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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 14 August-20 August 2013.


















 Activity for the week of 14 August-20 August 2013

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Aira Kyushu (Japan) New
Ambrym Vanuatu New
Gaua Banks Islands (Vanuatu) New
Iliwerung Lomblen Island (Indonesia) New
Ketoi Kuril Islands (Russia) New
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) New
Kverkfjoll Iceland New
White Island North Island (New Zealand) New

Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Chirinkotan Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Chirpoi Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Kizimen Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Manam Papua New Guinea Ongoing
Pacaya Guatemala Ongoing
Pagan Mariana Islands (USA) Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Tolbachik Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Veniaminof United States Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that 24 explosions at Sakura-jima's Showa Crater were detected during 12-19 August and ejected tephra as far as 1.8 km. Incandescence from the crater was observed on 14 August. A very small eruption from Minami-dake Crater occurred on 16 August, producing an ash plume that rose 200 m.

An explosion from Showa Crater on 18 August generated a large ash plume that rose 5 km above the crater and drifted NW. A small pyroclastic flow traveled SE. According to news sources, the 50-minute-long eruption produced ashfall in the central and northern parts of Kagoshima (10 km W), causing train delays and poor visibility for car drivers. The event was the 500th explosion this year.

Sources: Agence France-Presse (AFP), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Ambrym  | Vanuatu  | 16.25°S, 168.12°E  | Elevation 1334 m

According to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image acquired on 9 August showed steam-and-gas plumes rising from Ambrym’s Benbow cone and from the active lava lake in Mbwelesu Crater (one of three active sub-craters of the Marun cone).

Source: NASA Earth Observatory



Volcano index photo  Gaua  | Banks Islands (Vanuatu)  | 14.27°S, 167.5°E  | Elevation 797 m

On 14 August the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that [volcanic tremor] at Gaua had increased [slightly] since June.... The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-4) [and ash plumes remained likely]. [The last clear report of ash emission was in October 2011. Steam plumes were observed from aircraft on 29 April and from the International Space Station on 31 May 2013.]

Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD)



Volcano index photo  Iliwerung  | Lomblen Island (Indonesia)  | 8.53°S, 123.57°E  | Elevation 1018 m

CVGHM reported that observers at a post 590 m a.s.l. and 6 km away from Iliwerung reported that diffuse fumarolic emissions from the crater were visible during the mornings from 1 to 19 August. Seismicity fluctuated during the month, but 81 shallow volcanic earthquakes were detected between 1606 and 1741 on 19 August, compared to a total of 30 the previous 18 days. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 0-4).

At 0714 on 20 August an eruption from the submarine SE flank vent, Hobal, ejected dense white plumes 2 km a.s.l. that drifted S. Incandescence at sea level was observed at 0746, and the water around the eruption site turned yellow. Fishermen and tourists were not permitted within a 2-km-radius of Hobal.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Ketoi  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 47.35°N, 152.475°E  | Elevation 1172 m

SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Ketoi's Pallas Peak was detected in satellite images on 12 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

Based on seismic data from the Kamchatka Branch of Geophysical Services (KBGS; Russian Academy of Sciences), KVERT reported that a Strombolian eruption from Kliuchevskoi began at 1830 on 15 August. Video images recorded incandescence from the crater that night, and gas-and-steam plumes containing minor amounts of ash rising as high as 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifting NE during 15-16 August. Satellite images detected a large, bright thermal anomaly during 15-16 August. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow, the second lowest of a four-color scale. Gas-and-steam plumes containing minor amounts of ash rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. during 16-17 August. Incandescence from the crater at night and a thermal anomaly in satellite images continued to be reported during 17-19 August.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kverkfjoll  | Iceland  | 64.653°N, 16.647°W  | Elevation 1930 m

On 15 August park rangers noted unusually high water in the Volgu River, which originates from a water-filled depression called Gengissig in a geothermal area of Kverkfjöll; the high water destroyed a walking bridge. The next day an overflight of the area by members of National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police (NCIP), the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), and the Institute of Earth Sciences revealed that Gengissig was empty and that a phreatic explosion had deposited streaks of dark material on the rock and snow.

