Logo link to homepage

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 20 September-26 September 2023
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Ruby Mariana Islands (USA) New
Villarrica Central Chile 2014 Dec 2 ± 7 days New
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Erta Ale Ethiopia 1967 Jul 2 (in or before) ± 182 days Continuing
Great Sitkin Andreanof Islands (USA) 2021 May 25 Continuing
Ibu Halmahera 2008 Apr 5 Continuing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) 2023 Jun 22 Continuing
Lewotolok Lembata Island 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Mayon Luzon (Philippines) 2023 Apr 27 ± 2 days Continuing
Merapi Central Java 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Nyamulagira DR Congo 2018 Apr 18 Continuing
Nyiragongo DR Congo 2002 May 17 (?) Continuing
Popocatepetl Mexico 2005 Jan 9 Continuing
Reventador Ecuador 2008 Jul 27 Continuing
Sangay Ecuador 2019 Mar 26 Continuing
Semeru Eastern Java 2017 Jun 6 Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Shishaldin Fox Islands (USA) 2023 Jul 12 Continuing
Stromboli Aeolian Islands (Italy) 1934 Feb 2 Continuing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Taal Luzon (Philippines) Continuing
Ulawun New Britain (Papua New Guinea) 2023 Jul 18 Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 19,832 individual reports over 1,207 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 332 different volcanoes.

Search by Date



Use the dropdowns to choose the year and week for archived Weekly Reports.

Use the dropdowns to choose the year and week for archived Weekly Reports.          



Search by Volcano



Agung Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Popocatepetl Sumbing
Ahyi Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Purace Sundoro
Aira Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suretamatai
Akan Davidof Irazu Lopevi Rabaul Suwanosejima
Alaid Dempo Iya Machin Raikoke Taal
Alu-Dalafilla Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Ranakah Tair, Jebel at
Ambae Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raoul Island Takawangha
Ambang Dukono Kaba Manam Rasshua Talang
Ambrym East Epi Kadovar Manda Hararo Raung Tambora
Anatahan Ebeko Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Redoubt Tanaga
Aniakchak Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Reventador Tandikat-Singgalang
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Edgecumbe Kambalny Martin Reykjanes Tangkoko-Duasudara
Antuco Egon Kanaga Masaya Rincon de la Vieja Tangkuban Parahu
Apoyeque Ekarma Kanlaon Maule, Laguna del Rinjani Tara, Batu
Arenal Eldey Karangetang Mauna Loa Ritter Island Ta'u
Asamayama Erebus Karkar Mayon Rotorua Taupo
Askja Erta Ale Karthala McDonald Islands Ruang Telica
Asosan Etna Karymsky Melimoyu Ruapehu Tenerife
Atka Volcanic Complex Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Merapi Ruby Tengger Caldera
Augustine Eyjafjallajokull Katla Midagahara Ruiz, Nevado del Three Sisters
Avachinsky Fagradalsfjall Katmai Misti, El Sabancaya Tinakula
Awu Fernandina Kavachi Miyakejima Sakar Tofua
Axial Seamount Fogo Kelimutu Momotombo Salak Tokachidake
Azul, Cerro Fonualei Kelud Monowai San Cristobal Tolbachik
Azumayama Fournaise, Piton de la Kerinci Montagu Island San Miguel Toliman
Bagana Fourpeaked Ketoi Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Vicente Tongariro
Balbi Fuego Kharimkotan Mutnovsky Sangay Trident
Bamus Fujisan Kick 'em Jenny Myojinsho Sangeang Api Tungurahua
Banda Api Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kie Besi Nabro Santa Ana Turrialba
Bardarbunga Galeras Kikai Negra, Sierra Santa Maria Ubinas
Barren Island Galunggung Kilauea Negro, Cerro Sao Jorge Ugashik-Peulik
Batur Gamalama Kirishimayama Nightingale Island Sarigan Ukinrek Maars
Bezymianny Gamkonora Kita-Ioto Nishinoshima Sarychev Peak Ulawun
Bogoslof Gareloi Kizimen Nisyros Saunders Unnamed
Brava Gaua Klyuchevskoy Novarupta Savo Unnamed
Bristol Island Gorely Kolokol Group NW Rota-1 Semeru Veniaminof
Bulusan Great Sitkin Koryaksky Nyamulagira Semisopochnoi Villarrica
Calbuco Grimsvotn Krakatau Nyiragongo Seulawah Agam Vulcano
Callaqui Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Ofu-Olosega Sheveluch West Mata
Cameroon Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Okataina Shishaldin Westdahl
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Okmok Simbo Whakaari/White Island
Cayambe Hachijojima Kurikomayama Ontakesan Sinabung Witori
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Oraefajokull Sinarka Wolf
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Osorno Siple Wrangell
Chiginagak Hekla La Palma Pacaya Sirung Yakedake
Chikurachki Helgrindur Lamington Pagan Slamet Yasur
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamongan Palena Volcanic Group Snaefellsjokull Yufu-Tsurumi
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Paluweh Soputan Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirinkotan Home Reef Lanin Panarea Sorikmarapi Zavodovski
Chirpoi Hood Lascar Papandayan Sotara Zhupanovsky
Ciremai Huaynaputina Late Parker Soufriere Hills Zubair Group
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Peuet Sague Spurr
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Pinatubo St. Helens
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Poas Sulu Range
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


