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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 19 January-25 January 2022
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Ambrym Vanuatu New
Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Tonga Ridge New
Wolf Isla Isabela (Galapagos) New
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Great Sitkin Andreanof Islands (USA) 2021 May 25 Continuing
Kanlaon Philippines Continuing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) 2020 Apr 1 Continuing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) 2021 Sep 29 Continuing
Merapi Central Java 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Pavlof Alaska Peninsula, Alaska 2021 Aug 5 Continuing
Reventador Ecuador 2008 Jul 27 Continuing
Rincon de la Vieja Costa Rica 2021 Jun 28 Continuing
Santa Maria Southwestern Guatemala 1922 Jun 22 Continuing
Semeru Eastern Java 2014 Apr 1 ± 15 days Continuing
Semisopochnoi Aleutian Islands (USA) 2021 Feb 2 ± 2 days Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Stromboli Aeolian Islands (Italy) 1934 Feb 2 Continuing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Taal Luzon (Philippines) Continuing
Turrialba Costa Rica Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 17,900 individual reports over 1,120 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 321 different volcanoes.

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Agung Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Pinatubo Spurr
Ahyi Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Planchon-Peteroa St. Helens
Aira Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Poas Stromboli
Akan Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Popocatepetl Sulu Range
Alaid Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Purace Sumbing
Alu-Dalafilla Davidof Irazu Lopevi Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Sundoro
Ambae Dempo Iya Machin Rabaul Suretamatai
Ambang Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Raikoke Suwanosejima
Ambrym Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Ranakah Taal
Anatahan Dukono Kaba Manam Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Aniakchak Ebeko Kadovar Manda Hararo Rasshua Takawangha
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Marapi Raung Talang
Antuco Edgecumbe Kambalny Maroa Redoubt Tambora
Apoyeque Egon Kanaga Martin Reventador Tanaga
Arenal Ekarma Kanlaon Masaya Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Asamayama Epi Karangetang Maule, Laguna del Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Askja Erebus Karkar Mauna Loa Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Asosan Erta Ale Karthala Mayon Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Atka Volcanic Complex Etna Karymsky McDonald Islands Rotorua Telica
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruang Tenerife
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Katla Merapi Ruapehu Tengger Caldera
Awu Fernandina Katmai Midagahara Ruiz, Nevado del Three Sisters
Axial Seamount Fogo Kavachi Misti, El Sabancaya Tinakula
Azul, Cerro Fonualei Kelimutu Miyakejima Sakar Tofua
Azumayama Fournaise, Piton de la Kelud Momotombo Salak Tokachidake
Bagana Fourpeaked Kerinci Monowai San Cristobal Tolbachik
Balbi Fuego Ketoi Montagu Island San Miguel Toliman
Bamus Fujisan Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Vicente Tongariro
Banda Api Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky Sangay Tungurahua
Bardarbunga Galeras Kie Besi Myojinsho Sangeang Api Turrialba
Barren Island Galunggung Kikai Nabro Santa Ana Ubinas
Batur Gamalama Kilauea Negra, Sierra Santa Maria Ugashik-Peulik
Bezymianny Gamkonora Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Sao Jorge Ukinrek Maars
Bogoslof Gareloi Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sarigan Ulawun
Brava Gaua Kizimen Nishinoshima Sarychev Peak Unnamed
Bristol Island Gorely Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Saunders Unnamed
Bulusan Great Sitkin Kolokol Group Novarupta Savo Veniaminof
Calbuco Grimsvotn Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Semeru Villarrica
Callaqui Guagua Pichincha Krakatau Nyamulagira Semisopochnoi Vulcano
Cameroon Guallatiri Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Seulawah Agam West Mata
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Okataina Sheveluch Westdahl
Cayambe Hachijojima Kuchinoerabujima Okmok Shishaldin Whakaari/White Island
