On the 23rd, ash deposits were seen on the upper portions of the volcano's N flank. By the 27th the amount of tremor had decreased significantly, which may have coincided with a decrease in ash emissions.

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



Volcano index photo  Kerinci  | Indonesia  | 1.697°S, 101.264°E  | Elevation 3800 m

A pilot reported to the Darwin VAAC that an ash cloud emitted from Kerinci was visible on 27 September at 0813 drifting W at a height of ~6 km a.s.l. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Kikai  | Japan  | 30.793°N, 130.305°E  | Elevation 704 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption at Kikai on 25 September at 0937 produced a plume to a height of ~1.5 km a.s.l. that extended W.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 22-27 September, all vents in Kilauea's Pu`u `O`o cone were incandescent. After several days of absence, lava was again visible on the Pulama pali fault scarp beginning on the 23rd. The lava was at the tip of the western branch of the PKK flow. During the report period, seismicity was weak at Kilauea's summit, with essentially no tremor. Tremor was at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. In addition, periods of inflation and deflation occurred.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Manam  | Papua New Guinea  | 4.08°S, 145.037°E  | Elevation 1807 m

According to the Darwin VAAC, a pilot reported seeing a plume from Manam on 22 September at 1345 drifting W at a height of ~3 km a.s.l. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Mauna Loa  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.475°N, 155.608°W  | Elevation 4170 m

No changes were noted by HVO at Mauna Loa through 27 September. Since early July 2004, an increasing number of earthquakes had been recorded from beneath Mauna Loa. From week to week the numbers fluctuated but remained well above the earlier established norm. Through the third week of September, more than 560 earthquakes were centered beneath Mauna Loa's summit caldera and the adjacent part of the southwest rift zone. Most of these earthquakes were quite deep, 35-50 km below the surface, and less than M 3. Inflation continued at the summit and showed no change during the increased seismic activity.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Nyiragongo  | DR Congo  | 1.52°S, 29.25°E  | Elevation 3470 m

The Toulouse VAAC reported that on 28 September a thin, narrow plume emitted from Nyiragongo was visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

Moderate explosions occurred at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex during 21-27 September. On the 27th, several avalanches of volcanic material from active lava-flow fronts traveled SW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

Seismicity was above background levels at Shiveluch during 23 September to 1 October, with 26 strong shallow earthquakes up to M 2.3 recorded during 23-29 September. Several explosions were seen that produced ash plumes to a maximum height of 4.5 km a.s.l., while interpretations of seismic data suggested that plumes rose to 6.5 km a.s.l. [Correction: According to interpretations of seismic data there were ~20 ash plumes at heights between 4 and 6.5 km a.s.l. Several explosions were confirmed by video observation at a maximum height of 4.5 km a.s.l. Clouds or night obscured the remainder.] An explosion on 25 September was accompanied by small pyroclastic flows. Shiveluch remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

Volcanic and seismic activity at Soufrière Hills remained slightly elevated throughout 17-24 September. The seismic network recorded two rockfalls, two long-period earthquakes, and eight hybrid earthquakes. The sulfur-dioxide flux averaged 312 metric tons per day, reaching a maximum of 454 metric tons on 18 September. An unusual wind direction occasionally brought the volcanic plume across inhabited areas, causing people in the area to experience the plume's characteristic sulfur smell.

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)



Volcano index photo  Spurr  | United States  | 61.299°N, 152.251°W  | Elevation 3374 m

Elevated seismicity continued at Spurr during 17-24 September, with an average of ten earthquakes occurring within 30 km of the summit daily. The combined output of carbon dioxide from one vent at Crater Peak and one at Spurr was approximately 2,300 tons on 15 September, an increase from the approximately 760 tons/day measured during 7-8 August. AVO reported that the gray color of the lake at the bottom of the ice cauldron is typical of crater lakes containing dissolved sulfur dioxide. These observations further suggest that magma resides beneath the volcano. However, there were no indications that an eruption is imminent, and this type of activity does not always lead to an eruption. Spurr remained at Concern Color Code Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

During 21-27 September, relatively low-level activity continued at Tungurahua. There were emissions of gas, steam, and ash. In addition, sporadic explosions produced plumes to a maximum height of 3 km above the volcano. On the evening of 21 September, Strombolian activity was seen, with volcanic blocks thrown as high as 200 m above the volcano.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Veniaminof  | United States  | 56.17°N, 159.38°W  | Elevation 2507 m