Download Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network RSS Feed

The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



Download Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network CAP Feed

The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.



Download Smithsonian/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network Link Download Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Network Link

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Ruby
The US Geological Survey reported that no activity had been detected at Ruby in regional seismic and infrasound data or in satellite imagery since the 14-16 September submarine eruption. The plume of discolored water that had detached from the source vent on 16 September drifted E and dispersed; it was between Saipan and Anatahan during 21-22 September, faintly visible N and NNE of Saipan during 23-25 September, and no longer visible by 26 September. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory (the second level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second level on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey
Report for Villarrica
SERNAGEOMIN reported that the eruption in Villarrica’s summit crater intensified during 20-26 September. A long-period (LP) earthquake associated with fluid movement, recorded by the seismic network at 0914 on 20 September, was accompanied by a short grayish-brown pyroclastic emission that rose 50 m above the crater rim and drifted SSE. Whitish gas emissions were visible before and after the event. Another LP event was recorded at 1012 on 21 September, but weather conditions prevented visual observations.

A sustained increase in seismicity was recorded throughout the day on 23 September. Several discrete, low-altitude ash emissions were visible rising to heights less than 150 m above the crater rim and drifting SE. Some notable emissions occurred at 0841, 0910, 1251, 1306, 1312, 1315, and 1324. Diffuse gas emissions were visible in webcam images. During 23-24 September RSAM values reached high levels, Strombolian explosions ejected material onto the upper flanks near the crater, and thermal anomalies intensified. On 24 September the Volcanic Alert Level was raised to Orange (the third level on a four-level scale) and the exclusion zone was increased to an 8-km radius. SENAPRED maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, and Panguipulli. During 24-26 September seismicity stabilized then decreased slightly, though it remained at high levels. During the early morning of 25 September Strombolian explosions ejected incandescent material up to 250 above the crater rim and onto the upper flanks, mainly to the NW. Strombolian explosions continued to be recorded on 26 September. A continuous ash emission drifted ENE for a period of 50 minutes. Thermal anomalies continued to be identified in satellite data.
Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Sistema y Servicio Nacional de Prevención y Repuesta Ante Desastres (SENAPRED)
Report for Aira
JMA reported ongoing activity at Minamidake Crater (Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 18-25 September and incandescence at the crater was observed nightly. Very small eruptive events were recorded during the week. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 1,800 tons per day on 19 September. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from both craters.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate explosive activity at Ebeko was ongoing during 14-21 September. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E), explosions during 14-18 September generated ash plumes that rose as high as 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l and drifted to the E. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 15 and 18 September; weather clouds obscured views on other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Erta Ale
Two small thermal anomalies in Erta Ale’s S pit crater were identified in satellite images on 15 September. A 20 September image showed small anomalies in both the N and S pit craters, and a possible lava lake in the N pit crater that had mostly been crusted over. A large thermal anomaly in the SE part of the N pit crater was identified in a 25 September image. The anomaly suggested that lava had spilled over the SE rim of the crater and flowed short distances (possibly less than 400 m) E and SE.
Source: Sentinel Hub