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kurikomayama Ontakesan Simbo Witori
Chaiten Heard Kusatsu-Shiranesan Oraefajokull Sinabung Wolf
Chiginagak Hekla Kverkfjoll Osorno Sinarka Yakedake
Chikurachki Helgrindur La Palma Pacaya Siple Yasur
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamington Pagan Sirung Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Lamongan Palena Volcanic Group Slamet Zavodovski
Chirinkotan Home Reef Langila Paluweh Snaefellsjokull Zhupanovsky
Chirpoi Hood Lanin Panarea Soputan Zubair Group
Ciremai Huaynaputina Lascar Papandayan Sorikmarapi
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Parker Sotara
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pavlof Soufriere Hills
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Pelee Soufriere St. Vincent
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Peuet Sague South Sarigan Seamount
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Ambrym
On 25 January the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) raised the Alert Level for Ambrym to 2 (on a scale of 0-5) due to a significant increase in activity beginning at around 0400. Steam emissions rose from Marum Crater, and at 0515 a steam, gas, and ash plume rose from Benbow Crater. Satellite data recorded increased sulfur dioxide emissions from Benbow, and residents of Ambrym and surrounding islands reported seeing incandescence from crater overnight. VMGD warned the public to stay outside of the Permanent Danger Zone A defined as a 1-km radius around Benbow Crater and a 2-km radius around Marum Crater, and additionally to stay 500 m away from the ground cracks created by the December 2018 eruption.
Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD)
Report for Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai
No additional eruptive events were detected at Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai after the large and explosive eruption on 15 January. The gas, steam, and ash plume produced during that eruption rose into the stratosphere and drifted W. Based on volcanic ash advisories issued by the Wellington VAAC and then by the Darwin VAAC, the horizontal extent of the plume grew from 18,000 square kilometers at 1739 on 15 January to 12 million square kilometers by 1300 on 19 January. The plume narrowed and lengthened along an E-W axis, moving W over Australia. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green on 19 January. According to the Darwin VAAC the plume continued to drift W at altitudes between 12.8 and 19.2 km (42,000 and 63,000 ft) a.s.l. during 19-22 January; the ash was diffuse and difficult to distinguish from meteorological clouds, though the sulfur dioxide signal was stronger. By 22 January the leading-edge of the plume had reached the E coast of Africa. By 2150 the Darwin VAAC noted that ash was no longer detectable.

Tsunami waves generated by the 15 January eruption caused an oil spill near at the La Pampilla refinery along Peru’s coast, affecting a 38-km-stretch of beach from Ventanilla to Peralvillo Beach in Chancay, according to Peru’s Agency for Environmental Assessment and Enforcement (OEFA). An estimated 6,000 barrels of oil were spilled, significantly impacting an estimated 180 hectares of beach, almost 715 hectares of ocean, and local fisherman.

In a media release on 21 January, the Government of Tonga reported that ashfall and tsunami had damaged all islands. International humanitarian aid had reached the islands the day before, five days after the eruption ceased. Inter-island and international communication remained challenging though was partially restored; a relief flight from New Zealand brought telecommunication equipment and a repair vessel was en-route to the damaged seafloor fiber-optic cable. Floating debris, likely including pumice, hindered sea transportation. Domestic flights remained suspended, though international flights carrying relief supplies were able to land and aerial surveys of damage were conducted. According to a social media post from 23 January residents swept ash off of a Salote Pilolevu Airport runway in Ha’apai. News reports shared stories of survivors and showed images of damage around the islands.

Dozens of earthquakes, M 4.5-5, were centered in the vicinity of the volcano after the eruption, at least through 24 January. The type of earthquake signal was unknown, though they likely represented post-eruption movement along existing faults and not magma movement.