Low-level tremor and intermittent tremor bursts continued at Veniaminof during 17-24 September. Tremor episodes likely represented low-level ash-and-steam emissions similar to those observed over the previous 4 months, although cloudy conditions obscured views of the volcano in web camera and satellite imagery. Veniaminof remained at Concern Color Code Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



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Agung Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Lewotobi Papandayan Sotara
Ahyi Concepcion Ibu Lewotolo Parker Soufriere Hills
Aira Copahue Ijen Little Sitkin Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
Akan Cotopaxi Iliamna Llaima Peuet Sague South Sarigan Seamount
Alaid Cuicocha Iliwerung Loihi Pinatubo Spurr
Alu-Dalafilla Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Planchon-Peteroa St. Helens
Ambae Dabbahu Ioto Lopevi Poas Stromboli
Ambang Dempo Irazu Machin Popocatepetl Sulu Range
Ambrym Descabezado Grande Iya Makian Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Sumbing
Anatahan Dieng Volcanic Complex Izu-Torishima Makushin Rabaul Sundoro
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Dukono Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raikoke Suretamatai
Antuco Ebeko Kaba Manam Ranakah Suwanosejima
Apoyeque Ebulobo Kadovar Manda Hararo Raoul Island Taal
Arenal Egon Kambalny Marapi Rasshua Tair, Jebel at
Asamayama Ekarma Kanaga Maroa Raung Takawangha
Askja Epi Kanlaon Martin Redoubt Talang
Asosan Erebus Karangetang Masaya Reventador Tambora
Augustine Erta Ale Karkar Maule, Laguna del Reykjanes Tanaga
Avachinsky Etna Karthala Mauna Loa Rincon de la Vieja Tandikat-Singgalang
Awu Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Karymsky Mayon Rinjani Tangkoko-Duasudara
Axial Seamount Eyjafjallajokull Kasatochi McDonald Islands Ritter Island Tangkuban Parahu
Azul, Cerro Fernandina Katla Melimoyu Rotorua Tara, Batu
Azumayama Fogo Kavachi Merapi Ruang Telica
Bagana Fonualei Kelimutu Midagahara Ruapehu Tenerife
Balbi Fournaise, Piton de la Kelut Misti, El Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Bamus Fourpeaked Kerinci Miyakejima Sabancaya Three Sisters
Banda Api Fuego Ketoi Momotombo Sakar Tinakula
Bardarbunga Fujisan Kharimkotan Monowai Salak Tofua
Barren Island Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kick 'em Jenny Montagu Island San Cristobal Tokachidake
Batur Galeras Kikai Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Miguel Tolbachik
Bezymianny Galunggung Kilauea Mutnovsky San Vicente Toliman
Bogoslof Gamalama Kirishimayama Myojinsho Sangay Tongariro
Brava Gamkonora Kizimen Nabro Sangeang Api Tungurahua
Bristol Island Gaua Klyuchevskoy Negra, Sierra Santa Ana Turrialba
Bulusan Gorely Kolokol Group Negro, Cerro Santa Maria Ubinas
Calbuco Great Sitkin Korovin Nightingale Island Sarigan Ulawun
Callaqui Grimsvotn Koryaksky Nishinoshima Sarychev Peak Unnamed
Cameroon Guagua Pichincha Krakatau Nisyros Saunders Unnamed
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guallatiri Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Novarupta Semeru Veniaminof
Cayambe Guntur Kuchinoerabujima NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Villarrica
Cereme Hachijojima Kurikomayama Nyamuragira Seulawah Agam West Mata
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Nyiragongo Sheveluch Whakaari/White Island
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Okataina Shishaldin Witori
Chiginagak Hekla Lamington Okmok Simbo Wolf
Chikurachki Hierro Lamongan Ontakesan Sinabung Yasur
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Oraefajokull Sinarka Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chillan, Nevados de Home Reef Lanin Osorno Siple Zavodovski
Chirinkotan Hood Lascar Pacaya Sirung Zhupanovsky
Chirpoi Huaynaputina Lateiki Pagan Slamet Zubair Group
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lengai, Ol Doinyo Paluweh Soputan
Colima Huila, Nevado del Leroboleng Panarea Sorikmarapi
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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)