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that slow lava effusion continued at Great Sitkin during 19-26 September, producing a thick flow in the summit crater that mainly expanded E. Seismicity was characterized as low with only a few daily earthquakes recorded by the seismic network during 24-25 September. Elevated surface temperatures and minor steaming were visible in webcam and satellite images on a few of the days; weather clouds sometimes obscured views. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Ibu
PVMBG reported that Ibu continued to erupt during 20-26 September. Daily white-and-gray ash emissions of variable densities generally rose as high as 800 m above the summit and drifted NE, N, and W. At 0712 on 25 September a dense gray ash plume rose 1.5 km and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at a 2 (the second highest level on a four-level scale), with the public advised to stay outside of the 2 km hazard zone and 3.5 km away from the N area of the active crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Klyuchevskoy
KVERT reported that the explosive Strombolian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued 14-21 September. A daily bright thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. Lava fountaining fed flows that advanced down the Kozyrevsky drainage on the SE flank. Plumes of resuspended ash (deposited on the volcano’s N flanks from Sheveluch’s 10-13 April eruption) drifted 50 km E on 22 September, prompting KVERT to raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). The Aviation Color Code was lowered back to Yellow on 24 September; Strombolian activity continued to feed the lava flow. Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 20-26 September. White-and-gray plumes of variable densities rose as high as 800 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions on all days except 25 September when only white plumes were visible. A webcam image captured incandescent material being ejected above the summit at 2346 on 23 September. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the summit crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Mayon
PHIVOLCS reported that the eruption at Mayon continued during 19-26 September. The lengths of the lava flow in the Mi-Isi (S), Bonga (SE), and Basud (E) drainages remained at 2.8 km, 3.4 km, and 1.1 km, respectively. Collapses at the lava dome and from the margins of the lava flows produced rockfalls and pyroclastic density currents (PDCs, or pyroclastic flows) that descended the flanks as far as 4 km. Each day seismic stations recorded 107-207 rockfall events, 0-6 PDC events, and 2-15 daily volcanic earthquakes. Sulfur dioxide emissions measured almost daily averaged between 868 and 1,507 tonnes per day, with the highest value recorded on 22 September. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale) and residents were reminded to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). PHIVOLCS recommended that civil aviation authorities advise pilots to avoid flying close to the summit.
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi (on Java) continued during 15-21 September and seismicity remained at elevated levels. The SW lava dome produced a total of 148 lava avalanches that descended the S and SW flanks; two traveled as far as 1.3 km down the upper part of the Boyong drainage, 145 traveled as far as 2 km down the upper Bebeng drainage, and one traveled 1.4 km down the Sat/Putih drainage. Morphological changes to the SW lava dome were due to continuing collapses of material. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Nyamulagira
The Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) reported that activity at Nyamulagira continued at low levels during 17-24 September based on satellite images.
Source: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG)
Report for Nyiragongo
The Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) reported that the activity at Nyiragongo continued during 17-24 September at a low level. A diffuse sulfur dioxide plume with an estimated mass of 20 tons was identified in satellite data on 25 September.
Source: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG)
Report for Popocatepetl