Sources: Josephine Latu-Sanft, Brisbane Times, Consulate of the Kingdom of Tonga, Judith Hubbard, Matangi Tonga Online, Wellington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Advanced geospatial Data Management Platform (ADAM), National Public Radio (NPR), Dov Bensimon, Montréal Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Simon Carn, Agency for Environmental Assessment and Enforcement (OEFA), Peru, Andina Agencia Peruana de Noticias, US Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program
Report for Wolf
IG reported that the eruption at Wolf continued during 18-25 January. Daily thermal alerts counts were in the hundreds, centered over the advancing lava flows on the SE flank. Diffuse gas emissions were visible drifting SW during 18-20 January. Activity levels were stable during the beginning of the week then began to trend downward by 21 January.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
Report for Aira
JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible at night during 17-24 January. Sulfur dioxide emissions were somewhat high on 17 January at 1,000 tons per day. Two explosions on 18 January produced ash plumes that rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim and ejected ballistics 1-1.3 km away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin likely continued during 18-25 January, and seismicity remained at very low levels. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data during 19-22 January. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Kanlaon
PHIVOLCS issued a special notice for Kanlaon on 21 January, noting that a total of 18 volcanic earthquakes were recorded in the past day. Four of those events were classified as shallow “tornillo” signals indicating gas movement along shallow fractures in the upper part of the volcano. Ground deformation data from continuous GPS and tilt measurements indicated slight inflation of the volcano since mid-October 2021. The seismic activity and ground deformation was likely caused by shallow hydrothermal processes and could generate phreatic events. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5) and PHIVOLCS reminded the public to remain outside of the 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone.
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Report for Karymsky
KVERT reported that on 15 and 17 January explosions at Karymsky produced ash plumes that rose as high as 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 172 km W. A thermal anomaly was visible in satellite images on 16 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Kilauea
HVO reported that lava effusion resumed at the vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater at around 1045 on 18 January. By 1630 the level of the lava lake had risen 12 m, slightly surpassing the high recorded on 12 January, but then slightly dropped within 30 minutes. The W part of the lake was active. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was about 2,100 tonnes per day the next day. During 19-20 January lava oozed out along the SE and NW margins of the lake, though by the afternoon of the 20th the active portion of the lake was small and located N of the cone. Just after 0400 on 21 January the effusion rate increased and the W half of the lake was again active. Notable overflows of lava later that evening sent flows NW, SW, and SE. The lake level dropped 9 m during the morning of 22 January, and again only a small portion of the lake was active. Lava oozed out from the E and NW lake margins. Lava input into the small lake became intermittent starting at around 1500 on 23 January, though lava oozed out along the NW and S margins. The effusion rate increased at 0552 on 25 January and lava flowed W and N along the crater margins. By 0820 the lava lake had risen 11 m. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported no significant morphological changes at Merapi’s lava domes, located just below the SW rim and in the summit crater, during 14-20 January. Seismicity remained at high levels. As many as 91 lava avalanches traveled a maximum of 2 km SW down the Bebeng drainage, and one pyroclastic flow traveled 2 km SW. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-5 km away from the summit based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Pavlof
AVO reported that the eruption at Pavlof was ongoing during 18-25 January, with periods of elevated tremor. Small daily explosions were recorded on local and regional infrasound sensors during 18-22 January. A satellite image from 19 January showed that the lava flow on the E flank was 1.3 km long, and a lahar on the same flank was 4.4 km long. Elevated surface temperatures consistent with the active lava flow persisted through 25 January. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Reventador
IG reported that a high level of activity continued at Reventador during 18-25 January. Gas-and-ash plumes, often observed multiple times a day with the webcam or reported by the Washington VAAC, sometimes rose higher than 1 km above the summit crater and drifted mainly NW, W, and SW. Crater incandescence was visible at night during 19-20 January. Cloudy weather sometimes prevented visual observation during 21-23 January. Lava flows on the E and NE flanks were visible during 23-25 January and continued to advance.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
Report for Rincon de la Vieja
OVSICORI-UNA reported that two eruptions were recorded at Rincón de la Vieja, at 2227 on 20 January and 0225 on 23 January, though weather conditions prevented visual confirmation of plumes. Each event was 1-2 minutes long. At 1139 on 25 January an eruption produced a plume that rose 500-1,000 m.
Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)
Report for Santa Maria
INSIVUMEH reported that the eruption at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex continued during 19-25 January. Crater incandescence was visible at night. Avalanches generated by both lava effusion at the W and SW part of Caliente dome and collapsing material descended the W, SW, and SE flanks, often reaching the base of the dome. Periodically the avalanches produced curtains of ash along their paths that dissipated near the volcano. Almost daily explosions produced ash plumes that rose 700-900 m above the summit and drifted 10-15 km W and SW; ashfall was reported in areas downwind during 21-23 January including in San Marcos Palajunoj (8 km SW) and Loma Linda (6 km WSW). Lava flows on the W and SW flanks were 500 and 700 m long, respectively.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that an eruptive event at 0911 on 21 January produced an ash plume that rose 200 m above Semeru’s summit and drifted N. A second event, recorded at 0741 on 25 January, generated an ash plume that rose 200 m and drifted SE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 500 m away from Kobokan drainages within 17 km of the summit, along with other drainages originating on Semeru, including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Semisopochnoi
AVO reported that low-level eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus cone continued during 18-25 January. Seismicity was elevated, characterized by periods of tremor and low-frequency earthquakes. Steam emissions were periodically visible in webcam images during 18-19 January and minor explosions were recorded by local seismic and infrasound sensors on 19 January. Steam and low-level ash emissions were visible in webcam and satellite images during 20-25 January. Daily explosions were recorded during 21-25 January, and elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data during 22-23 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 14-21 January. Intense steam-and-gas emissions with ash were visible during 15-16 January; plumes rose as high as 6.5 km (21,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 77 km W. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Stromboli
INGV reported that during 17-23 January activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing explosions from five vents in Area N (North Crater area) and two vents in Area C-S (South-Central Crater area). Explosions from Area N vents (N1 and N2) averaged 7-14 events per hour; explosions from two vents in the N1 vent ejected lapilli and bombs 80 m high and those at three N2 vents ejected material less than 80 m high. Spattering at N2 had been intense the week before, depositing material onto the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco that then rolled down the flank to the coastline on 16 January; spattering was again intense on 22 January. No explosions occurred at the S1 and C vents in Area C-S; explosions at the two S2 vents occurred at a rate of 3-4 per hour and ejected coarse material mixed with fine ash higher than 80 m.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that incandescence at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater was visible nightly during 17-24 January. There were 46 explosions recorded, producing ash plumes that rose at least 1.8 km above the crater rim and ejected material up to 1 km away from the crater. Rumbling sounds and ashfall were reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Taal
PHIVOLCS reported that unrest at Taal continued during 18-25 January. Low-level background tremor persisted; one volcanic earthquake was recorded during 18-19 January. Hot volcanic fluids were upwelling in the crater lake, and daily gas-and-steam plumes rose 0.6-2.4 km above the lake and drifted SW. Sulfur dioxide emissions continued to be elevated, averaging 10,986 and 11,228 tonnes/day on 20 and 23 January, respectively. The Volcano Alert Level remained at a 2 (on a scale of 0-5). PHIVOLCS reminded the public that the entire Taal Volcano Island is a Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) and that boating on Taal Lake is prohibited.
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Report for Turrialba
OVSICORI-UNA reported that periodic eruptive events, lasting 1-2 minutes each, were recorded at Turrialba’s West Crater during 19-24 January. At 0546 on 19 January an eruption produced an ash plume that rose 200 m above the summit and drifted W. A small eruption at 1052 generated a plume that rose 50 m and drifted NW. At 0706 on 24 January an event generated a plume that rose 100 m and drifted SW. Two points of incandescence on the internal SW crater wall were also visible.
Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)