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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 5 July-11 July 2023
Name Country Eruption Start Date Report Status
Bagana Papua New Guinea 2000 Feb 28 (in or before) New
Eldey Iceland New
Fagradalsfjall Iceland New
Kirishimayama Japan New
Klyuchevskoy Russia New
Kuchinoerabujima Japan New
Mayon Philippines 2023 Apr 27 ± 2 days New
Nishinoshima Japan New
Piton de la Fournaise France New
San Cristobal Nicaragua New
Shishaldin United States New
Ubinas Peru 2024 May 6 New
Ebeko Russia 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Etna Italy Continuing
Fuego Guatemala 2002 Jan 4 Continuing
Great Sitkin United States 2021 May 25 Continuing
Karangetang Indonesia Continuing
Merapi Indonesia 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Popocatepetl Mexico 2005 Jan 9 Continuing
Santa Maria Guatemala 1922 Jun 22 Continuing
Semeru Indonesia 2017 Jun 6 Continuing
Sheveluch Russia 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Tofua Tonga 2015 Oct 2 Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 20,205 individual reports over 1,224 weeks (average of 17 per week) on 334 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Poas Sulu Range
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Popocatepetl Sumbing
Aira Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Purace Sundoro
Akan Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suoh
Alaid Davidof Irazu Lopevi Rabaul Suretamatai
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Iya Machin Raikoke Suwanosejima
Ambae Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Ranakah Taal
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Ambrym Dukono Kaba Manam Rasshua Takawangha
Anatahan East Epi Kadovar Manda Hararo Raung Talang
Aniakchak Ebeko Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Redoubt Tambora
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Reventador Tanaga
Antuco Edgecumbe Kambalny Martin Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Apoyeque Egon Kanaga Masaya Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Arenal Ekarma Kanlaon Maule, Laguna del Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Asamayama Eldey Karangetang Mauna Loa Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Askja Erebus Karkar Mayon Rotorua Ta'u
Asosan Erta Ale Karthala McDonald Islands Ruang Taupo
Atka Volcanic Complex Etna Karymsky Melebingoy Ruapehu Telica
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruby Tenerife
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Katla Merapi Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Awu Fagradalsfjall Katmai Midagahara Sabancaya Three Sisters
Axial Seamount Fernandina Kavachi Misti, El Sakar Tinakula
Azul, Cerro Fogo Kelimutu Miyakejima Salak Tofua
Azumayama Fonualei Kelud Momotombo San Cristobal Tokachidake
Bagana Fournaise, Piton de la Kerinci Monowai San Miguel Tolbachik
Balbi Fourpeaked Ketoi Montagu Island San Vicente Toliman
Bamus Fuego Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Sangay Tongariro
Banda Api Fujisan Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky Sangeang Api Trident
Bardarbunga Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kie Besi Myojinsho Santa Ana Tungurahua
Barren Island Galeras Kikai Nabro Santa Maria Turrialba
Batur Galunggung Kilauea Negra, Sierra Sao Jorge Ubinas
Bezymianny Gamalama Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ugashik-Peulik
Bogoslof Gamkonora Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ukinrek Maars
Brava Gareloi Kizimen Nishinoshima Saunders Ulawun
Bristol Island Gaua Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bulusan Gorely Kolokol Group Novarupta Semeru Unnamed
Calbuco Great Sitkin Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Callaqui Grimsvotn Krakatau Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Cameroon Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Sheveluch Vulcano
Campi Flegrei Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Ofu-Olosega Shishaldin West Mata
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Okataina Simbo Westdahl
Cayambe Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okmok Sinabung Whakaari/White Island
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Ontakesan Sinarka Witori
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Oraefajokull Siple Wolf
Chiginagak Hekla La Palma Osorno Sirung Wrangell
Chikurachki Helgrindur Lamington Pacaya Slamet Yakedake
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamongan Pagan Snaefellsjokull Yasur
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Palena Volcanic Group Soputan Yufu-Tsurumi
Chirinkotan Home Reef Lanin Paluweh Sorikmarapi Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirpoi Hood Lascar Panarea Sotara Zavodovski
Ciremai Huaynaputina Late Papandayan Soufriere Hills Zhupanovsky
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent Zubair Group
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Peuet Sague Spurr
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Pinatubo St. Helens
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Bagana
An explosive eruption at Bagana on 7 July send a large ash, gas, and steam plume to high altitudes and caused significant ashfall in local communities. A report issued by the Autonomous Bougainville Government (Torokina District, Education Section) on 10 July noted that significant ash began falling during 2000-2100 on 7 July and covered most areas in the Vuakovi, Gotana (9 km SW), Koromaketo, Laruma and Atsilima villages. By about 2200 on 7 July the eruption plume had reached upper tropospheric altitudes based on satellite images. Sulfur dioxide detections in satellite images from 8 July indicated that the plume, likely a mixture of gases, ice, and ash, had risen to 16-18 km (52,500-59,100 ft) a.s.l., reaching the tropopause. Ashfall reportedly continued until 9 July. The ashfall covered vegetation, destroying bushes and gardens, and contaminated rivers and streams used for washing and drinking water; residents drank from coconuts and used fresh ground water accessible through bamboo pipes.
