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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail.

This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives on various volcanoes are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 27 March-2 April 2019
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Popocatepetl Mexico 2005 Jan 9 New
Tengger Caldera Eastern Java (Indonesia) New
Agung Bali (Indonesia) Continuing
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) 2016 Oct 20 Continuing
Fuego Guatemala 2002 Jan 4 Continuing
Ibu Halmahera (Indonesia) 2008 Apr 5 Continuing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) 2021 Apr 3 Continuing
Kerinci Indonesia Continuing
Krakatau Indonesia Continuing
Manam Papua New Guinea 2014 Jun 29 Continuing
Merapi Central Java (Indonesia) 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Pacaya Guatemala 2015 Jun 7 ± 1 days Continuing
Rincon de la Vieja Costa Rica Continuing
Sabancaya Peru 2016 Nov 6 Continuing
Sangay Ecuador 2019 Mar 26 Continuing
Santa Maria Guatemala 1922 Jun 22 Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Turrialba Costa Rica Continuing
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 16,734 individual reports over 1,066 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 312 different volcanoes.

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Agung Copahue Ijen Little Sitkin Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Ahyi Cotopaxi Iliamna Llaima Peuet Sague Spurr
Aira Cuicocha Iliwerung Loihi Pinatubo St. Helens
Akan Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
Alaid Dabbahu Ioto Lopevi Poas Sulu Range
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Irazu Machin Popocatepetl Sumbing
Ambae Descabezado Grande Iya Makian Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Sundoro
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Izu-Torishima Makushin Rabaul Suretamatai
Ambrym Dukono Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raikoke Suwanosejima
Anatahan Ebeko Kaba Manam Ranakah Taal
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kadovar Manda Hararo Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Antuco Egon Kambalny Marapi Rasshua Takawangha
Apoyeque Ekarma Kanaga Maroa Raung Talang
Arenal Epi Kanlaon Martin Redoubt Tambora
Asamayama Erebus Karangetang Masaya Reventador Tanaga
Askja Erta Ale Karkar Maule, Laguna del Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Asosan Etna Karthala Mauna Loa Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Karymsky Mayon Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Kasatochi McDonald Islands Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Awu Fernandina Katla Melimoyu Rotorua Telica
Axial Seamount Fogo Katmai Merapi Ruang Tenerife
Azul, Cerro Fonualei Kavachi Midagahara Ruapehu Tengger Caldera
Azumayama Fournaise, Piton de la Kelimutu Misti, El Ruiz, Nevado del Three Sisters
Bagana Fourpeaked Kelut Miyakejima Sabancaya Tinakula
Balbi Fuego Kerinci Momotombo Sakar Tofua
Bamus Fujisan Ketoi Monowai Salak Tokachidake
Banda Api Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kharimkotan Montagu Island San Cristobal Tolbachik
Bardarbunga Galeras Kick 'em Jenny Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Miguel Toliman
Barren Island Galunggung Kikai Mutnovsky San Vicente Tongariro
Batur Gamalama Kilauea Myojinsho Sangay Tungurahua
Bezymianny Gamkonora Kirishimayama Nabro Sangeang Api Turrialba
Bogoslof Gareloi Kizimen Negra, Sierra Santa Ana Ubinas
Brava Gaua Klyuchevskoy Negro, Cerro Santa Maria Ugashik-Peulik
Bristol Island Gorely Kolokol Group Nightingale Island Sarigan Ukinrek Maars
Bulusan Great Sitkin Korovin Nishinoshima Sarychev Peak Ulawun
Calbuco Grimsvotn Koryaksky Nisyros Saunders Unnamed
Callaqui Guagua Pichincha Krakatau Novarupta Semeru Unnamed
Cameroon Guallatiri Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Cayambe Hachijojima Kuchinoerabujima Nyiragongo Sheveluch West Mata
Cereme Hakoneyama Kurikomayama Okataina Shishaldin Westdahl
Chachadake [Tiatia] Heard Kusatsu-Shiranesan Okmok Simbo Whakaari/White Island
Chaiten Hekla Kverkfjoll Ontakesan Sinabung Witori
Chiginagak Helgrindur Lamington Oraefajokull Sinarka Wolf
Chikurachki Hierro Lamongan Osorno Siple Yasur
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Pacaya Sirung Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chillan, Nevados de Home Reef Lanin Pagan Slamet Zavodovski
Chirinkotan Hood Lascar Palena Volcanic Group Snaefellsjokull Zhupanovsky
Chirpoi Huaynaputina Lateiki Paluweh Soputan Zubair Group
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lengai, Ol Doinyo Panarea Sorikmarapi
Colima Huila, Nevado del Leroboleng Papandayan Sotara
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Lewotobi Parker Soufriere Hills
Concepcion Ibu Lewotolok Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


