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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail.

This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives on various volcanoes are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 27 January-2 February 2021
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Karangetang Siau Island (Indonesia) 2018 Nov 25 New
Merapi Central Java (Indonesia) 2020 Dec 31 New
Raung Eastern Java (Indonesia) 2021 Jan 21 New
Sarychev Peak Matua Island (Russia) 2020 Feb 29 ± 1 days New
Soufriere St. Vincent St. Vincent 2020 Dec 27 New
Tinakula Solomon Islands 2018 Dec 8 (in or before) New
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) 2016 Oct 20 Continuing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) 2021 Apr 3 Continuing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) 2020 Dec 20 Continuing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Continuing
Lewotolok Lembata Island (Indonesia) 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Nevados de Chillan Chile 2016 Jan 8 Continuing
Semeru Eastern Java (Indonesia) 2014 Apr 1 ± 15 days Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Sinabung Indonesia 2020 Aug 8 Continuing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Whakaari/White Island North Island (New Zealand) Continuing
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 16,755 individual reports over 1,067 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 312 different volcanoes.

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Agung Copahue Ijen Little Sitkin Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Ahyi Cotopaxi Iliamna Llaima Peuet Sague Spurr
Aira Cuicocha Iliwerung Loihi Pinatubo St. Helens
Akan Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
Alaid Dabbahu Ioto Lopevi Poas Sulu Range
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Irazu Machin Popocatepetl Sumbing
Ambae Descabezado Grande Iya Makian Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Sundoro
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Izu-Torishima Makushin Rabaul Suretamatai
Ambrym Dukono Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raikoke Suwanosejima
Anatahan Ebeko Kaba Manam Ranakah Taal
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kadovar Manda Hararo Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Antuco Egon Kambalny Marapi Rasshua Takawangha
Apoyeque Ekarma Kanaga Maroa Raung Talang
Arenal Epi Kanlaon Martin Redoubt Tambora
Asamayama Erebus Karangetang Masaya Reventador Tanaga
Askja Erta Ale Karkar Maule, Laguna del Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Asosan Etna Karthala Mauna Loa Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Karymsky Mayon Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Kasatochi McDonald Islands Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Awu Fernandina Katla Melimoyu Rotorua Telica
Axial Seamount Fogo Katmai Merapi Ruang Tenerife
Azul, Cerro Fonualei Kavachi Midagahara Ruapehu Tengger Caldera
Azumayama Fournaise, Piton de la Kelimutu Misti, El Ruiz, Nevado del Three Sisters
Bagana Fourpeaked Kelut Miyakejima Sabancaya Tinakula
Balbi Fuego Kerinci Momotombo Sakar Tofua
Bamus Fujisan Ketoi Monowai Salak Tokachidake
Banda Api Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kharimkotan Montagu Island San Cristobal Tolbachik
Bardarbunga Galeras Kick 'em Jenny Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Miguel Toliman
Barren Island Galunggung Kikai Mutnovsky San Vicente Tongariro
Batur Gamalama Kilauea Myojinsho Sangay Tungurahua
Bezymianny Gamkonora Kirishimayama Nabro Sangeang Api Turrialba
Bogoslof Gareloi Kizimen Negra, Sierra Santa Ana Ubinas
Brava Gaua Klyuchevskoy Negro, Cerro Santa Maria Ugashik-Peulik
Bristol Island Gorely Kolokol Group Nightingale Island Sarigan Ukinrek Maars
Bulusan Great Sitkin Korovin Nishinoshima Sarychev Peak Ulawun
Calbuco Grimsvotn Koryaksky Nisyros Saunders Unnamed
Callaqui Guagua Pichincha Krakatau Novarupta Semeru Unnamed
Cameroon Guallatiri Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Cayambe Hachijojima Kuchinoerabujima Nyiragongo Sheveluch West Mata
Cereme Hakoneyama Kurikomayama Okataina Shishaldin Westdahl
Chachadake [Tiatia] Heard Kusatsu-Shiranesan Okmok Simbo Whakaari/White Island
Chaiten Hekla Kverkfjoll Ontakesan Sinabung Witori
Chiginagak Helgrindur Lamington Oraefajokull Sinarka Wolf
Chikurachki Hierro Lamongan Osorno Siple Yasur
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Pacaya Sirung Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chillan, Nevados de Home Reef Lanin Pagan Slamet Zavodovski
Chirinkotan Hood Lascar Palena Volcanic Group Snaefellsjokull Zhupanovsky
Chirpoi Huaynaputina Lateiki Paluweh Soputan Zubair Group
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lengai, Ol Doinyo Panarea Sorikmarapi
Colima Huila, Nevado del Leroboleng Papandayan Sotara
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Lewotobi Parker Soufriere Hills
Concepcion Ibu Lewotolok Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


Download Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network RSS Feed

The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



Download Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network CAP Feed

The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.



Download Smithsonian/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network Link Download Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network Link

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Karangetang
The Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 January a pilot observed an eruption plume rising from Karangetang to 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. The next day an ash plume identified in satellite images rose to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the “2021 lava dome” continued to effuse just below Merapi’s SW rim during 22-28 January, producing a total of 230 incandescent lava avalanches that traveled as far as 1.5 km down the Krasak and Boyong river drainages on the SW flank. Pyroclastic flows were recorded 71 times and descended the Boyong drainage as far as 3.5 km. A comparison of photos taken on 21 and 26 January showed that the morphological changes in the summit area were attributed to the emergence of lava domes. The 2021 dome volume was an estimated 157,000 cubic meters on 25 January, but avalanches and pyroclastic flows during 26-27 January reduced the volume to 62,000 cubic meters based on 28 January estimates. Deformation continued, though at a lower rate; Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) data showed a distance shortening between points in the NW at a rate of 0.4 cm per day.

There were 36 pyroclastic flows recorded during 0000-1400 on 27 January; the longest pyroclastic flow traveled 3 km down the Krasak and Boyong drainages at 1253. The corresponding ash plume rose into low weather clouds that obscured the summit. At 1335 pyroclastic flows traveled 1.5 km SW. Sirens were triggered in Ngrangkah, Umbulharjo, Cangkringan, and Sleman (along the Boyong river drainage), alerting about 150 residents to temporarily evacuate. Ashfall was reported in several villages in the Tamansari and Musuk districts, Boyolali Regency, Boyolali City, and several locations in Klaten. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public were warned to stay 5 km away from the summit.
Sources: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG), Detik News, Detik News, Detik News, Detik News, Detik News
Report for Raung
PVMBG reported that daily gray-to-brown ash plumes rose 400-700 m above Raung’s summit and drifted SE, E, and NE during 26 January-2 February. Incandescence from the crater was often seen reflected in the emissions and rumbling was sometimes heard. At 2354 on 2 February an ash plume rose 1 km and drifted E. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sarychev Peak
KVERT reported that the eruption at Sarychev Peak continued during 22-29 January, characterized by lava effusion from the crater onto the N flank. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Soufriere St. Vincent
University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre (UWI-SRC) and National Emergency Management Organisation (NEMO) reported that the lava dome in Soufrière St. Vincent’s main crater was an estimated 428 m long, 217 m wide, 80 m high, and had a volume of 4.45 million cubic meters by 27 January. The dome continued to grow during 27 January-2 February. During a field visit on 1 February scientists observed that gas-and-steam continued to rise from the top of the dome as well as along the contact of the old and new domes. Gas-and-steam plumes were often visible from Belmont Observatory. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre (UWI-SRC), National Emergency Management Organisation (NEMO), Government of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Report for Tinakula
Thermal anomalies over Tinakula’s summit and on the WNW flank were periodically visible in satellite images during 17 December 2020-21 January 2021. Weather clouds often obscured views.
Source: Sentinel Hub
Report for Aira
JMA reported that during 25 January-1 February incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was often visible at night. Ten explosions generated eruption plumes that rose 1.8-2.3 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 800-1,100 km away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Dukono
PVMBG reported that during 26 January-2 February ash plumes from Dukono rose 100-600 m above the summit and drifted W, SW, and W. Weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Ebeko
Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 22, 24-25, and 27 January that sent ash plumes to 3.1 km (10,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ESE. Ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk on 24 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Karymsky