Sources: Andrew Tupper, Natural Hazards Consulting, Simon Carn, Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Autonomous Bougainville Government
Report for Eldey
Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) reported that at 2330 on 6 July earthquake activity increased in an area close to Eldey and by 1500 on 7 July the seismic network had detected over 480 events. The earthquakes were located at depths of around 8 km, with several of the events over M 3 and six over M 4; the largest event was a M 4.5 recorded at 0506 on 7 July. Activity that strong had not previously been detected in conjunction with seismic swarms related to magma intrusions in Fagradalsfjall. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow (the second level on a four-color scale). On 11 July IMO noted that seismicity had decreased during the past few days so at 1640 the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green.
Source: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO)
Report for Fagradalsfjall
Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) reported that a new fissure eruption in the Fagradalsfjall volcanic system began on 10 July after intensifying seismicity over the previous month and inflation that was first noted in April. At 1055 on 5 July IMO raised the Aviation Color Code to Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). By 1330 on 7 July there had been more than 7,000 earthquakes detected in the swarm that began on 3 July. Epicenters were aligned NE-SW between Fagradalsfjall and the Keilir cone, NNE from the 2021 and 2022 eruptions, and mostly concentrated just N of the Litli Hrútur hill. Deformation data (GPS and radar interferometry) showed uplift in the same area, suggesting a magmatic dike intrusion that reached to 1 km depth by early on 6 July. Seismicity decreased during 6-7 July and the rate of deformation slowed, with analysis showing that by 9-10 July the dike had propagated 1 km further NE.

Tremor was detected at 1425 on 10 July and continued to intensify, leading to an eruption at 1640 just NW of Litli-Hrútur. Webcam images showed visible gas emissions and incandescence, but no major ash emissions. IMO raised the Aviation Color Code to Red (the highest level on a four-color scale) at 1707. Flowing lava from a NE-SW fissure that was about 200 m long was confirmed by people present in the area and webcam images; at 1724 the Aviation Color Code was lowered back to Orange. The fissure was mainly located in a depression and bisected the E and NE flanks of Litli Hrútur. Based on observations from drone video the fissure quickly reached about 900 m long according to estimates from Institute of Earth Sciences. Lava fountaining occurred along the fissure, sending lava flows S. Gas-and-steam emissions drifted NW. According to Almannavarnadeild ríkislögreglustjóra, the police closed the area around the eruption to tourists due to the high concentrations of volcanic gases and particulates from burning vegetation.

Tremor levels peaked between 2100 on 10 July and 0000 on 11 July, then steadily declined through 1100. By 1250 on 11 July the intensity of the eruption had noticeably decreased, with fewer active lava fountains. Only one vent with an elongated crater and multiple lava fountains was active by 1635. Gas plumes rose as high as 4 km above the vent. Lava flows mostly traveled SE and flowed into a shallow valley S of Litli-Hrútur. IMO noted that if lava continued to flow S it may come into contact with the 2022 Merardalir lava flow. A 10-km-long trail from the road up to the eruption site was opened to the public.
