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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 19 October-25 October 2011.


















 Activity for the week of 19 October-25 October 2011

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Hierro Spain New
Ranakah Flores Island (Indonesia) New
Sangay Ecuador New
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) New
Tungurahua Ecuador New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Etna Sicily (Italy) Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Kizimen Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Manam Papua New Guinea Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Chile Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Hierro  | Spain  | 27.73°N, 18.03°W  | Elevation 1500 m

Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) reported that during 19-25 October tremor continued to be registered by every seismic station on El Hierro Island; 270 seismic events were registered and located. The mean amplitude was lower than during previous days but indicated that the submarine eruption continued. Since 21 October, most of the events were located in the N part of the island, aligned NNW-SSE from the center of the island to around 13 km offshore. Most of these earthquakes occurred around 20-25 km depth. Superficial analysis of GPS deformation data from the last few days of the reporting period showed different behaviors between the stations located at the N of the island and the station located at the S, close to the submarine eruptive vent.

Source: Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN)



Volcano index photo  Ranakah  | Flores Island (Indonesia)  | 8.62°S, 120.52°E  | Elevation 2350 m

CVGHM reported that throughout September and during 1-12 October diffuse white plumes rose 10-15 m above the Anak Ranakah lava dome. Plumes were not observed during 13-21 October. Starting on 1 July, seismicity had increased to a peak level on 15 August then declined through 20 October. Based on visual observations, seismicity, and deformation data, CVGHM lowered the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 22 October.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Sangay  | Ecuador  | 2.005°S, 78.341°W  | Elevation 5286 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 25 October a gas plume from Sangay, which possibly contained ash, drifted 75 km E. Ash was not identified in subsequent images.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Shiveluch was moderate during 13-18 October and indicated that possible ash plumes rose to altitudes of 8-10.5 km (26,200-34,400 ft) a.s.l. Technical reasons prevented seismic data collection during 19-21 October. Ground-based observers noted hot avalanches in the lava dome area during 13-16 October, and that plumes from those avalanches rose to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery showed a large daily thermal anomaly over the lava dome and ash plumes that drifted 75 km E on 14 and 16 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Based on information from KEMSD, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 23 October an eruption produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l. The altitude was based on seismic analysis. An eruption on 24 October noted by KVERT produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

Based on a pilot observation, the Washington VAAC reported that on 24 October an ash plume from Tungurahua rose to an altitude of 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Ash was not observed in satellite imagery. [A 9 November VAAC report stated that IG noted no ash emissions from Tungurahua since June.]

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 20-25 October explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.4 km (6,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, NW, E, and SE. Pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 3 and 1.5 km (10,000 and 5,000 ft) a.s.l. on 23 and 25 October, respectively. The plumes drifted SE on both days.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Cleveland  | Chuginadak Island (USA)  | 52.825°N, 169.944°W  | Elevation 1730 m

AVO reported that during 19-23 October cloud cover over Cleveland prevented views of the lava dome in the summit crater. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. No current seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 22 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110-185 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3320 m

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that the seventeenth paroxysmal eruptive episode of 2011 took place at the New SE Crater (New SEC) of Etna during the evening of 23 October. Weak explosive activity was recorded at 1913, and at about 1935 small anomalies appeared in images recorded by thermal cameras. Explosive activity rapidly intensified at 1940 and by 2007 that crater was completely filled with lava. The lava overflowed through a breach in the E crater rim and traveled towards the Valle del Bove.

At 2026, Strombolian activity transitioned to continuous lava fountains that rose a few tens of meters above the crater rim. At 2036, a vent opened on the SE flank of the cone, producing a second lava fountain, leading to a significant increase in the lava effusion rate. The height of the lava fountains significantly increased after 2100, reaching 300 m above the crater. At about 2130, a third vent became active within the New SEC, possibly near the N rim. Abundant amounts of tephra fell on the E flank of the cone, forming a dense curtain, while large incandescent blocks rolled to the base of the cone on more gently sloping terrain. At approximately 2229 two lightning flashes near the crater were observed. After 2230 both effusive and explosive activity showed a marked reduction, changing again into Strombolian activity around 2300, and ceasing altogether at 2315.

The lava flow continued to advance towards the Valle del Bove until about 0040 on 24 October and stagnated just upslope of Monte Centenari (at 1,900 m a.s.l.). The area most heavily affected by the tephra (ash and small scoriaceous lapilli) fall was the E flank of Etna, including the N portion of the towns of Zafferana (about 10 km to the E), Milo (about 11 km ESE), and Fornazzo (10 km E), downslope across Santa Venerina (SE flank) and Dagala del Re (14 km ESE) to Giarre (~17 km E) and Riposto (18 km E), as well as nearby villages.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 20-21 October explosions from Fuego produced shock waves that were detected nearby, rumbling sounds, and ash plumes that rose 500 m above the crater and drifted W. Incandescence emanated from the crater at night, and avalanches traveled SW into the Taniluyá, Ceniza, and Trinidad drainages. On 23 October, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume was observed in satellite imagery.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity continued at a moderate level at Karymsky during 14-21 October, and indicated that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.3 km (10,800 ft) a.s.l. during 13-15 October and to lesser altitudes the other days of the week. Satellite imagery showed a thermal anomaly on the volcano on 14 and 16 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 19-25 October, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby. At the E rift zone, incandescence emanated from the 21 September fissure on the upper E flank of the Pu'u 'O'o cone and lava flows remained active on the flow field to the SE of Pu'u 'O'o. Vents on the E and W edges of crater floor were incandescent.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Kizimen  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.131°N, 160.32°E  | Elevation 2334 m