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over a lava dome in Karymsky’s summit crater was visible in satellite images during 21-24 and 27 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Kilauea
HVO reported that lava from a vent on a cone on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater fed flows that traveled down a channel into a perched lava lake during 27-29 January. The vent was mostly crusted over during 30 January-2 February, though several incandescent areas on cone were visible and lava slowly effused from the base of the cone. The western half of the lake deepened from 209 to 212 m and was elevated ~5 m above the stagnant E half.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Klyuchevskoy
KVERT reported that Strombolian and sometimes Vulcanian activity at Klyuchevskoy continued during 22-29 January and lava advanced down the Kozyrevsky drainage on the S flank and the Apakhonchich drainage on the SE flank. A large bright thermal anomaly was identified daily in satellite images. Steam-and-gas plumes with some ash rose to 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 125 km in multiple directions. On 24 January collapses from the lava flow sent large amounts of material and pyroclastic flows down the Apakhonchich drainage. An ash cloud rose to 9.6 km (31,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 60 km N then NE. The Aviation Color Code remined at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolo continued at least during 26-28 January. Gray-and-white ash plumes rose 500 m above the summit and drifted E, SE, and W. Strombolian explosions ejected material 500 m above the summit, and incandescent material was ejected as far as 500-600 m SE from the crater. Rumbling was reported during 29-30 January; weather conditions prevented visual observations of the crater during 29 January-2 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the summer crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Nevados de Chillan
SERNAGEOMIN reported that activity at Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater was ongoing with sporadic gas-and-ash emissions and continuing lava effusion through 1 February. Lava effusion began in mid-2020 though the rate had increased in the past two months. A satellite image from 25 January showed a thermal anomaly over the lava dome in Nicanor Crater and one on the N crater rim, at the vent producing lava flows. A minor thermal anomaly was visible at the end of the active “L5” lava flow, about 600 m N of the vent. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-color scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI stated that Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) remained in place for the communities of Pinto and Coihueco, noting that the public should stay at least 3 km away from the crater on the W and SW flank and 5 km away on the NE flank.
Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 27 January-2 February, though weather conditions often prevented visual confirmation. On 28 January incandescent material was seen being ejected 50 m above the summit. According to a news article a pyroclastic flow from the end of a lava flow traveled 2 km down the flank on 2 February. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 1 km and extensions to 4 km in the SSE sector.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 22-29 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Sinabung
PVMBG reported that at 1822 on 27 January an ash plume from Sinabung rose 500 m above the summit and drifted SE and E, according to a ground-based observer. Dense white plumes rose as high as 1 km above them summit during 28 January-2 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km in the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was occasionally visible at night during 22-29 January. Intermittent explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1.4 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 200 m away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Whakaari/White Island
GeoNet reported that during the previous year temperatures of Whakaari/White Island’s steam and gas vents were regularly captured during helicopter overflights. These data showed a downward trend from temperatures of over 700 degrees Celsius in February 2020 to temperatures around 300 degrees Celsius recorded on 21 January. The recent gas-emission temperatures were similar to those measured in July 2018.

There was no evidence of eruptive activity observed during overflights in January nor signs of collapse in or near the active vents. A small amount of water had ponded on the 1978/90 Crater floor. Gas continued to be emitted from the active vents and from cooling lava that had erupted in December 2019, though the emission rates were the lowest recorded since that eruption. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 and the Aviation Color Code remained at Green.
Source: GeoNet