Sources: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), Almannavarnadeild ríkislögreglustjóra (National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police and Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management), Institute of Earth Sciences
Report for Kirishimayama
JMA reported that global navigation satellite system (GNSS) data indicated minor inflation beginning in May at shallow depths beneath Ioyama, located on the NW flank of the Karakuni-dake stratovolcano in the Kirishimayama volcano group. Volcanic tremor was recorded at 1650 on 7 July for the first time since 19 June 2018. JMA raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a 5-level scale) at 1715 on 7 July and warned the public to stay 1 km away from Ioyama. A few shallow volcanic earthquakes were recorded during 7-10 July. Weather conditions mostly prevented visual observations of the fumarolic areas near the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Klyuchevskoy
KVERT reported that the minor Strombolian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued during 29 June-6 July. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. Small ash plumes were occasionally observed over the crater during 4-6 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Kuchinoerabujima
JMA reported that shallow volcanic earthquakes at Kuchinoerabujima had been occurring frequently starting in late June with most epicenters located near Furudake Crater, and some near Shindake Crater (just N of Furudake). Both the number and magnitude of the volcanic earthquakes increased on 9 June and remained elevated through 12 July; there were 151 events on 9 July, 319 on 10 July, 276 on 11 July, and 172 by 1500 on 12 July. The public was previously warned that ejected blocks and pyroclastic flows may affect areas within 2 km of Shindake, and at 1600 on 10 June the public was also warned to stay 2 km away from Furudake. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Mayon
PHIVOLCS reported that eruptive activity continued at Mayon during 5-11 July. Daily steam-and-gas emissions rose as high as 1 km above the crater and drifted in multiple directions. Average daily measurements of sulfur dioxide emissions fluctuated between 721 and 1,621 tonnes per day. Slow lava effusion from the summit crater continued to feed lava flows on the flanks. The length of the lava flow in the Mi-Isi (S) drainage remained at 2.8 km. The flow in the Bonga (SE) drainage advanced 100 m during 10-11 July, with a total length of 1.4 km. The growing lava dome remained unstable and produced incandescent rockfalls and pyroclastic density currents (PDCs, or pyroclastic flows) that descended the Basud (E) drainage as far as 4 km. Seismic stations recorded 216-511 daily rockfall events, 5-39 daily PDC events (from dome and lava front collapse) lasting 1-3 minutes, and 1-109 volcanic earthquakes. Ashfall was reported during 10-11 July in Legazpi City (13 km SSE), and Budiao (8.1 km S), Salvacion (8.6 km S), Daraga (12 km S), and Camalig (11 km SSW), in Albay. The Disaster Response Operations Monitoring and Information Center (DROMIC) reported that as of 1800 on 10 July, the number of displaced persons and total number of overall affected persons from 26 barangays in the province of Albay increased to 20,141 and 38,376, respectively. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale). Residents were reminded to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ), and PHIVOLCS recommended that civil aviation authorities advise pilots to avoid flying close to the summit.
Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Disaster Response Operations Monitoring and Information Center (DROMIC)
Report for Nishinoshima
JMA reported that at around 1300 on 9 July an eruption plume from Nishinoshima rose 1.6 km above the crater and drifted N. Satellite images acquired at 1420 and 2020 on 9 July and 0220 on 10 July showed continuing emissions rising 1.3-1.6 km and drifting NE and N.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Piton de la Fournaise
OVPF reported that the eruption that began on 2 July at Piton de la Fournaise was ongoing during 5-11 July. Though there were multiple active fissures at the start of the eruption, as of 3 July only the SE flank fissure was active, located on the upper part of Grandes Pentes at approximately 1,720 m a.s.l. Volcano-tectonic earthquake events (VTs) fluctuated throughout the week but remained low relative to the onset of the eruption. The amplitude of the volcanic tremor dropped abruptly at 2105 on 4 July following a M 2.3 earthquake directly below Dolomieu Crater, and again on 7 July. Lava ejections continued to build a cone over the active vent throughout the week. During an overflight on 7 July, a team from OVPF-IPGP determined that the lava flow had reached 1.8 km from the road but had not advanced since 5 July. The flow front did not extend any further to the E, but by 7 July active flows were moving through a lava tube. During 10-11 July flows traveled through lava tubes and were active at elevations above 1,300 m. Although clouds often prevented measurements, satellite analysis showed that lava flow rates fluctuated between 1.5 and 24 cubic m/s. The total volume of lava effused since the beginning of the eruption was an estimated 5.5 million cubic m. Deflation of the whole edifice during 3-6 July ended by 8 July, and no significant deformation was observed the rest of the week.
Source: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF)
Report for San Cristobal
SINAPRED reported that on 5 July a small explosion at San Cristóbal produced a moderately-sized ash-and-gas plume. The emissions in photos posted by SINAPRED appeared to be dense and gray, and pyroclastic flows were visible on the upper flanks. According to news articles, a strong sulfur odor was reported in nearby communities along with the fall of ash and larger tephra, most notably in La Grecia (12 km WSW). Fine ash particles in the air continued to impact residents the next day. A dark narrow deposit extending about 10 km W from the summit crater was visible in a 9 July Sentinel satellite image.
