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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 15 August-21 August 2012.

 Activity for the week of 15 August-21 August 2012

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Iturup (Etorofu) Island (Japan/Russia) New
Sotara Colombia New
Tongariro North Island (New Zealand) New
Tungurahua Ecuador New
Whakaari/White Island North Island (New Zealand) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) Ongoing
Etna Sicily (Italy) Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Galeras Colombia Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Nevado del Ruiz Colombia Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing

New Activity / Unrest

Volcano index photo  Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]  | Iturup (Etorofu) Island (Japan/Russia)  | 45.012°N, 147.871°E  | Elevation 1158 m

According to news reports, Ivan Grozny, one of two volcanoes comprising the Grozny Group, erupted on 16 August, after increased gas emissions from the NE flank were observed the day before. An ash plume rose 1.2 km and caused ashfall in Goryachiye Klyuchi (9 km W) and Kurilsk (25 km away). Residents reported a sulfur dioxide odor. By the afternoon ashfall had ceased and the odor subsided.

Sources: Itar-Tass News, RIA Novosti

Sotara  | Colombia  | 2.108°N, 76.592°W  | Elevation 4400 m

According to INGEOMINAS, the Observatorio Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Popayán reported that during 8-14 August seismic activity at Sotará increased. The seismic network recorded 110 magnitude 0.2-1.6 events mainly located in an area 0.1-5 km NE of the peak, at depths of 2-6 km. Inflation was detected in the NE area, coincident with the zone of increased seismicity. Web-camera views showed no morphological changes. The Alert Level was raised to III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity"), or the second lowest level.

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)

Volcano index photo  Tongariro  | North Island (New Zealand)  | 39.157°S, 175.632°E  | Elevation 1978 m

GeoNet reported that seismic activity at Tongariro remained low during 14-16 August; weather conditions prevented observations of the craters. There were several reports of gas odors on 15 August, particularly from the Manawatu region (S). On 17 August GeoNet noted that although very minor amounts of ash were emitted in the first few days after the eruption, there had been no significant activity since 6 August. Seismic activity had returned to low levels after the eruption. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 0-5) and the Aviation Colour Code remained at Yellow (second lowest on a four-color scale).

Source: GeoNet

Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

IG reported that on 15 August three small explosions from Tungurahua were detected along with continuous tremor. An ash plume rose 1 km above the crater and drifted W, producing ashfall in El Manzano (8 km SW) and Pillate (7 km W). Activity increased the next day, characterized by increased tremor, roaring sounds, and instances of vibrating windows. An ash plume again rose 1 km, drifted W, and produced ashfall in El Manzano and Pillate. On 17 August two long periods of tremor associated with emissions were detected; 10 explosions were also recorded. Periodic clear views of the crater showed continuous steam-and-ash plumes rising 1.5-3 km above the crater and drifting WNW. Ash fell in Pillate and Bilbao (8 km W). Activity significantly increased at 2100, and strong explosions were detected. Cloud cover prevented visual observations.

In the morning of 18 August, satellite images showed a 50-km-long plume drifting NW. A pyroclastic flow deposit on the NW flank was observed with a thermal camera. Steam-and-ash plumes rose 1.5 km and drifted WNW; ashfall was reported in Choglontús (SW), Pillate, and San Juan de Pillate (9 km W). Strong glow from the crater was observed at night, along with incandescent blocks rolling down the top of the cone. A pyroclastic flow descended the NE flank, and a lava flow on the N flank traveled 500 m.

Activity remained elevated on 19 and 20 August; continuous tremor indicating emissions was detected, along with nine explosions on 19 August and five on 20 August. Steam-and-ash plumes rose 1.5-2 km and drifted W and SW. Ash fell in Pillate, Igualata (20 km W), El Santuario, Hualpamba, Cevallos (23 km NW), Quero (20 km NW), Mocha (25 km WNW), Santa Anita, and Tisaleo (29 km NW). Roaring sounds were heard and explosions vibrated windows. Strombolian activity ejected incandescent blocks that landed a few hundred meters away. An overflight on 20 August revealed an 80-m-wide inner crater that contained lava. Blocks had accumulated at the headwaters of streams on the SW, W, and NW flanks. According to a news article, 110 families were evacuated.

On 21 August 16 large explosions were detected and again caused windows to vibrate. Strong "cannon shots" were heard in areas as far as Ambato (40 km NW), Riobamba (30 km S), and Milagro, though roaring noises decreased in intensity and duration compared to the previous few days. Ash plumes rose 1.5-5 km and drifted W, and a pyroclastic flow traveled 2.5 km down the NW flank.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Associated Press

Volcano index photo  Whakaari/White Island  | North Island (New Zealand)  | 37.52°S, 177.18°E  | Elevation 294 m

On 17 August GeoNet Data Centre reported that that little to no ash was visible in the plume rising from White Island during the previous week. They also noted that seismicity was low and sulfur dioxide flux was at normal levels. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 0-5), and the Aviation Colour Code remained at Yellow (second lowest on a four-color scale).

