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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 27 March-2 April 2024
Name Country Eruption Start Date Report Status
Atka Volcanic Complex United States New
Barren Island India 2024 Mar 15 New
Fernandina Ecuador New
Ioto Japan New
Poas Costa Rica 2023 Dec 1 New
Reykjanes Iceland 2023 Dec 18 New
Ahyi United States Continuing
Aira Japan 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Dukono Indonesia 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Ebeko Russia 2022 Jun 11 Continuing
Great Sitkin United States 2021 May 25 Continuing
Ibu Indonesia 2008 Apr 5 Continuing
Kavachi Solomon Islands Continuing
Kuchinoerabujima Japan Continuing
Lewotobi Indonesia 2023 Dec 23 Continuing
Lewotolok Indonesia 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Marapi Indonesia 2023 Dec 3 Continuing
Merapi Indonesia 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Semeru Indonesia 2017 Jun 6 Continuing
Sheveluch Russia 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Suwanosejima Japan 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Taal Philippines 2024 Apr 12 Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 20,183 individual reports over 1,223 weeks (average of 17 per week) on 334 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Poas Sulu Range
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Popocatepetl Sumbing
Aira Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Purace Sundoro
Akan Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suoh
Alaid Davidof Irazu Lopevi Rabaul Suretamatai
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Iya Machin Raikoke Suwanosejima
Ambae Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Ranakah Taal
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Ambrym Dukono Kaba Manam Rasshua Takawangha
Anatahan East Epi Kadovar Manda Hararo Raung Talang
Aniakchak Ebeko Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Redoubt Tambora
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Reventador Tanaga
Antuco Edgecumbe Kambalny Martin Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Apoyeque Egon Kanaga Masaya Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Arenal Ekarma Kanlaon Maule, Laguna del Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Asamayama Eldey Karangetang Mauna Loa Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Askja Erebus Karkar Mayon Rotorua Ta'u
Asosan Erta Ale Karthala McDonald Islands Ruang Taupo
Atka Volcanic Complex Etna Karymsky Melebingoy Ruapehu Telica
Augustine Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi Melimoyu Ruby Tenerife
Avachinsky Eyjafjallajokull Katla Merapi Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Awu Fagradalsfjall Katmai Midagahara Sabancaya Three Sisters
Axial Seamount Fernandina Kavachi Misti, El Sakar Tinakula
Azul, Cerro Fogo Kelimutu Miyakejima Salak Tofua
Azumayama Fonualei Kelud Momotombo San Cristobal Tokachidake
Bagana Fournaise, Piton de la Kerinci Monowai San Miguel Tolbachik
Balbi Fourpeaked Ketoi Montagu Island San Vicente Toliman
Bamus Fuego Kharimkotan Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Sangay Tongariro
Banda Api Fujisan Kick 'em Jenny Mutnovsky Sangeang Api Trident
Bardarbunga Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kie Besi Myojinsho Santa Ana Tungurahua
Barren Island Galeras Kikai Nabro Santa Maria Turrialba
Batur Galunggung Kilauea Negra, Sierra Sao Jorge Ubinas
Bezymianny Gamalama Kirishimayama Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ugashik-Peulik
Bogoslof Gamkonora Kita-Ioto Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ukinrek Maars
Brava Gareloi Kizimen Nishinoshima Saunders Ulawun
Bristol Island Gaua Klyuchevskoy Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bulusan Gorely Kolokol Group Novarupta Semeru Unnamed
Calbuco Great Sitkin Koryaksky NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Veniaminof
Callaqui Grimsvotn Krakatau Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam Villarrica
Cameroon Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Nyiragongo Sheveluch Vulcano
Campi Flegrei Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Ofu-Olosega Shishaldin West Mata
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Okataina Simbo Westdahl
Cayambe Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okmok Sinabung Whakaari/White Island
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Ontakesan Sinarka Witori
Chaiten Heard Kverkfjoll Oraefajokull Siple Wolf
Chiginagak Hekla La Palma Osorno Sirung Wrangell
Chikurachki Helgrindur Lamington Pacaya Slamet Yakedake
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamongan Pagan Snaefellsjokull Yasur
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Palena Volcanic Group Soputan Yufu-Tsurumi
Chirinkotan Home Reef Lanin Paluweh Sorikmarapi Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirpoi Hood Lascar Panarea Sotara Zavodovski
Ciremai Huaynaputina Late Papandayan Soufriere Hills Zhupanovsky
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent Zubair Group
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Peuet Sague Spurr