Sources: Sistema Nacional para la Prevención, Mitigación y Atención de Desastres (SINAPRED), La Prensa (Nicaragua), Sentinel Hub, European Pressphoto Agency
Report for Shishaldin
AVO reported that intermittent tremor and low-frequency earthquakes recorded at Shishaldin over the past week had gradually become more regular and consistent during 10-11 July. Strongly elevated surface temperatures at the summit were identified in satellite images during 10-11 July. The Volcano Alert Level was raised to Advisory (the second level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow (the second color on a four-color scale) at 1439 on 11 July, but AVO noted that the increased activity may or may not lead to an eruption.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Ubinas
IGP and INGEMMET reported that the eruption at Ubinas continued during 5-12 July. According to IGP there were 67 volcano-tectonic earthquakes indicating rock fracturing and 47 long-period earthquakes signifying the movement of gas and magma recorded during 5-9 July. A period of continuous ash-and-gas emissions was visible on 5 July with the plumes drifting more than 10 km SE and E. The Washington VAAC reported that ash plumes and periodic puffs of ash rose 5.5-9.1 km (18,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NE. On 6 July explosions recorded at 0747 and 2330 produced ash-and-gas plumes that rose as high as 3.5 km above the crater rim and drifted within 30 km NW, NE, SE, and S. According to the VAAC the explosion at 0747 produced a plume of ash and gas that rose to 9.1 km a.s.l., drifted SW, and gradually dissipated, while a lower-altitude plume at 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. drifted NE. Gobierno Regional de Moquegua declared a state of emergency for districts in the Moquegua region, along with Coalaque Chojata, Icuña, Lloque, Matalaque (17 km SE), Ubinas, and Yunga of the General Sánchez Cerro province, to be in effect for 60 days.

On 7 July the VAAC reported that at 0320 an ash plume rose to 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. At 0900 and 1520 steam plumes with diffuse ash rose to 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Diffuse gas emissions were visible in satellite images drifting SE at 2120. Very small ash puffs visible in satellite and webcam images at 0920 and 1520 on 8 July rose as high as 6.4 km (21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. INGEMMET reported that during 9-11 July sulfur dioxide emissions were low at 300 tons per day. Gas-and-steam plumes rose 150-400 m and drifted S. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the crater.
Sources: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP), Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET), Gobierno Regional de Moquegua, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate activity at Ebeko was ongoing during 29 June-6 July. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E), explosions on 4 July generated ash plumes that rose as high as 2.2 km (7,200 ft) a.s.l and drifted to the NW. On 4 and 6 July thermal anomalies were observed in satellite images; weather clouds obscured views on other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Etna
INGV reported that during 9-10 July explosive activity at Etna’s SE Crater produced ash emissions that rapidly dispersed near the summit.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Fuego
INSIVUMEH reported that eruptive activity continued at Fuego during 5-11 July. Steam-and-gas emissions rose 300-540 m above the crater rim and drifted SW, W, and NW. Daily counts of weak and sometimes moderate explosions averaged 2-7 per hour. Explosions triggered weak and moderate avalanches that descended the Honda (E), El Jute (ESE), Las Lajas (SE), Trinidad (S), Ceniza (SSW), and Seca (W) ravines. Sometimes explosions were accompanied by ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km above the crater and drifted as far as 20 km SW, W, and NW. Degassing sounds (similar to a jet engine) lasting 1-2 minutes were reported on most days. Minor ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including El Porvenir (8 km SE), Panimaché I (7 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Panimaché II (8 km WSW), Finca Palo Verde (10 km WSW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km W), and Yepocapa (9 km WNW).
