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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 26 June-2 July 2019
Name Country Eruption Start Date Report Status
Manam Papua New Guinea 2014 Jun 29 New
Mauna Loa United States New
Raikoke Russia New
Ubinas Peru New
Ulawun Papua New Guinea New
Dukono Indonesia 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Ebeko Russia 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Klyuchevskoy Russia Continuing
Krakatau Indonesia Continuing
Sangeang Api Indonesia Continuing
Santa Maria Guatemala 1922 Jun 22 Continuing
Semeru Indonesia 2017 Jun 6 Continuing
Sheveluch Russia 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Stromboli Italy 1934 Feb 2 Continuing
Whakaari/White Island New Zealand Continuing
Yasur Vanuatu 1270 ± 110 years Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 20,115 individual reports over 1,220 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 333 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Poas Sulu Range
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Popocatepetl Sumbing
Aira Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Purace Sundoro
Akan Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suretamatai
Alaid Davidof Irazu Lopevi Rabaul Suwanosejima
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Iya Machin Raikoke Taal
Ambae Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Ranakah Tair, Jebel at
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raoul Island Takawangha
Ambrym Dukono Kaba Manam Rasshua Talang
Anatahan East Epi Kadovar Manda Hararo Raung Tambora
Aniakchak Ebeko Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Redoubt Tanaga
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Reventador Tandikat-Singgalang
Antuco Edgecumbe Kambalny Martin Reykjanes Tangkoko-Duasudara
Apoyeque Egon Kanaga Masaya Rincon de la Vieja Tangkuban Parahu
Arenal Ekarma Kanlaon Maule, Laguna del Rinjani Tara, Batu
Asamayama Eldey Karangetang Mauna Loa Ritter Island Ta'u
Askja Erebus Karkar Mayon Rotorua Taupo
Asosan Erta Ale Karthala McDonald Islands Ruang Telica
Atka Volcanic Complex Etna Karymsky Melebingoy Ruapehu Tenerife
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruby Tengger Caldera
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Katla Merapi Ruiz, Nevado del Three Sisters
Awu Fagradalsfjall Katmai Midagahara Sabancaya Tinakula
Axial Seamount Fernandina Kavachi Misti, El Sakar Tofua
Azul, Cerro Fogo Kelimutu Miyakejima Salak Tokachidake
Azumayama Fonualei Kelud Momotombo San Cristobal Tolbachik
Bagana Fournaise, Piton de la Kerinci Monowai San Miguel Toliman
Balbi Fourpeaked Ketoi Montagu Island San Vicente Tongariro
Bamus Fuego Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Sangay Trident
Banda Api Fujisan Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky Sangeang Api Tungurahua
Bardarbunga Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kie Besi Myojinsho Santa Ana Turrialba
Barren Island Galeras Kikai Nabro Santa Maria Ubinas
Batur Galunggung Kilauea Negra, Sierra Sao Jorge Ugashik-Peulik
Bezymianny Gamalama Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ukinrek Maars
Bogoslof Gamkonora Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ulawun
Brava Gareloi Kizimen Nishinoshima Saunders Unnamed
Bristol Island Gaua Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bulusan Gorely Kolokol Group Novarupta Semeru Veniaminof
Calbuco Great Sitkin Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Villarrica
Callaqui Grimsvotn Krakatau Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Vulcano
Cameroon Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Sheveluch West Mata
Campi Flegrei Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Ofu-Olosega Shishaldin Westdahl
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Okataina Simbo Whakaari/White Island
Cayambe Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okmok Sinabung Witori
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Ontakesan Sinarka Wolf
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Oraefajokull Siple Wrangell
Chiginagak Hekla La Palma Osorno Sirung Yakedake
Chikurachki Helgrindur Lamington Pacaya Slamet Yasur
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamongan Pagan Snaefellsjokull Yufu-Tsurumi
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Palena Volcanic Group Soputan Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirinkotan Home Reef Lanin Paluweh Sorikmarapi Zavodovski
Chirpoi Hood Lascar Panarea Sotara Zhupanovsky
Ciremai Huaynaputina Late Papandayan Soufriere Hills Zubair Group
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Peuet Sague Spurr
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Pinatubo St. Helens
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Manam
RVO reported that RSAM values at Manam began increasing on 27 June and then spiked from 540 to over 1,400 within a short period of time (~30 min). According to news articles, residents reported hearing thundering noises around 0100 on 28 June. An eruption plume was visible in satellite images around 0620 drifting SW, around the time residents reported the start of the eruption. The Darwin VAAC issued a notice stating that by 0910 the ash plume had risen to 15.2 km (50,000 ft) a.s.l. and was drifting SW. Pyroclastic flows descended the W and NE flanks. About 3,775 people evacuated their homes. Additional ash plumes rose to 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, and by 1700 the higher-altitude plume had detached from the volcano and continued to drift SW. A thermal anomaly persisted on 29 June, and the next day an ash plume rose to 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Air Niugini stopped all aircraft overnighting in Madang due to the eruption. On 30 June they resumed operations at Hoskins airport, after rerouting all flights out of nearby airports during 29-30 June.
Sources: Simon Carn, ABC News - Australian Broadcasting Corporation, ReliefWeb, Reuters, Post-Courier, EMTV Online, Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Mauna Loa
HVO reported that during the previous several months earthquake and ground deformation rates at Mauna Loa were elevated above background levels. During the first half of 2018 the seismic network recorded fewer than 20 shallow, small-magnitude earthquakes per week. Following a significant earthquake swarm in October, the rate increased to at least 50 events per week beneath the summit, upper Southwest Rift Zone, and upper west flank. These locations were similar to those that preceded eruptions in 1975 and 1984. GPS and satellite RADAR data detected deformation consistent with recharge of the shallow magma storage system. The increased seismicity and deformation indicated that Mauna Loa is no longer at background levels, prompting HVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory. HVO noted that an eruption was not imminent.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Raikoke
SVERT and KVERT reported that during 25 June-1 July steam-and-gas plumes with ash rose 1.5-2 km above Raikoke and drifted WNW based on satellite images. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow on 25 June and then to Green on 27 June.