KVERT reported that during 14-21 October the magnitudes of the volcanic earthquakes at Kizimen decreased, as well as the numbers, down to 22-60. Video data showed ashfall on the flanks during 14-15 October, and that a large lava flow on the NE flank continued to effuse. A thermal anomaly on the volcano was detected daily in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Manam  | Papua New Guinea  | 4.08°S, 145.037°E  | Elevation 1807 m

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 19-21 October ash plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 150-220 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that during 19-23 October steam-and-gas emissions rose from Popocatépetl. Emissions during 23-25 October occasionally contained small amounts of ash.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Puyehue-Cordon Caulle  | Chile  | 40.59°S, 72.117°W  | Elevation 2236 m

Based on seismicity during 19-25 October, OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that the eruption from the Cordón Caulle rift zone, part of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex, mostly continued at a low level. Seismicity did increase during the last few days of the reporting period.

Plumes visible with an area web camera rose no higher than 2 km above the crater during 19-20 October. A small plume visible in satellite imagery on 19 October drifted 50 km E and a diffuse ash plume drifted 150 km NE and SE. On 20 October a small plume drifted 70 km E.

At night on 22 October incandescence emanated from the crater, possibly from active lava flows reported during the previous few days. At 0311 an explosion generated a plume that rose 4.5 km above the crater as well as increased incandescence from the crater. An ash plume observed in satellite imagery drifted 120 km W and NW, and a diffuse ash plume drifted 250 km NE and SE. During the day a white plume rose 3 km above the crater. Satellite imagery showed a plume that drifted 125 km NE, then dissipated NE and SE. On 24 October, a plume rose 6 km above the crater. Satellite imagery showed a plume drifting 125 km NE and a diffuse ash plume drifting 280 km in the same direction. The next day white plumes did not rise higher than 7.5 km above the crater and satellite imagery showed a plume that drifted 100 km NW and SW. The Alert Level remained at Red.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 25 October a narrow ash plume from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 30 km WNW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

Based on a pilot observation, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 14 October an ash plume from Suwanose-jima rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Ash was not detected in satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



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Agung Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Lewotobi Papandayan Sotara
Ahyi Concepcion Ibu Lewotolo Parker Soufriere Hills
Aira Copahue Ijen Little Sitkin Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
Akan Cotopaxi Iliamna Llaima Peuet Sague South Sarigan Seamount
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Ambang Dempo Irazu Machin Popocatepetl Sulu Range
Ambrym Descabezado Grande Iya Makian Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Sumbing
Anatahan Dieng Volcanic Complex Izu-Torishima Makushin Rabaul Sundoro
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Dukono Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raikoke Suretamatai
Antuco Ebeko Kaba Manam Ranakah Suwanosejima
Apoyeque Ebulobo Kadovar Manda Hararo Raoul Island Taal
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Asamayama Ekarma Kanaga Maroa Raung Takawangha
Askja Epi Kanlaon Martin Redoubt Talang
Asosan Erebus Karangetang Masaya Reventador Tambora
Augustine Erta Ale Karkar Maule, Laguna del Reykjanes Tanaga
Avachinsky Etna Karthala Mauna Loa Rincon de la Vieja Tandikat-Singgalang
Awu Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Karymsky Mayon Rinjani Tangkoko-Duasudara
Axial Seamount Eyjafjallajokull Kasatochi McDonald Islands Ritter Island Tangkuban Parahu
Azul, Cerro Fernandina Katla Melimoyu Rotorua Tara, Batu
Azumayama Fogo Kavachi Merapi Ruang Telica
Bagana Fonualei Kelimutu Midagahara Ruapehu Tenerife
Balbi Fournaise, Piton de la Kelut Misti, El Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Bamus Fourpeaked Kerinci Miyakejima Sabancaya Three Sisters
Banda Api Fuego Ketoi Momotombo Sakar Tinakula
Bardarbunga Fujisan Kharimkotan Monowai Salak Tofua
Barren Island Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kick 'em Jenny Montagu Island San Cristobal Tokachidake
Batur Galeras Kikai Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Miguel Tolbachik
Bezymianny Galunggung Kilauea Mutnovsky San Vicente Toliman
Bogoslof Gamalama Kirishimayama Myojinsho Sangay Tongariro
Brava Gamkonora Kizimen Nabro Sangeang Api Tungurahua
Bristol Island Gaua Klyuchevskoy Negra, Sierra Santa Ana Turrialba
Bulusan Gorely Kolokol Group Negro, Cerro Santa Maria Ubinas
Calbuco Great Sitkin Korovin Nightingale Island Sarigan Ulawun
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Cereme Hachijojima Kurikomayama Nyamuragira Seulawah Agam West Mata
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Nyiragongo Sheveluch Whakaari/White Island
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Okataina Shishaldin Witori
Chiginagak Hekla Lamington Okmok Simbo Wolf
Chikurachki Hierro Lamongan Ontakesan Sinabung Yasur
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Oraefajokull Sinarka Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chillan, Nevados de Home Reef Lanin Osorno Siple Zavodovski
Chirinkotan Hood Lascar Pacaya Sirung Zhupanovsky
Chirpoi Huaynaputina Lateiki Pagan Slamet Zubair Group
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lengai, Ol Doinyo Paluweh Soputan
Colima Huila, Nevado del Leroboleng Panarea Sorikmarapi
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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)