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that slow lava effusion continued at Great Sitkin during 5-11 July. Several local earthquakes were recorded daily during 6-11 July. Minor degassing was observed in satellite data on 6 July and in webcam images during 10-11 July. Weather clouds obscured satellite and webcam views on other days. Elevated surface temperatures at the summit were identified in satellite images during 10-11 July. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Karangetang
PVMBG reported that daily dense white gas-and-steam plumes from Karangetang were visible rising as high as 300 m and drifting multiple directions during 5-11 July. Periodic webcam images published in the reports showed incandescence at Main Crater (S crater) and from material on the flanks of Main Crater. PVMBG issued Volcano Observatory Notices for Aviation (VONAs) about eruptive events at 0759 and 0850 on 10 July; images showed what appeared to be pyroclastic flows descending the S flank of Main Crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public were advised to stay 2.5 km away from Main Crater with an extension to 3.5 km on the S and SE flanks.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi (on Java) continued during 23-29 June and seismicity remained at elevated levels. The SW lava dome produced 130 lava avalanches that traveled as far as 2 km down the SW flank (upstream in the Boyong drainage) and one that traveled 300 m NW down the Senowo drainage. Morphological changes to the SW lava dome were due to continuing collapses of material. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Popocatepetl
CENAPRED reported that eruptive activity continued at Popocatépetl during 5-11 July. Long-period events totaling 25-123 per day were accompanied by steam-and-gas plumes that sometimes contained minor amounts of ash. Seismic activity also included variable-amplitude volcanic tremors (total of 35 hours), harmonic tremor (9.5 hours), explosions, and volcano-tectonic earthquakes (maximum magnitude 1.6 at 0441 on 9 July). Ash plumes identified in webcam and satellite images were described in daily aviation notices issued by the Washington VAAC; some plumes rose as high as 2.2 km above the summit and drifted NE, SW, W, or NW. Minor explosions occurred at 2336 on 4 July, at 1955 on 6 July, at 0911 and 1937 on 7 July, at 1016 on 8 July, and at 0209 and 0335 on 11 July. Moderate explosions were recorded at 0007 on 9 July and at 0816 on 11 July. At 0843 on 10 July the VAAC reported an ash plume that rose 1 km above the summit and drifted as far as 28 km NW. At 0930 on 10 July ashfall was reported in the municipalities of Ayapango (24 km WNW), Tenango del Aire (29 km WNW), Amecameca (19 km NW), and Temamatla (33 km NW), all within the State of México. The VAAC reported that the plume drifted as far as 185 km NW by noon, and the Secretaría de Gestión Integral de Riesgos y Protección Civil (SGIRPC) of the City of México reported ashfall in Milpa Alta (46 km WNW), Xochimilco (56 km WNW), Coyoacán (65 km WNW), Tlalpan (67 km WNW), La Magdalena Contreras (70 km WNW), Álvaro Obregón (72 km WNW), Cuajimalpa (80 km WNW), Tláhuac (49 km NW), and Iztapalapa (59 km NW). On the morning of 11 July ashfall was reported in the municipalities of Ozumba (18 km W) and Juchitepec (30 km WNW) within the State of México. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (the middle level on a three-color scale) and the public was warned to stay 12 km away from the crater.
Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Secretaría de Gestión Integral de Riesgos y Protección Civil (SGIRPC)
Report for Santa Maria
INSIVUMEH reported that eruptive activity continued at Santa Maria’s Santiaguito lava dome complex during 5-11 July. Lava effusion at Caliente dome fed lava flows, and occasionally produced both avalanches and pyroclastic flows that traveled short distances down the S, SW, and W flanks. Daily weak and sometimes moderate explosions ejected ash plumes as high as 900 m above the dome that drifted W and NW, and triggered avalanches down the E, SE, and S flanks. Incandescence was observed at the crater and along lava flow margins during most nights and early mornings.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity continued at Semeru during 5-11 July, though weather conditions prevented summit observations on most days. On 10 July a dense white plumes rose as high as 600 m above the summit and drifted N, NW, W, and SW. However, emergency management agencies Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) and Badan Penanggulangan Bencana Daerah (BPBD) reported that on 7 July continuous heavy rainfall caused flooding and lahars that affected the following locations in the Lumajang Regency: Kloposawit Village and Tumpeng Village in the Candipuro Subdistrict, Sumerwuluh Village, Pronojiwo Village, Jugosari Village, and Sidomulyo Village in the Pronojiwo Subdistrict, and Nguter Village in the Pasirian Subdistrict. Starting at 0010, lahars descended Semeru’s flanks and damaged 13 bridges, 12 homes, over 80 hectares of crops, and affected livestock. As of 2035 on 10 July, a total of 1,294 people had evacuated to 18 shelter locations. The Alert Level remained at 3 (third highest on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit in all directions, 13 km from the summit to the SE, 500 m from the banks of the Kobokan drainage as far as 17 km from the summit, and to avoid other drainages including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), Badan Penanggulangan Bencana Daerah Provinsi Jawa Timur (East Java BPBD)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that eruptive activity continued at Sheveluch during 29 June-6 July. Daily thermal anomalies were observed in satellite images and intense fumarolic activity was visible from both the active crater and lava dome. An aviation notice on 2 July described a gas-and-steam plume with some ash that rose 3.5 km a.s.l. and drifted 39 km W. Additional aviation notices caused by resuspended ash were issued on 30 June and 1, 4, and 5 July; plumes rose up to 3 km a.s.l. and drifted as far as 95 km ESE, SE, W, and WNW. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Tofua
Tonga Geological Services issued a public notice on 7 July noting the ongoing eruption at Tofua and requesting that the public contact them with any information, including photos and video. Data and observations indicated that the activity was normal and no significant seismic activity nor thermal anomalies were recorded.
Source: Tonga Geological Services, Government of Tonga