Download Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network RSS Feed

The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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Download Smithsonian/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network Link Download Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network Link

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Popocatepetl
CENAPRED reported that each day during 26 March-2 April there were 27-200 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, some of which contained ash. An explosion at 1923 on 26 March produced an ash plume that rose 3 km above the crater rim and drifted NE, and ejected incandescent fragments 2 km onto the flanks setting fire to pastures on the N and NE flanks. Ashfall was reported in municipalities of Puebla including Santa Cruz, Atlixco (23 km SE), San Pedro, San Andrés Cholula (35 km E), Santa Isabel (45 km ESE), and San Pedro Benito Juárez (10-12 km SE), and in municipalities of Morelos including Hueyapan (17 km SSW) and Tetela del Volcán (20 km SW). An explosion at 0650 on 28 March generated an ash plume that rose 2.5 km and drifted SE, and ejected fragments 1 km onto the flanks. Continuous gas-and-ash emissions were visible between 0538 and 0748. CENAPRED raised the Alert Level to Yellow, Phase Three (middle level on a three-color scale). An ash plume from an explosion at 1948 rose 3 km and drifted SE. Incandescent fragments were ejected 2 km onto the flanks. After that event gas-and-ash plumes rose from the crater until 2010. A period of Strombolian activity began at 0247 on 30 March and lasted for 14 minutes, generating ash plumes that rose 800 m and drifted SE. Incandescent ejecta fell onto the flanks 300 m below the crater rim. During an overflight scientists observed that the diameter of the inner crater had increased to 350 m, and that the crater floor was 250-300 m deep.
Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)
Report for Tengger Caldera
The Darwin VAAC reported that during 27-28 March ash plumes from Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone rose to altitudes of 3.4-4 km (11,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, NW, N, and NE, based on webcam images, satellite data, and notices from PVMBG. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to stay outside of a 1-km radius of the crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Agung
At 1825 on 28 March an ash plume from Agung rose above the crater to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW according to PVMBG and the Darwin VAAC. A thermal anomaly was visible in satellite data. Ashfall was reported in nearby villages. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Aira
JMA reported that during 25 March-1 April five events at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) produced plumes that rose as high as 1.6 m above the crater rim. Crater incandescence was occasionally visible. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Dukono
Based on satellite and wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26 March-2 April ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Ebeko
Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 22, 24-25, and 27-28 March that sent ash plumes up to 4.2 km (13,800 ft) a.s.l. Ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk during 24-25 and 27 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Fuego
INSIVUMEH reported that during 28-29 March there were 14-20 explosion per hour recorded at Fuego, with ash plumes rising as high as 1.1 km above the summit and drifting 15-25 km W, SW, and S. Shock waves vibrated nearby structures. Incandescent material was ejected 200-300 m high and caused avalanches of material that traveled down the the Seca (W), Ceniza (SSW), Taniluyá (SW), Trinidad (S), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Panimache I (8 km SW), Morelia (8 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SE), La Rochela, and San Andrés Osuna. A special bulletin issued on 29 March stated that activity has increased with ash plumes from explosions rising as high as 1.3 km and drifting 30 km in multiple directions. Avalanches of material traveled down the Las Lajas, Honda and Seca drainages.

A special bulletin was issued on 31 March describing another increase in activity with the number of explosions ranging from 14 to 32 per hour. Ash plumes rose as high as 1.3 km and drifted W, SW, and S. The explosions vibrated local residences. A lava flow that had emerged in the early morning hours advanced 800 m in the Seca drainage. On 1 April there were 13-16 explosions recorded per hour. Ash plumes rose almost 1 km and drifted 10-15 km S, SE, and SW. Shock waves continued to vibrate residential structures. Incandescent material was ejected 100-200 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances down Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda ravines, reaching vegetation. Ashfall as reported in areas downwind including Panimache I, Morelia, Palo Verde Estate, Santa Sofia, La Rochela, and San Andrés Osuna.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Ibu
The Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 March multiple ash plumes from Ibu were identified in satellite images drifting SE at an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Karymsky
KVERT reported that ash plumes from Karymsky were visible in satellite images during 26-27 March drifting 190 km E at altitudes of 2-3 km (6,600-9,800 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Kerinci
PVMBG reported that at 1051, 1456, and 1511 on 30 March brownish or grayish ash plumes from Kerinci rose 500-600 m above the crater rim and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and tourists were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Krakatau
PVMBG reported that at 1325 on 30 March an ash plume from Anak Krakatau rose 1 km a.s.l. and drifted NE. Three events were detected on 31 March (at 0035, 1219, and 1745), although no ash plumes were visible. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 2-km radius hazard zone from the crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Manam
The Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 March ash plumes from Manam rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, NE, and N based on satellite data and weather models. A thermal anomaly was also visible.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Merapi
PVMBG reported that by 21 March Merapi’s lava dome had grown to an estimated volume of 472,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone footage, and remained relatively unchanged during 22-28 March; most of the extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the Gendol River drainage on the SE flank. As many as eight block-and-ash flows traveled up to 1,500 m down the Gendol drainage. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Pacaya
INSIVUMEH reported that during 28 March-1 April Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 75 m above the crater rim. A lava flow traveled down the N flank, producing minor avalanches of material from the lava-flow front.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Rincon de la Vieja
OVSICORI-UNA reported that a two-minute-long phreatic eruption at Rincón de la Vieja was recorded at 0802 on 1 April and produced a plume that rose 600 m above the crater rim. The report noted that a previous event had occurred at 2043 on 29 March. Intermittent tremor was recorded in between the two events.
Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)
Report for Sabancaya
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) and Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET) reported that an average of 43 explosions per day occurred at Sabancaya during 25-31 March. Long-period seismic events were recorded, and hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and of low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 1.5 km above the crater rim and drifted 30 km NE, SE, S, and SW. MIROVA detected one thermal anomaly, and on 31 March the sulfur-dioxide gas flux was high at 3,000 tons per day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.
Sources: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET), Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)
Report for Sangay
IG reported renewed activity at Sangay on 26 March based on satellite data and a Washington VAAC notice of ash. According to the VAAC a small ash plume rose less than 1 km above the crater rim and drifted SW. Seismicity had decreased to an average of three events per day after the last eruption ended on 7 December 2018, and then to 1 event per day during the past month. There was no seismic record of the 26 March event due to technical difficulties.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
Report for Santa Maria
INSIVUMEH reported that during 28 March-1 April explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 700 m and drifted E and SW, causing ashfall on the flanks. Avalanches of material descended the E, SE, and S flanks of the lava dome.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 22-28 March. An ash plume rose to 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 80 km S on 25 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Turrialba
OVSICORI-UNA reported that gas emissions at Turrialba significantly decreased on 30 March. An eruption recorded at 0735 on 31 March was followed by passive emissions with a low concentration of magmatic gases at least through 1 April. Seismicity continued to be dominated by low-frequency events.
Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)