Sources: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT), Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Ubinas
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) and INGEMMET reported that seismic activity at Ubinas remained elevated during 24-30 June; volcano-tectonic events averaged 200 per day and signals indicating fluid movement averaged 38 events per day. Emissions of gas, water vapor, and ash rose from the crater and drifted N and NE based on webcam views and corroborated with satellite data. According to a news article an eruption plume rose 400 m above the crater rim and drifted 10 km NE. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow (on a 4-level scale) on 27 June.
Sources: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET), Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP), Gobierno Regional de Moquegua
Report for Ulawun
RVO reported that on 27 June diffuse white plumes rose from Ulawun’s summit crater and incandescence was visible from pyroclastic or lava flow deposits on the N flank from the significant eruption the day before. The seismic station located 11 km NW of the volcano recorded low RSAM values between 2 and 50. According to the Darwin VAAC a strong thermal anomaly was visible in satellite images, though not after 1200. Ash from 26 June explosions continued to move away from the volcano and became difficult to discern in satellite images by 1300, though a sulfur dioxide signal persisted; ash at 13.7 km (45,000 ft) a.s.l. drifted SW to SE and dissipated by 1620, and ash at 16.8 km (55,000 ft) a.s.l. drifted NW to NE and dissipated by 1857. RVO noted that at 1300 on 27 June satellite images captured an ash explosion not reported by ground-based observers likely due to cloudy weather conditions. The Alert Level was lowered to Stage 1.

RSAM values slightly increased at 0600 on 28 June and fluctuated between 80 to 150 units afterwards. During 28-29 June diffuse white plumes continued to rise from the crater and from the North Valley vent. On 29 June a news article stated that around 11,000 people remained evacuated to shelters.
Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), ReliefWeb
Report for Dukono
Based on satellite and wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26 June-2 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Ebeko was identified in satellite images on 23 June; weather clouds obscured views of the volcano on the other days during 21-28 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Klyuchevskoy
KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was visible in satellite images on 23 and 26 June, and a gas-and-steam plume with some ash content drifted E on 26 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Krakatau
PVMBG reported that Anak Krakatau’s seismic network recorded periods of increased activity with three eruptive events detected during 25-26 June, four events detected on 1 July, and one event on 2 July. The event was not followed by visible ash emissions, though observations were hindered by weather conditions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2 km radius hazard zone from the crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sangeang Api
The Darwin VAAC reported that on 27 June ash plumes from Sangeang Api rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. A thermal anomaly was also visible. On 29 June a discrete ash puff that rose to 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. drifted NW, and steam emissions were ongoing.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Santa Maria
INSIVUMEH reported increased activity at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex in a special bulletin posted on 2 July. They note that during the previous two years activity was characterized as low, with 10-15 weak explosions per day, and emissions composed mainly of water vapor with minor ash content. Beginning on 28 June the seismic network recorded a gradual increase of the number and intensity of explosions, with 35-40 events per day. These explosions were weak-to-moderate intensity and produced ash plumes that rose 1-1.3 km above the complex and drifted S and SW. Ashfall was recorded in areas downwind including Patzulín, El Faro, Horizontes, Las Marías, Loma Linda, and San Marcos Palajunoj. Block avalanches descended the SE, S, and SW flanks and sometimes generated ash plumes.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that at 0830 on 26 June an eruption at Semeru produced an ash plume that rose around 600 m above the summit and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale from 1-4); the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the active crater and 4 km away on the SSE flank.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 21-28 June. Explosions on 24 and 27 June generated ash plumes that rose to 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SW, respectively. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Stromboli
INGV reported that during 30 June-2 July activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing low-to-medium intensity Strombolian explosions and degassing from multiple vents within the crater terrace. A high-energy explosion from vent C in Area C-S (South Central crater area) was recorded at 2303 on 25 June. The event lasted for about 28 seconds, ejected material that fell onto most of the crater terrace and into the Valle della Luna, and widened the vent.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Whakaari/White Island
GeoNet reported that earthquake swarms at White Island were recorded in May and beginning on 20 June. Even though both swarms were interpreted as fault activity and no unusual volcanic activity was observed, GeoNet increased monitoring of the volcano. Earthquake swarms can increase the likelihood of landslides.

A gas flight was conducted on 26 June because of the heightened monitoring and measurements were found to be 1,886 tons per day, three times the previous values measured in May. This was also the highest value recorded since 2013 and the second highest since regular measurements began in 2003. The Volcanic Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 0-5) and the Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow. Two more gas flights found lower emissions values; sulfur dioxide flux was 880 tons per day on 28 June and 693 tons per day on 29 June. In addition, new measurements found no changes to fumarolic temperatures and modeling of ground deformation suggested the ongoing earthquake swarm was tectonic and did not reflect increased volcanic activity. The Volcanic Alert Level was lowered back to 1, with no change to the Aviation Color Code.
Source: GeoNet
Report for Yasur
On 27 June the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) reported that recent observations and data from Yasur’s seismic network confirmed ongoing sometimes strong explosions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4). VMGD reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, within a 395-m-radius permanent exclusion zone, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds.
Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD)