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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 10 March-16 March 2021
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Bagana Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) 2000 Feb 28 (in or before) New
Etna Sicily (Italy) 2013 Sep 3 New
Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Iceland 2021 Mar 19 New
Momotombo Nicaragua New
Pacaya Guatemala 2015 Jun 7 ± 1 days New
San Cristobal Nicaragua New
Semisopochnoi Aleutian Islands (USA) New
Taal Luzon (Philippines) New
Veniaminof United States New
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) 2016 Oct 20 Continuing
Kadovar Papua New Guinea 2018 Jan 5 Continuing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Continuing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Continuing
Lewotolok Lembata Island (Indonesia) 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Merapi Central Java (Indonesia) 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Popocatepetl Mexico 2005 Jan 9 Continuing
Raung Eastern Java (Indonesia) 2021 Jan 21 Continuing
Sangay Ecuador 2019 Mar 26 Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Sinabung Indonesia 2020 Aug 8 Continuing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 16,863 individual reports over 1,073 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 311 different volcanoes.

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Agung Copahue Ijen Little Sitkin Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Ahyi Cotopaxi Iliamna Llaima Peuet Sague Spurr
Aira Cuicocha Iliwerung Loihi Pinatubo St. Helens
Akan Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
Alaid Dabbahu Ioto Lopevi Poas Sulu Range
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Irazu Machin Popocatepetl Sumbing
Ambae Descabezado Grande Iya Makian Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Sundoro
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Izu-Torishima Makushin Rabaul Suretamatai
Ambrym Dukono Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raikoke Suwanosejima
Anatahan Ebeko Kaba Manam Ranakah Taal
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kadovar Manda Hararo Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Antuco Egon Kambalny Marapi Rasshua Takawangha
Apoyeque Ekarma Kanaga Maroa Raung Talang
Arenal Epi Kanlaon Martin Redoubt Tambora
Asamayama Erebus Karangetang Masaya Reventador Tanaga
Askja Erta Ale Karkar Maule, Laguna del Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Asosan Etna Karthala Mauna Loa Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Karymsky Mayon Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Kasatochi McDonald Islands Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Awu Fernandina Katla Melimoyu Rotorua Telica
Axial Seamount Fogo Katmai Merapi Ruang Tenerife
Azul, Cerro Fonualei Kavachi Midagahara Ruapehu Tengger Caldera
Azumayama Fournaise, Piton de la Kelimutu Misti, El Ruiz, Nevado del Three Sisters
Bagana Fourpeaked Kelut Miyakejima Sabancaya Tinakula
Balbi Fuego Kerinci Momotombo Sakar Tofua
Bamus Fujisan Ketoi Monowai Salak Tokachidake
Banda Api Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kharimkotan Montagu Island San Cristobal Tolbachik
Bardarbunga Galeras Kick 'em Jenny Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Miguel Toliman
Barren Island Galunggung Kikai Mutnovsky San Vicente Tongariro
Batur Gamalama Kilauea Myojinsho Sangay Tungurahua
Bezymianny Gamkonora Kirishimayama Nabro Sangeang Api Turrialba
Bogoslof Gareloi Kizimen Negra, Sierra Santa Ana Ubinas
Brava Gaua Klyuchevskoy Negro, Cerro Santa Maria Ugashik-Peulik
Bristol Island Gorely Kolokol Group Nightingale Island Sarigan Ukinrek Maars
Bulusan Great Sitkin Korovin Nishinoshima Sarychev Peak Ulawun
Calbuco Grimsvotn Koryaksky Nisyros Saunders Unnamed
Callaqui Guagua Pichincha Krakatau Novarupta Semeru Unnamed
Cameroon Guallatiri Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Cayambe Hachijojima Kuchinoerabujima Nyiragongo Sheveluch West Mata
Cereme Hakoneyama Kurikomayama Okataina Shishaldin Westdahl
Chachadake [Tiatia] Heard Kusatsu-Shiranesan Okmok Simbo Whakaari/White Island
Chaiten Hekla Kverkfjoll Ontakesan Sinabung Witori
Chiginagak Helgrindur Lamington Oraefajokull Sinarka Wolf
Chikurachki Hierro Lamongan Osorno Siple Yasur
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Pacaya Sirung Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chillan, Nevados de Home Reef Lanin Pagan Slamet Zavodovski
Chirinkotan Hood Lascar Palena Volcanic Group Snaefellsjokull Zhupanovsky
Chirpoi Huaynaputina Lateiki Paluweh Soputan Zubair Group
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lengai, Ol Doinyo Panarea Sorikmarapi
Colima Huila, Nevado del Leroboleng Papandayan Sotara
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Lewotobi Parker Soufriere Hills
Concepcion Ibu Lewotolok Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Bagana
Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 10 March ash plumes from Bagana rose to 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and WNW.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Etna
INGV reported continuing episodes of lava fountaining at Etna’s Southeast Crater (SEC) on 9 and 12 March. The eleventh episode began with Strombolian activity at SEC observed at 1914 on 9 March. Just after midnight activity quickly intensified with lava fountaining and a large eruption plume that rose at least 9 km a.s.l. The plume drifted ENE and caused ash and lapilli to fall in Mascali (18 km E), Giarre (17 km ESE), and Fiumefreddo (19 km ENE). Lava reached an elevation of 1,800 m, also effusing from the flank of the S vent. Lava fountaining ceased at 0430 on 10 March and sporadic ash emissions continued until 0700.

The twelfth episode began at 0630 on 12 March with Strombolian activity at SEC and ash emissions. The activity intensified at 0754 and lava overflowed the E part of SEC, traveling towards the Valle de Bove. Lava fountaining began at 0841, with jets up to 500 m, and an eruption plume rose 6 km a.s.l. and drifted E. Lava advanced to 2,800 m elevation and within another hour had reached 2,000 m elevation. At 0939 the plume had risen 9-10 km and had caused ashfall in Milo and Fornazzo (10 km E), Giarre, Santa Venerina (15 km SE), and Torre Archirafi (20 km ESE). Lava fountaining ceased at 1050, though weak Strombolian activity and ash emissions continued until 1115. The lava flow advanced as far as 1,700 m elevation and a second lava flow expanded SE on the W slope of the Valle del Bove, stopping at 3,000 m a.s.l.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Krysuvik-Trolladyngja
IMO reported that seismicity in the Reykjanes Peninsula remained elevated with thousands of earthquakes recorded during 10-16 March, in the western part of the Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcanic system in the Fagradalsfjall fissure swarm area. About 16,500 earthquakes had been detected over the week. Some of the largest events, M 4.3-5.4 recorded during 10-12 and 14-15 March, were felt as far as Hvanneyri (97 km NNE of Grindavik), Hvolsvollur (110 km ESE of Grindavik), and Saudakrokur (250 NE of Grindavik). A few, short-lived pulses of tremor were also recorded. The magma intrusion continued to move SW along a fault between Keilir and Fagradalsfjall, and was as shallow as 1 km below the surface. GPS, satellite, and seismic data indicated that the intrusion had expanded S to Nátthaga, a valley just E of Borgarfjall and S of Fagradalsfjall, and was 3-5 km long. Ground fracturing was visible in the area above the intrusion. The Aviation Color Code for Krýsuvík remained at Orange.
Source: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO)
Report for Momotombo
The Washington VAAC reported that on 14 March a possible ash emission was visible in webcam and satellite data just above Momotombo. Ash was not visible in a subsequent satellite image captured around six hours later.
Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
Report for Pacaya
INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that pulses of moderate-to-strong Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater were commonly recorded during 9-16 March. Frequent ash plumes rose as high as 2 km and drifted as far as 30 km W, SW, and S. On 10 March lapilli (2 mm to 6 cm in length) fell in El Caracol (3 km SW), and ash fell in El Patrocinio (about 5 km W) and likely in other areas downwind. Ash plumes caused daily ashfall in variable places during 11-16 March, including El Patrocinio, San José El Rodeo, the municipality of San Vicente Pacaya (5 km NW), San Francisco de Sales (5 km N), San José el Bejucal (4 km N), San Antonio el Pepinal (7 km N), Concepción El Cedro (9 km NNW), San José Calderas, and the municipalities of Amatitlán (12 km N), Villa Nueva (16 km N), and Mixco (30 km N). Lapilli as long as 2 cm fell in El Patrocinio, San José El Rodeo and Concepción El Cedro on 16 March.

