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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 6 February-12 February 2013.


















 Activity for the week of 6 February-12 February 2013

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Ambae Vanuatu New
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) New
Etna Sicily (Italy) New
Rabaul New Britain (Papua New Guinea) New
Rasshua Kuril Islands (Russia) New
Reventador Ecuador New
Soufriere Hills Montserrat New
Stromboli Aeolian Islands (Italy) New
White Island North Island (New Zealand) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Bagana Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Bezymianny Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Chirpoi Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Kizimen Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Manam Papua New Guinea Ongoing
Paluweh Indonesia Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Tolbachik Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Ambae  | Vanuatu  | 15.389°S, 167.835°E  | Elevation 1496 m

According to the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory, Ambanga villagers reported that minor activity at Aoba began in December 2012. The OMI instrument detected strong gas emissions on 18 and 25 January; the emissions continued at a lower level through 7 February. Field observations by the Geohazards team during 30 January-2 February confirmed that activity had significantly changed. Data retrieved from a monitoring station also confirmed ongoing activity. The Vanuatu Volcano Alert Level (VVAL) remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-4).

Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD)



Volcano index photo  Cleveland  | Chuginadak Island (USA)  | 52.825°N, 169.944°W  | Elevation 1730 m

On 6 February AVO reported that satellite imagery acquired on 30 January indicated that a lava dome had grown in Cleveland's summit crater, prompting AVO to raise the Volcanic Alert Level to Watch and the Aviation Color Code to Orange. The dome was about 100 m in diameter and may have begun forming as early as 24 January when elevated surface temperatures were observed in satellite images. The size and shape of the dome appeared to be unchanged based on satellite data acquired on 2 February. Elevated surface temperatures from the lava dome were detected during 5-6 and 8-11 February.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3295 m

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that during the days following the 2 February eruptive episode at Etna intermittent emissions of small quantities of ash were repeatedly observed from both the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) and Bocca Nuova Crater.

Volcanologists visited Etna on 5 February and observed the recent changes that had taken place at Bocca Nuova Crater, notably the growth of a pyroclastic cone surrounding the eruptive vent in the SE portion of the crater. This cone had grown at least 50-70 m, about halfway up the inner crater wall, and was leaning into the wall. The entire crater floor was covered with recent lava.

Later in the evening of 5 February a webcam recorded weak Strombolian activity at NSEC, which continued until daybreak the next day, and then became invisible due to deteriorating weather conditions. Seismic data showed an instantaneous increase of tremor at 1020; volcanic tremor amplitude rose to a peak within a few minutes after the start of the activity, and began to descend after less than one hour. People in the ski area on the NE flank of the volcano briefly saw a dense but ash-free gas plume rising from the summit.

After the episode on 6 February through most of 8 February sporadic ash emissions from NSEC were observed, although poor weather conditions often prevented observations. On the evening of 8 February weak glow from NSEC was intermittently visible. At 2100 a webcam recorded fluctuating glow from within Bocca Nuova which became more intense over the next 10 minutes. Around 2125 jets of incandescent lava were repeatedly seen rising above a thick blanket of clouds drifting over the summit area of Etna. Contemporaneously, the volcanic tremor amplitude rose sharply. After 2200 the volcanic tremor amplitude began to decrease, whereas the eruptive activity continued without showing signs of diminishing until about 30 minutes later. After 2230 on 8 February and during 9-10 cloud cover prevented observations. A brief ash emission was observed on 10 February.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Volcano index photo  Rabaul  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 4.271°S, 152.203°E  | Elevation 688 m

RVO reported that during 4-5 February pale gray ash plumes rose from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone. On 5 February the ash plumes slowly rose 2 km a.s.l. and drifted E and ENE. On 6 February only white plumes rose from the crater during most of the day. In the evening a gray billowing ash cloud was followed by a sequence of "gentle puffs" of white to light gray ash emissions at irregular intervals into the night and through the morning of 7 February. Fine ashfall was reported in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) in the late evening of 6 February.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Rasshua  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 47.77°N, 153.02°E  | Elevation 956 m

SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Rasshua was detected in satellite images on 6 February.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Reventador  | Ecuador  | 0.077°S, 77.656°W  | Elevation 3562 m

IG reported that seismicity at Reventador was high during 6-7 February and moderate during 8-12 February; explosions were detected daily. An ash plume rose 3 km and drifted S on 7 February, and ashfall was reported in areas near the volcano on 9 February. Cloud cover often prevented observations.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

MVO reported that during 1-8 February activity at the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a low level, although there was a slight increase during 3-6 February characterized by volcano-tectonic earthquakes, elevated gas flux, and possible light ash venting. The volcano-tectonic earthquakes occurred in four brief swarms: at 2220 on 3 February, at 0915 and 0950 on 4 February, and at 0620 on 5 February. The second swarm was the most intense, and was followed by a hybrid seismic event. Another hybrid event was not associated with a swarm.