Source: National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police (NCIP) Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management



Volcano index photo  White Island  | North Island (New Zealand)  | 37.52°S, 177.18°E  | Elevation 321 m

The GeoNet Data Centre reported that a small eruption from White Island occurred at 1023 on 20 August and continued for about 10 minutes. The eruption ejected mud and rocks short distances, and generated a voluminous steam plume (visible from the Bay of Plenty coast), that rose 4 km a.s.l. and then slowly dispersed. Weather radar observations showed that a minor amount of ash was present in the plume. The Volcano Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 0-5) and the Aviation Colour Code was raised to Red (on a four-color scale). Later that day the Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Orange.

The eruption originated in the active crater area that had been ejecting small amounts of mud in recent weeks. A short period of strong volcanic tremor was detected the previous morning, but it was not clear if it was related to the eruption.

Source: GeoNet



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Batu Tara  | Komba Island (Indonesia)  | 7.791°S, 123.585°E  | Elevation 633 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) reported that on 16 August an ash plume from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 130 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Chirinkotan  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 48.98°N, 153.48°E  | Elevation 724 m

Based on analysis of satellite images, SVERT reported that a possible thermal anomaly from Chirinkotan was observed on 12 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Chirpoi  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 46.532°N, 150.871°E  | Elevation 742 m

SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly from Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, was detected in satellite images on 12 August, along with gas-and-steam emissions. Cloud cover prevented observations during 13-18 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Fuego during 13-14 August generated ash plumes that drifted 10 km W and SW. Three lava flows were active; one of the flows traveled SW. Five explosions during 14-15 August ejected incandescent material 100 m high, and generated ash plumes that rose 300 m and drifted 6 km. Lava flows were 150 and 300 m long in the Taniluya (SW) and Ceniza (SSW) drainages, respectively. The next day explosions produced ash plumes that rose 550 m and drifted 10 km W. On 17 August 30-m-wide lahars carrying blocks traveled down the Las Lajas, Ceniza, and El Jute (SE) drainages. During 17-18 August explosions that were heard generated ash plumes that rose 200-300 m and drifted 7 km W. Lava flows in the Taniluya and Ceniza drainages were each 400 m long.

During 18-19 August the flow rate increased; the lava flows were 600 and 800 m long in the Taniluya and Ceniza drainages, respectively. Incandescent blocks from the lava-flow fronts rolled down the flanks and reached vegetated areas. Explosions during 19-20 August ejected incandescent material as high as 150 m, and generated ash plumes that rose 400 m.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that moderate seismic activity at Karymsky was detected during 9-17 August. Based on seismic interpretation, possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. on 15 August and to an altitude of 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. the other days of the week. Satellite imagery showed a weak thermal anomaly on the volcano on 15 August; cloud cover prevented observations on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 14-20 August HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater; the lake level was as high as 36 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor on 16 and 18 August. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o. On 18 August on 1330 the E flank of the N spatter cone apparently burst, causing lava flows to sporadically rush from the cone and cover a large part of the crater floor by the next morning. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakouts on the pali and coastal plain, and an ocean entry outside of the National Park boundary to the E.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Kizimen  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.131°N, 160.32°E  | Elevation 2334 m

KVERT reported that during 9-17 August moderate seismic activity continued at Kizimen. Video and satellite data showed that lava continued to extrude from the summit, producing incandescence, strong gas-and-steam activity, and hot avalanches on the W and E flanks. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images during 10-12 August; cloud cover obscured views on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Manam  | Papua New Guinea  | 4.08°S, 145.037°E  | Elevation 1807 m