CENAPRED reported that eruptive activity continued at Popocatépetl during 19-26 September. Long-period events totaling 151-640 per day were accompanied by steam-and-gas plumes that sometimes contained minor amounts of ash. Periods of volcanic tremor were recorded almost daily, often characterized as low-amplitude and high-frequency, and each lasted 37-297 minutes. One to two volcano-tectonic earthquakes per day were recorded during 19-22 September and had magnitudes of 1.4-2.5. A moderate explosion was recorded at 1305 on 21 September and a minor one was recorded later that day at 1704. A minor explosion occurred at 0907 on 22 September. During the morning of 24 September ash plumes drifted over the municipalities of Yautepec (50 km WSW), Cuautla (43 km SW), Ayala (45 km SW), and Yecapixtla (31 km SW), and possibly Tlaltizapán and Tlaquiltenango in the state of Morelos. Minor ashfall was reported in the municipalities of Tetela del Volcán (20 km SW) and Tepalcingo during the morning of 25 September and in Villa de Ayala later that day; the municipalities were in the state of Morelos. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (the middle level on a three-color scale) and the public was warned to stay 12 km away from the crater.
Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)
Report for Reventador
IG-EPN reported that the eruption at Reventador was ongoing during 19-26 September. Seismicity was characterized by 22-49 daily explosions, long-period earthquakes, volcano-tectonic events, harmonic tremor, and tremor associated with emissions. Several daily ash-and-gas plumes rose 200-1,000 m above the crater rim and drifted in multiple directions. Daily crater incandescence was visible during both overnight and morning hours. Incandescent material descended the flanks, mainly to the E and SE, traveling as far as 500 m from the summit. Incandescent material was sometimes ejected 200-300 m above the crater rim. Weather conditions sometimes prevented views of the volcano. Secretaría de Gestión de Riesgos maintained the Alert Level at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN), Secretaría de Gestión de Riesgos (SGR)
Report for Sangay
IG-EPN reported a high level of eruptive activity at Sangay during 19-26 September, with seismic stations recording 311-641 daily explosions. Several daily ash-and-gas plumes rose as high as 2.6 km above the crater rim and drifted mainly NW, W, and SW, though during 25-26 September the plumes also drifted NNW. Webcam images showed incandescent material descending the SE flank as far as 1.8 km from the crater several times daily during overnight and early morning hours. Secretaría de Gestión de Riesgos maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN), Secretaría de Gestión de Riesgos (SGR)
Report for Semeru
In a 23 September press release PVMBG noted that after pyroclastic flows occurred during 10-11 September activity at Semeru remained high; an average of 52 eruptive events per day were recorded during 11-23 September. Seismicity increased on 15 September. GPS monitoring stations recorded inflation at the volcano, originating from a source at a depth of 8 km, and substantial inflation was identified in satellite data on 16 September. White-and-gray or white-to-brown ash plumes generally rose 300-800 m above the summit and drifted N, NW, W, and SW during 20-21, 23, and 25-26 September. Plumes were notably higher on a few of the days, rising as high as 1 km above the summit at 0934 on 21 September and drifting N; at 0902, 0958, and 1042 on 25 September white-to-brown and darkish plumes rose as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted NW. The Alert Level remained at 3 (third highest on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit in all directions, 13 km from the summit to the SE, 500 m from the banks of the Kobokan drainage as far as 17 km from the summit, and to avoid other drainages including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that the eruption at Sheveluch continued during 14-21 September. Thermal anomalies were identified in satellite images during 17-19 September; observations on other days were obscured by weather clouds. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Shishaldin
AVO reported that the eruption at Shishaldin continued during 20-26 September with activity increasing during the week and culminating in a notable eruption during 24-25 September. Seismicity remained elevated during 19-22 September, with tremor and small earthquakes detected by the seismic network. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images. Minor steaming and small volcanic debris flows on the upper flanks were visible in webcam images on 20 September, a small ash deposit on the upper flank was visible in images the next day.