Strombolian explosions and periodic lava fountaining ejected incandescent material as high as 800 m above the summit; tephra fell within a 500 m radius of Mackenney Crater. Explosions and ash emissions also rose from fissures on the S flank, 300 m below Mackenney Crater. The lava flow on the S flank had two branches and was 1 km on 10 March, but had lengthened to 1.8 km by 16 March. Block avalanches from the summit traveled down the S flank.
Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres (CONRED)
Report for San Cristobal
SINAPRED reported that a series of five explosions at San Cristóbal were recorded during 1306-1332 on 9 March. The strongest explosion, at 1325, produced an ash plume that rose 800 m above the crater rim. Ashfall as deep as 2 mm was reported in El Viejo (19 km WSW), Chinandega (16 km SW), and Chichigalapa (16 km S); ash also fell in other communities downwind including Las Grecias, La Mora, and La Bolsa.
Source: Sistema Nacional para la Prevención, Mitigación y Atención de Desastres (SINAPRED)
Report for Semisopochnoi
On 12 March AVO reported that although no ash plumes were observed at Semisopochnoi and nothing was detected in regional infrasound data during the previous week, ash deposits within Mount Cerberus’s N crater and extending 1.5 km on the flank were identified in satellite data. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Yellow/Advisory, respectively.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Taal
PHIVOLCS reported that during 10-13 March there were around 51-55 volcanic earthquakes recorded daily at Taal, and about 23-49 periods of volcanic tremor with variable durations. One hybrid earthquake was recorded during 11-12 March. Diffuse steam plumes from fumarolic vents in Main Crater rose only 5 m. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 1,327 tonnes per day on 10 March, and fluctuated between 518 and 795 tonnes per day through 14 March. At 1411 on 12 March a short-lived (2.5 minutes) burst of steam-rich gas from Main Crater generated white plumes that rose 400-500 m. Diffuse steam plumes rose 50 m above fumarolic vents on the inner N and E walls during the rest of the day.

The number of volcanic earthquakes per day rose to 74 during 13-14 March and to 252 during 15-16 March. Episodes of tremor persisted, with 17-46 periods recorded per day. Five hybrid events were detected during 14-15 March. An episode of high-temperature gas upwelling to the crater lake’s surface occurred during 1830-2045 on 14 March. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 1,216 tonnes per day on 15 March. Steam emissions rose 10 km during 15-16 March. The seismic network recorded 42 volcanic earthquakes and 34 periods of tremor. The Alert Level for Taal remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). PHIVOLCS strongly recommended no entry onto the island, and access to the Main Crater and Daang Kastila fissure (along the walking trail) was strictly prohibited.
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Report for Veniaminof
AVO reported that the eruption at Veniaminof continued during 9-16 March. Ash emissions rose to 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 200 km NE and SE during 9-10 March. Explosions and ash emissions declined to lower levels the rest of the week, though new ash deposits within the caldera, and as far as 10 km SE, were sometimes identified in satellite images. Lava continued to effuse under the intra-caldera glacier in an area on the flank about 1 km E of the cone’s summit. Elevated surface temperatures over this area were identified in a satellite images during most days, along with steam plumes and a broadening collapse pit in the ice from melting around the eruption site. Data from local seismic stations were back online by 12 March and showed elevated seismicity and tremor through 15 March. Steam-and-has plumes were identified in satellite images during 15-16 March. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Aira
JMA reported that during 8-15 March incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. Seven explosions and 10 non-explosive events generated eruption plumes that rose 2.4-2.7 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 0.8-1.7 km away from the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 2,300 tons per day on 10 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Dukono
Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-16 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Ebeko
Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 5, 7-9, and 11-12 March that sent ash plumes to 2.3 km (7,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and E. Ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk during 7-8 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Kadovar
Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 March ash plumes from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Kilauea
HVO reported that vents on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 10-16 March. Lava flowed from both the main vent and a newer vent several meters NE into the lake through submerged inlets. Another lava flow emerged from about halfway up the cone structure starting at 0220 on 16 March.

The depth of the western part of the lake rose from 221 m to 222 m and lava continued to circulate in that part. The E half of the lake remained solidified and lower that the W half, with the crusted E half expanding towards the W. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 900 tons/day on 14 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Klyuchevskoy
KVERT reported that the Strombolian eruption from vents on Klyuchevskoy’s lower NW flank continued during 5-12 March. A large, bright thermal anomaly over the vents was identified daily in satellite images. A plume of re-suspended ash drifted 375 km E on 5 March. IVS FEB RAS posted that the lava traveled downslope, melting ice and snow on the Erman glacier; the meltwater formed mud flows along the along the Krutenkaya River. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Kamchatka Volcanological Station
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the Strombolian eruption at Lewotolok continued during 10-16 March. Daily gray-and-white ash plumes rose as high as 1.5 km above the summit and drifted mainly E and SE. The eruptive events were accompanied by rumbling and banging sounds. Visual observations were hindered by weather on 10 March; each day during 11-16 March incandescent material was ejected as high as 500 m above the crater. Almost daily incandescent material was ejected 500-1,300 m E and SE from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the summer crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the 2021 lava dome just below Merapi’s SW rim and the lava dome in the summit crater both continued to grow during 5-11 March. The 2021 lava-dome volume was an estimated 785,600 cubic meters on 11 March, with a growth rate of about 13,500 cubic meters per day, and continued to shed material down the flank. A total of 12 pyroclastic flows traveled a maximum of 1.9 km down the SW flank. Incandescent avalanches, recorded 226 times, traveled as far as 1.3 km down the SW flank. The height of the summit lava dome was relatively steady at 45 m. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public were warned to stay 5 km away from the summit.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Popocatepetl
During an overflight of Popocatépetl on 5 March scientists from Instituto de Geofísica de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) and CENAPRED observed that the inner crater was 360-390 m in diameter and 150-182 m deep. Tephra deposits on the crater floor were visible and there was no sign of a lava dome. Each day during 10-15 March there were 35-104 steam, gas, and ash emissions that drifted mainly SSW and NW. Minor ashfall was reported in the municipalities of Amecameca (20 km NW) and Tlalmanalco (30 km NW) around 2250 on 12 March. An explosion was recorded at 2351 on 13 March. Minor ashfall was reported in Amecameca the next day. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale).
Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)
Report for Raung
PVMBG reported that daily gray ash plumes rose 100-1,200 m above Raung’s summit during 10-16 March. Ash plumes drifted mainly N, NE, E, and S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sangay
IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 10-16 March. Seismicity was characterized by daily explosions, long-period earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions. Weather clouds often prevented visual observations of the volcano, but satellite and webcam images recorded daily ash plumes.

Ash plumes were notable during 10-11 March and impacted communities downwind with ashfall. Pyroclastic flows, visible in webcam images, descended the flanks at 0950 on 10 March. The Washington VAAC stated that ash plumes rose 6.7-8.5 km (22,000-28,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W at lower altitudes and NW at higher altitudes. A period of explosions recorded during 0315-0545 on 11 March produced ash plumes that rose as high as 13.7 km (45,000 ft) a.s.l., or 8.5 km above the summit, and drifted NW, W, and SW. Ash plumes drifted N, NW, and W, causing significant ashfall in Guamote (42 km WNW), notable ashfall in Chambo (43 km NW), Riobamba (50 km NW), Penipe (55 km NW), and Guano (55 km NW), and minor ashfall in Colta (55 km NW), Alausí (60 km SW), and Macas. According to a social media video post the ash plumes caused widespread darkness in Riobamba for several hours. Other residents posted photos of crops covered in ash. The eruption released 31 kilotons of sulfur dioxide, the highest value recorded during the current eruptive period that began in May 2019.

Heavy rainfall overnight during 11-12 March caused hot lahars in the Volcán River drainage that reached the confluence of the Upano River. Overflows in the Upano River resulting in additional lahars and debris flows. Weather clouds hindered visual observations. During 13-15 March gas-and-ash plumes rose as high has 2 km above the summit and drifted NE. Seismic signals indicating lahars were recorded on 14 March. The VAAC reported that ash plumes rose to 6-9 km (20,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and WNW on 16 March.
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Marlon Puertas
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 5-12 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Sinabung
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Sinabung continued during 10-16 March. Avalanches of material traveled 500-1,500 m down the E, SE, and S flanks almost daily. Pyroclastic flows traveled 2-3 km down the E and SE flanks on 11 March. Ash plumes rose to 2.4-4.3 km (8,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, SW, and W during 10-12 and 15 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km in the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the seismic network for Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater detected a total of 29 explosions during 5-12 March, less than the 131 explosions recorded previous week. These events produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 1.5 km above the crater rim. Incandescence from the crater was occasionally visible at night. Rumbling was heard in a village 4 km SSW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)