Source: GeoNet

Ongoing Activity

Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that during 17-20 August explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m from the crater. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 17-21 August produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.4-3.4 km (8,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NW. Pilots observed ash plumes during 18-20 August that rose to altitudes of 2.1-4.3 km (7,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SW, and W.

According to a news report, the total amount of ash emitted from Sakura-jima from January to July was more than two times larger than all of 2011, when a record number of eruptions had occurred.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)

Volcano index photo  Batu Tara  | Komba Island (Indonesia)  | 7.791°S, 123.585°E  | Elevation 633 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) reported that during 15-21 August ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-95 km W, NW, and NNW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)

Volcano index photo  Cleveland  | Chuginadak Island (USA)  | 52.825°N, 169.944°W  | Elevation 1730 m

AVO reported that nothing unusual was observed at Cleveland in cloudy to partly cloudy satellite images during 15-16, 18, and 20-21 August. A small explosion was detected on 17 August by seismic and infrasound instruments on neighboring volcanoes. No evidence of an ash cloud was visible in satellite images following the event. Another small explosion on 19 August produced a low-level ash cloud, observed in satellite imagery, that drifted SE. Retrospective analysis of ground-coupled airwaves in seismic data further confirmed the explosion. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)

Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3320 m

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that a new phase of activity at Etna's Bocca Nuova summit crater started on 2 July, was virtually continuous for three weeks until 24 July, then rapidly decreased. During the first 10 days explosions were separated by quiet intervals lasting several minutes, then later became more continuous. During periods of the strongest activity, some lava bombs were ejected beyond the crater rim, landing on a gently sloping area E of the crater. Lava was emitted during 4-24 July from vents on the flanks of the pyroclastic cone that had begun to grow around the explosive vent. Rarely, lava was emitted from the main explosive vent. The lava progressively covered the crater floor next to the pyroclastic cone, which had grown 30-40 m, before the activity ceased on 24 July. Frequent ash emissions observed the next day were mostly due to explosions, and possibly from minor collapses of the summit area of the new cone. Concurrent with the decrease in eruptive activity, volcanic tremor amplitude dropped to background levels.

Episodic activity occurred during 26 July-11 August. At daybreak on 26 July, strong incandescence marked the onset of the first episode of activity within Bocca Nuova, which had the same characteristics as the previous activity; frequent Strombolian explosions were accompanied by lava flow emissions from a vent located on the W flank of the cone. The next day, the lava had almost completely filled the central subsidence pit on the floor of Bocca Nuova, and the cone had grown in height. The activity then decreased, and essentially ceased by the evening. There were intermittent ash emissions on 28 July, and volcanic tremor amplitude decreased to background levels.

The second episode, during 29 July-1 August, was characterized by small Strombolian explosions and lava emission from a vent located on the S flank of the pyroclastic cone. Volcanic tremor amplitude showed strong oscillations, but never reached the same peak levels associated with the 26-27 July episode. Volcanic tremor amplitude dropped sharply on 1 August, marking the cessation of the activity; a few ash emissions were observed the next day.

The third episode began on 3 August with a rapid increase in the volcanic tremor amplitude and strong incandescence from Bocca Nuova, signaling the beginning of Strombolian activity and lava emissions onto the crater floor. Activity ceased the next day, and was followed by weak residual activity within Bocca Nuova, which generated small ash clouds. The fourth episode began on 6 August and ended the next day, and showed essentially the same characteristics as the previous episode.

The fifth episode began on 10 August and was again marked by a rapid increase in volcanic tremor amplitude; at nighl, bright glow illuminated the gas plume rising from the crater, which was visible up to tens of kilometers away. Some of the explosions ejected incandescent pyroclastic material well above the crater rim. The activity started to decrease just after midnight and then ended on 11 August. Subsequently, ash emissions resumed, which were particularly frequent on 13 August, and which produced small, brownish-gray clouds of fine-grained tephra. Some of the ash emissions later that evening were accompanied by ejected incandescent material; volcanic tremor amplitude, however, remained at background levels.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)

Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 15-16 and 18-21 August lava flows from Fuego traveled 250-500 m down the Taniluyá drainage (SW), generating block avalanches that reached vegetated areas. On 17 August 20-m-wide lahars traveled SE down the Las Lajas and El Júte drainages, carrying blocks 1.5 m in diameter. Steam rose from the deposits in Las Lajas. Explosions were heard during 18-29 August but weather conditions prevented observations. Explosions during 19-21 August produced ash plumes that rose 100-300 m above the crater and drifted N, NW, W, and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 40-100 m above the crater at night. In a special report issued on 21 August, INSIVUMEH stated that seismicity had increased, along with degassing and rumbling sounds. Incandescent material was ejected 150 m above the crater, and lava flows traveled 500 m down the El Júte and Taniluyá drainages, generating block avalanches that reached vegetated areas.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)

Volcano index photo  Galeras  | Colombia  | 1.22°N, 77.37°W  | Elevation 4276 m

INGEOMINAS reported that both earthquake occurrence and magnitude were low at Galeras during 14-21 August. Sulfur dioxide emissions fluctuated, but remained at moderate levels. An ash plume rose from the crater on 16 August. White plumes were observed during 16 and 18-21 August. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity").

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)

Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported moderate seismic activity from Karymsky during 10-20 August. Satellite imagery showed a weak thermal anomaly on the volcano during 10-13, 15, and 18-20 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)

Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 15-21 August HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Occasional measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. There were no significant geologic changes in Pu'u 'O'o Crater; the glowing vent at the base of the SE flank continued to glow brightly, and incandescence emanated from a lava lake in a pit on the NE part of the crater floor. A small, new pit crater opened on the S crater floor on 17 August. Lava flows were active on the pali and the coastal plain. The active lava-flow front was about 2 km from the ocean on 18 August.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)

Volcano index photo  Nevado del Ruiz  | Colombia  | 4.892°N, 75.324°W  | Elevation 5279 m

According to INGEOMINAS, the Observatorio Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 15-16 and 18-21 August variations in volcanic tremor amplitude were detected at Nevado del Ruiz, possibly associated with continuing gas and ash emissions. Earthquakes indicative of fracturing rock were located SE at depths of 1.5-4 km, with magnitudes less than 1. One event on 18 August was a M 2, located 1.17 km SW of Arenas Crater at a depth of 3.6 km. Web cameras showed gas-and-ash plumes rising 400 m and drifting W and NW during 15-16 August. A gas plume rose 400 m and drifted NW on 19 August. During 20-21 August field measurements and analysis of satellite imagery showed a significant amount of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere. The Alert Level remained at II (Orange; "eruption likely within days or weeks").

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)

Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that during 15-21 August seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that may have contained ash; cloud cover often prevented visual observations of the volcano. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night. A gas-and-ash plume rose from the crater on 15 August, and steam-and-gas plumes rose as high as 1 km and drifted NW the next day. On 17 August seismicity significantly increased. Incandescent tephra ejected from the crater fell onto the flanks and rolled 800 m. On 18 August an ash plume rose 2 km above the crater and drifted E. Ejected incandescent tephra fell onto the SE flank. A small ash emission and ejected incandescent tephra were observed on 19 August. The next day a steam-and-gas plume rose 900 m and drifted NNW. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Three.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)

Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 15-16 and 18-20 August explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 400-900 m above Caliente dome and drifted 10 km W and NW. Block avalanches originated from the fronts of multiple active flows. White gas plumes rose 200 m and drifted WNW and SW. During 18-20 August ashfall was reported in Monte Claro (S), El Rosario (45 km SW), Palajunoj (S), and surrounding areas. Sounds resembling avalanches were reported on 21 August, however weather conditions prevented visual observations.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)

Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 10-18 August weak seismic activity was detected at Shiveluch. Observers noted gas-and-steam activity during 15-17 August; weather conditions prevented observations of the volcano on the other days. Satellite imagery showed a thermal anomaly on the lava dome during 10, 12-13, and 18-19 August. Seismic activity increased to moderate levels and hot avalanches were observed during 19-20 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)

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Agung Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Lewotobi Papandayan Sotara
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Barren Island Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kick 'em Jenny Montagu Island San Cristobal Tokachidake
Batur Galeras Kikai Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Miguel Tolbachik
Bezymianny Galunggung Kilauea Mutnovsky San Vicente Toliman
Bogoslof Gamalama Kirishimayama Myojinsho Sangay Tongariro
Brava Gamkonora Kizimen Nabro Sangeang Api Tungurahua
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Cayambe Guntur Kuchinoerabujima NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Villarrica
Cereme Hachijojima Kurikomayama Nyamuragira Seulawah Agam West Mata
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Nyiragongo Sheveluch Whakaari/White Island
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Okataina Shishaldin Witori
Chiginagak Hekla Lamington Okmok Simbo Wolf
Chikurachki Hierro Lamongan Ontakesan Sinabung Yasur
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Oraefajokull Sinarka Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chillan, Nevados de Home Reef Lanin Osorno Siple Zavodovski
Chirinkotan Hood Lascar Pacaya Sirung Zhupanovsky
Chirpoi Huaynaputina Lateiki Pagan Slamet Zubair Group
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lengai, Ol Doinyo Paluweh Soputan
Colima Huila, Nevado del Leroboleng Panarea Sorikmarapi
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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers


The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

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Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)