Seismic tremor increased significantly during 22-23 September. Regional infrasound sensors suggested that low-level eruptive activity was likely occurring within the summit crater by around 1800 on 23 September. Even though seismicity was at high levels, strongly elevated surface temperatures indicating lava at the surface were absent and no ash emissions were detected, though weather clouds at 0.6-4.6 km a.s.l. obscured views. At 0025 on 24 September AVO noted that seismicity was continuing at high levels and nearly continuous small infrasound signals had begun to be detected, likely from low-level eruptive activity. Strongly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images at least by 0900 and persisted throughout the day; the higher temperatures along with infrasound and seismic data were consistent with lava erupting at the summit. Highly elevated surface temperatures detected at around 1700 suggested the start of more vigorous lava fountaining. Beginning at around 1800 low-level ash emissions rose to altitudes less than 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and quickly dissipated. At around midnight seismic data indicated that lava flows were active on the N flank, and lava fountaining over the crater rim was visible during early morning hours on 25 September. At 0540 a significant ash plume began to rise from the summit prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Red (the highest color on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level to Warning (the highest level on a four-level scale). The ash cloud produced lightning, quickly rose to 14 km (45,000 ft) a.s.l., and drifted E along the Alaska Peninsula. Seismicity dropped rapidly to near-background levels at around 0600. The ash plume detached from the summit at around 0700 and drifted ESE at an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash emissions continued until about 0820, rising to 6.1-7.6 km (20,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. Small explosions at the vent area continued to be detected in infrasound data. At noon the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Watch and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange. Trace to minor amounts of ashfall were reported by the communities of False Pass, King Cove, Cold Bay, and Sand Point.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Stromboli
INGV reported that eruptive activity continued at Stromboli during 18-24 September. Webcam images showed Strombolian activity at three vents in Area N (two at N1 and one at N2), within the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco, and from three vents in Area C-S (South-Central Crater) in the crater terrace. Explosions of variable intensities that occurred at a rate of 8-12 per hour at Area N2 ejected mainly coarse material (bombs and lapilli), sometimes mixed with ash, up to 150 m above the vents. Spattering occurred at N1 and was intense on 24 September. High-intensity explosions in sector S2 (Area C-S) averaged 6-8 per hour from the vents, ejecting a mix of coarse material as high as 150 m. Material was deposited in a wide area along the crater terrace. The Dipartimento della Protezione Civile maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the second highest level on a four-level scale).
Sources: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV), Dipartimento della Protezione Civile
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 18-25 September. Eruptive events produced plumes that rose as high as 1.9 km above the crater rim and ejected blocks as far as 300 m from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible nightly. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale) and the public was warned to stay at least 1 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Taal
PHIVOLCS reported ongoing unrest at Taal during 19-26 September. Upwelling gasses and hot fluids in the lake were visible during daily observations. Daily emissions of gas-and-steam rose from Main Crater Lake as high as 3 km and drifted in multiple directions. During 19-22 September there were 2-6 daily periods of volcanic tremor recorded by the seismic network, ranging from 4 minutes long to nearly 10 hours; no earthquakes were recorded during the rest of the week. Vog was reported almost daily, though conditions on 21 September prompted PHIVOLCS to issue a special notice. Starting at around 1230 on 21 September vog was present over Taal Lake. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 4,569 tonnes per day and a large sulfur dioxide cloud was identified in satellite images drifting W. PHIVOLCS noted that vog had been affecting the Taal region since the first week of September. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5), and PHIVOLCS reminded the public that the entire Taal Volcano Island was a Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Report for Ulawun
Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) reported that diffuse white emissions occasionally rose from the active vent at Ulawun’s summit crater from 1430 on 19 September through most of 25 September. Weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations. Seismicity was characterized as low during the beginning of the reporting period, dominated by low-level, continuous volcanic tremors that were punctuated by occasional, small, low-frequency, volcanic events. The pattern of seismicity changed just before 1000 on 22 September with the emergence of very distinct, low-frequency volcanic earthquakes and short-duration, sub-continuous, volcanic tremors with increased amplitudes.

The amplitude of the continuous volcanic tremor fluctuated but slowly rose overall until about 1300 on 25 September when the increase became rapid. At around 1739 on 25 September a 4-5-km tall, white-to-pale-gray plume and minor incandescence at the summit vent were visible in webcam images. The incandescence intensified as the evening grew darker. The plume did not change and no ashfall was reported, suggesting low ash content. The incandescence intensified and became distinct in total darkness by 1830. Incandescent lava fragments around the summit crater area and a possible small lava flow on the upper N flank were visible; rumbling and roaring sounds were heard. The eruption was over by 2000. RSAM values peaked at 6,000 during the eruption; at the end of the activity seismicity decreased rapidly and was characterized by low levels of volcanic tremor. The Alert Level remained at Stage 1 (the lowest level on the four-level scale).
Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)