Based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 19 August an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Pacaya  | Guatemala  | 14.382°N, 90.601°W  | Elevation 2569 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 13-14 August the seismic network at Pacaya recorded weak tremor and explosions, although no ash plumes were observed. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night during 14-15 August. White and blue plumes rose from the crater on 15 August. A Strombolian eruption occurred on 16 August from 1915 to 2245, producing a 300-m-long lava flow that traveled W from MacKenney Crater. The seismic network recorded a few gas explosions and intermittent tremor during 17-18 August. Seismicity increased on 19 August; tremor and explosions were detected. On 20 August white plumes rose to low heights and drifted N.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Pagan  | Mariana Islands (USA)  | 18.13°N, 145.8°E  | Elevation 570 m

The seismic network at Pagan recorded tremor and small discrete earthquakes during 9-16 August, indicating low-level unrest. A steam-and-gas plume was visible in satellite images during periods of clear weather and from web-camera images. A small explosion with a relatively high amplitude seismic component and small infrasound component occurred at 0010 on 12 August. The data suggested that degassing increased about 30 sec after the event. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory.

Source: Emergency Management Office of the Commonwealth of the Mariana Islands and United States Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that during 14-20 August seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing emissions; cloud cover sometimes prevented observations of the crater. Incandescence from the crater was observed and occasionally intensified with some emissions. On 14 August a period of tremor was accompanied by an ash emission that drifted W. Ashfall was reported in the towns of Ozumba (18 km W), Tepetlixpa (20 km W), Atlautla (17 km W), and Ecatzingo (15 km SW) in the State of México. Later that day an ash plume rose 1 km above the crater and drifted W. Gas-and-steam plumes were observed during 15-16 August. A period of tremor on 17 August was accompanied by an ash plume that rose 1.5 km and drifted WSW. Ash fell in Tetela del Volcán (20 km SW), Ocuituco (24 km SW), Yecapixtla (31 km SW), Tlayacapan (40 km WSW), Cuautla (43 km SW), Ayala (45 km SW), and Cuernavaca (65 km WSW). On 18 August high-frequency, low-amplitude tremor was accompanied by an ash emission that rose 1.2 km and drifted SW. On 19 August minor steam-and-gas emissions drifted W. During 19-20 August emissions likely contained small amounts of ash but cloud cover prevented confirmation. The Alert Level remained at to Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

Based on visual observations and analyses of satellite data, KVERT reported that during 9-17 August a viscous lava flow effused onto the NW flank of Shiveluch's lava dome, accompanied by hot avalanches, incandescence, and fumarolic activity. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly during 9-12, 14, and 16-17 August; cloud cover prevented observations on the other days. Explosions generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 5-7 km (16,400-23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Tolbachik  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.832°N, 160.326°E  | Elevation 3611 m

KVERT reported that the S fissure along the W side of Tolbachinsky Dol, a lava plateau on the SW side of Tolbachik, continued to produce very fluid lava flows during 9-17 August that traveled to the W, S, and E sides of the plateau. Cinder cones continued to grow along the S fissure and weak gas-and-steam plumes were observed. A thermal anomaly on the N part of Tolbachinsky Dol was visible daily in satellite imagery. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Veniaminof  | United States  | 56.17°N, 159.38°W  | Elevation 2507 m

AVO reported that during 13-15 August seismic tremor at Veniaminof was high, and persistent elevated surface temperatures consistent with lava effusion were visible on satellite imagery. During 16-17 August the high levels of tremor became sustained; seismicity remained high through 20 August. Very high surface temperatures were detected in images during 16-17 August; only weak thermal signals were evident through the cloud cover in satellite data during 17-18 August. Clear views on 18 August from the FAA web-camera in Perryville (32 km SSE) showed minor ash emissions. During a helicopter overflight on 19 August geologists observed two active lava flows from the cone, and lava flowing passively over ice at the foot of the cone. Elevated surface temperatures were detected in satellite data during 19-20 August. Clear web-camera views showed minor ash emissions rising to an altitude of 3.7 (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting W and then SSE, just past the caldera rim. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

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Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)