After the second, and largest, volcano-tectonic swarm on 4 February, there were increases in the temperatures of several fumaroles inside the 11 February 2010 collapse scar, as observed using a handheld thermal infra-red camera at MVO, 5.7 km away. There was a further increase, as well as some loud roaring sounds, around the time of the third swarm. The activity likely included minor ash venting from a large fumarole in the floor of the collapse scar because fresh ash deposits were observed adjacent to this fumarole on the morning of 5 February. All fumaroles had returned to background levels of activity and temperature by later that day.

Sulfur dioxide measurements showed an average flux of 929 tonnes/day during the week, with a maximum of 2,381 tonnes/day and a minimum of 273. The flux was not steady, with peaks of 962, 1,266 and 2,381 on 1, 4 and 6 February, respectively. The last measurement is the highest daily value since the ash-venting episode that occurred during 23-25 March 2012. The Hazard Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)



Volcano index photo  Stromboli  | Aeolian Islands (Italy)  | 38.789°N, 15.213°E  | Elevation 924 m

On 9 February Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that after about three weeks of normal explosive activity, new, small lava overflows again occurred on Stromboli's crater terrace. The first overflow started in the morning of 8 February, producing a small lava flow that descended the upper NW slope of the Sciara del Fuoco, and ceased during the afternoon. The second overflow began shortly after midnight on 9 February and produced a lava flow that traveled N. Bad weather prevented surveillance video transmission after 0125; when the transmission resumed at 1000, the feeding of the lava flow had diminished, and the active flow front was retreating upslope, generating frequent rockfalls. In the late afternoon of 9 February lava effusion ceased altogether, but resumed once more during the early morning hours of 10 February, generating a small flow that slowly advanced downslope for a few tens of meters. The lava front continuously produced incandescent rockfalls. During the day, lava emission progressively diminished, and ceased completely in the late afternoon.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Volcano index photo  White Island  | North Island (New Zealand)  | 37.52°S, 177.18°E  | Elevation 321 m

On 11 February GeoNet Data Centre reported that analysis of recent changes and measurements from White Island indicated that activity was lower than the previous week; therefore, the Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Yellow and the Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5). The report also stated that early during the previous week the level of volcanic tremor recorded at White Island dropped to less than half that of the week before. At the same time small explosive eruptions in the active crater, which had been occurring for about three weeks, became less intense. On 7 February sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide gas measurements were similar to measurements from January: sulfur dioxide flux was 560 tonnes/day and carbon dioxide flux was 1,800 tonnes/day. A volcanologist that visited the lake area on 8 February noted that water had again filled the lake and small geysering was the only activity that he observed. The lake water was hot, about 80 degrees Celsius.

Source: GeoNet



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

Based on information from JMA, explosions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater during 6-12 February generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-3.7 km (4,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, S, SE, E, and NE. The Tokyo VAAC reported that pilots observed ash plumes at altitudes of 2.4-3.4 km (8,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. on 8 and 11 February.

JMA reported that during 8-12 February 34 explosions from Showa Crater were detected and ejected tephra fell at most 1.8 km from the crater. Crater incandescence was clearly detected at night.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Bagana  | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)  | 6.137°S, 155.196°E  | Elevation 1855 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-12 February ash plumes from Bagana rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-130 km E and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Batu Tara  | Komba Island (Indonesia)  | 7.791°S, 123.585°E  | Elevation 633 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) reported that during 6 and 8-12 February ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to altitudes of 2.1-3.7 km (7,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-75 km W, NW, and N.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Bezymianny  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.972°N, 160.595°E  | Elevation 2882 m

KVERT reported that during 1-8 February seismic activity at Bezymianny was obscured by strong seismicity at Tolbachik. A viscous lava flow continued to effuse on the lava-dome flank, accompanied by gas-and-steam emissions. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite imagery on 31 January and 1 February; cloud cover prevented views on the other days.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Chirpoi  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 46.532°N, 150.871°E  | Elevation 742 m

SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly and steam-and-gas emissions from Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, were detected in satellite images on 7 and 10 February; cloud cover prevented observations of the volcano on other days during 4-11 February.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that weak seismic activity at Karymsky was detected during 1-8 February. Satellite imagery showed a thermal anomaly on the volcano on 31 January and 1 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 6-12 February HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lake level was 27 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor on 6 February, 25-27 m below the floor on 7 February, and 31 m below the floor on 11 February.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the SE part of the crater floor, from a spatter cone at the NW edge of the floor, and from a perched crusted lava lake on the NE part of the floor. Multiple lava flows from the lava lake (perched 5-6 m higher than the crater rim) traveled across the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone to the cone's base and continued to advance over older flows. Lava flows were active on the pali and in a 1-km-wide area on the coastal plain. To the W, a 350-m-wide lava flow advanced more than 1.2 km from the base of the pali and remained active with scattered breakouts. Web cameras recorded steam plumes from lava sporadically entering the ocean at multiple locations.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Kizimen  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.131°N, 160.32°E  | Elevation 2334 m

KVERT reported that during 1-8 February moderate seismic activity continued at Kizimen. Video data showed that lava continued to extrude from the summit onto the E and S flanks. Summit incandescence, strong gas-and-steam activity, and hot avalanches on the W and E flanks accompanied the process. Satellite images detected a daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Manam  | Papua New Guinea  | 4.08°S, 145.037°E  | Elevation 1807 m

Based on observations of satellite imagery and wind data analyses, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 10.1 km (33,000 ft) a.s.l. on 12 February and drifted 55 km SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Paluweh  | Indonesia  | 8.32°S, 121.708°E  | Elevation 875 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-12 February ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 2.1-3.7 km (7,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-110 km NW, NNW, and N.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 7-8 and 10-11 February explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 500-700 m and caused ashfall in La Florida (5 km S). Steam plumes rose 200 m and drifted SW, and avalanches from lava-flow fronts traveled SE down the Nima I drainage.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

Based on visual observations and analyses of satellite data, KVERT reported that during 1-8 February a viscous lava flow effused on the E flank of Shiveluch's lava dome, accompanied by hot avalanches, incandescence, and fumarolic activity. Satellite imagery showed a daily thermal anomaly on the lava dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Tolbachik  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.832°N, 160.326°E  | Elevation 3611 m

KVERT reported that the S fissure along the W side of Tolbachinsky Dol, a lava plateau on the SW side of Tolbachik, continued to produce very fluid lava flows during 1-8 February that traveled to the W and S sides of the plateau. Four cinder cones continued to grow on the S fissure above Krasny cone. Gas-and-ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. A very large thermal anomaly on the N part of Tolbachinsky Dol was visible daily in satellite imagery. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Bardarbunga Ijen Moyorodake [Medvezhia] South Sarigan Seamount
Barren Island Iliamna Mutnovsky Spurr
Batur Iliwerung Myojinsho St. Helens
Bezymianny Inielika Nabro Stromboli
Bogoslof Ioto Negra, Sierra Sulu Range
Brava Iya Negro, Cerro Sumbing
Bristol Island Izu-Torishima Nightingale Island Sundoro
Bulusan Jackson Segment Nishinoshima Suretamatai
Calbuco Kaba Nisyros Suwanosejima
Callaqui Kadovar Novarupta Taal
Cameroon Kambalny NW Rota-1 Tair, Jebel at
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kanaga Nyamuragira Takawangha
Cayambe Kanlaon Nyiragongo Talang
Cereme Karangetang Okataina Tambora
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karkar Okmok Tanaga
Chaiten Karthala Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karymsky Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Kasatochi Osorno Tangkuban Parahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Katla Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Kavachi Pagan Telica
Chirinkotan Kelimutu Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Chirpoi Kelut Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kerinci Panarea Three Sisters
Colima Ketoi Papandayan Tinakula
Colo Kharimkotan Parker Tofua
Concepcion Kick 'em Jenny Pavlof Tokachidake
Copahue Kikai Peuet Sague Tolbachik
Cotopaxi Kilauea Pinatubo Toliman
Cuicocha Kirishimayama Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Cumbal Kizimen Poas Tungurahua
Dabbahu Klyuchevskoy Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Kolokol Group Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Korovin Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Koryaksky Raikoke Unknown Source
Dukono Krakatau Ranakah Unnamed
Ebeko Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Raoul Island Unnamed
Ebulobo Kuchinoerabujima Rasshua Veniaminof
Egon Kurikomayama Raung Villarrica
Ekarma Kusatsu-Shiranesan Redoubt West Mata
Epi Kverkfjoll Reventador White Island
Erebus Lamington Rincon de la Vieja Witori
Erta Ale Lamongan Rinjani Wolf
Etna Langila Ritter Island Yasur
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Eyjafjallajokull Lascar Ruang Zavodovski
Fernandina Lateiki Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
Fogo Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
Fonualei Leroboleng Sabancaya
Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotobi Sakar
Fourpeaked Lewotolo Salak
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

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Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)