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Pinatubo St. Helens
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Atka Volcanic Complex
A small, brief, explosion at summit crater of Korovin, one of the volcanoes at the Atka volcanic complex, was detected at 1936 on 27 March, prompting AVO to raise the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory (the second level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow (the second color on a four-color scale). The event was recorded in local infrasound and seismic data and was followed by a few minutes of elevated seismic tremor. Low-frequency earthquakes and periods of seismic tremor were detected during 30 March-1 April. Satellite and web-camera views were mostly obscured by clouds through 1 April, though no significant ash deposits were visible in a few clear images.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Barren Island
According to the Darwin VAAC eruptive activity at Barren Island produced ash plumes during 28 March-1 April. Ash plumes identified in satellite images at 1320 and 1930 on 28 March rose to 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. A strong thermal anomaly over the summit was visible in the 1930 image. Ash dissipated within about four hours. A larger thermal anomaly was visible in a satellite image at 0410 on 31 March. Ash plumes visible in images at 0410 and 1010 on 31 March rose to 2.4 km a.s.l. and drifted W. By 1440 ash was not visible, though weather conditions prevented views. At 1010 on 1 April a continuous ash plume rose to 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Fernandina
Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN) reported that lava flows on Fernandina’s SSE flank continued to advance during 26 March-2 April. The flows were fed from a circumferential fissure that had opened high on the SE flank, just below the crater rim. Sulfur dioxide emissions detected by satellite fluctuated between about 200 and 1,300 tons per day and drifted W and SW on at least a few of the days. Daily thermal anomalies variable in both number and intensity over the lava flow continued to be detected. By 31 March the most distal part of the lava flow was about 1.5 km wide and about 2.4 km from the coastline.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN)
Report for Ioto
Satellite images from 26 and 31 March showed areas of discolored water in the vicinity of Ioto (Iwo-jima). The discolored water expanded along the coastline to the NNE and WSW, and on 31 March the area of discolored water was about 600 m in diameter.
Source: Copernicus
Report for Poas
OVSICORI-UNA reported increasing activity at Poás. During 22-25 March sulfur dioxide gas emissions were as high as 277 tons based on satellite data and characterized as significant. Parque Nacional Volcán Poás officials and residents to the W reported health impacts from the emissions including headaches, nausea, nose bleeding, and irritations of eyes, nose, mouth, and skin. On 25 March an infrared camera recorded a fumarolic vent temperature of 302 degrees Celsius and glowing pink-purple-blue flames were visible.

Vigorous emissions of gas, steam, and sediments from fumarolic vents on the nearly dry crater floor persisted during 25-28 March; activity intensified on 29 March and remained elevated through 2 April. Seismic and infrasound signals associated with the loud discharge of the emissions through the vent structures were near-continuous. During 27-30 March numerous small phreatic eruptive events from the central part of the crater floor ejected water and sediment that mostly fell back onto the crater floor. Sulfur odors were reported in areas downwind, including Sucre San Carlos (23 km WNW), Zarcero, Grecia (16 km SW), Sabana Redonda (9 km S), San Pedro de Poás (14 km S), Monte de la Cruz (22 km SE), San Rafael, and San Isidro de Heredia (28 km SE); health impacts continued to be noted. On 29 March a vent on the N part of the crater floor completely dried up and two explosive eruptive events were recorded that same day. Ash was sporadically emitted from the vents during 29-30 March and fine ash fell in areas to the W including Sarchí (18 km SW), Grecia, Naranjo (17 km WSW), San Ramón de Alajuela (30 km WSW), Palmares (27 km SW), and Atenas. The ash content of the emissions increased on 31 March and sulfur odors were recorded in additional towns to the W, SW, and S, including Ron Ron, Sarchí, Tacares, Naranjo, Palmares, Tacares, Alajuela (20 km S), Guácima (27 km S), Garita (27 km SSW), San Ramón, and Tambor, Turrucares (28 km SSW), Atenas, Carrillo de Poás (19 km S), Santa Rosa de Poás (11 km S), Santa Bárbara (18 km SSE), and San Isidro. The emissions were not dense during 31 March-1 April and the plumes stayed low around the elevation of the volcano (2.4 km a.s.l.). On 1 April satellite data showed that 714 tons of sulfur dioxide gas was detected, representing a significant increase and the highest recorded value since a period of elevated activity during 2017-2019. Residents continued to report sulfur dioxide odors and minor ashfall during 1-2 April.
Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)
Report for Reykjanes
IMO reported that an average lava effusion rate from vents along the fissure within the Reykanes volcanic system was estimated to be 7.8 (plus or minus 0.7) cubic meters per second during 20-27 March, based on a 27 March satellite image. The lava-flow field was about 5.99 square kilometers with an approximate volume of 25.7 (plus or minus 1.9) million cubic meters. Lava flows continued to advance S over older flows emplaced during the beginning of the eruption. Satellite data from 26 March showed that the flow field was expanding to the W in the area S of Hagafell as well as in areas E and S of the active vents. Almost no seismicity was detected. Lava continued to erupt from vents during 27 March-2 April, though by 31 March two of three vents were active and the cones continued to grow. Inflation ceased to be detected during the week. IMO warned that the margins of the lava flows were tall in some places and that sudden breakouts of lava or collapses of material were possible. Wildfires had been noted near the margins of the flow field. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO)
Report for Ahyi
Signs of unrest at Ahyi Seamount continued. Small (less than 2 km long) plumes of discolored seawater in the vicinity of the seamount were observed in satellite images during 22 and 24-26 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory (the second lowest level on a four-level scale).
Source: US Geological Survey
Report for Aira
JMA reported ongoing eruptive activity at Minamidake Crater (Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 25 March-1 April with nighttime crater incandescence. Very small eruptive events occasionally occurred during the week. During an overflight on 27 March emissions obscured views of Minamidake Crater, though observers noted no changes at the either the Showa Crater geothermal area or around the flanks of both craters. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from both craters.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Dukono
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Dukono was ongoing during 27 March-2 April. Daily gray-and-white ash plumes rose as high as 1.5 km above the summit and drifted W and S. The Alert Level remained at Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Ebeko
KVERT reported that moderate explosive activity was ongoing at Ebeko during 21-28 March. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E), explosions during 22-24 and 27-28 March generated ash plumes that rose as high as 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 23 March; on other days either no activity was observed or weather conditions prevented views. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are UTC; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that slow lava effusion continued in Great Sitkin’s summit crater during 27 March-2 April. A white steam plume rose above the summit on 27 March; weather clouds obscured or partly obscured satellite and webcam views during most of the week. A radar satellite image acquired on 28 March showed advancement of the active NW lava flow and uplift of the center of the lava flow above the vent. The NW flow was warm and snow-free. Seismicity was low; 20 small earthquakes were recorded during 26-27 March and a few were detected during 1-2 April. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third color on a four-color scale).
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Ibu
PVMBG reported that Ibu continued to erupt during 26 March-2 April. White-and-gray ash plumes rose 200-2,800 m above the summit and drifted NE, NW, W, and SW on most days. There was no observatory report issued for 28 March, though the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume identified in satellite images rose to 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l., or 2.3 km above the summit, and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (the second highest level on a four-level scale), with the public advised to stay outside of the 2 km hazard zone and 3.5 km away from the N area of the active crater.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Kavachi
Satellite data showed a circular area of yellow-green discolored water that was about 3.3 km in diameter in the vicinity of the submarine Kavachi volcano on 20 March. Weather clouds obscured satellite views on 25 and 30 March.
Source: Copernicus
Report for Kuchinoerabujima
JMA reported that the number of shallow volcanic earthquakes at Kuchinoerabujima increased during June and July 2023, fluctuated at elevated levels, began to decrease in mid-January 2024, and continued to decrease through March. The epicenters were mainly located near Furudake Crater, with some located near Shindake Crater (just N of Furudake). Sulfur dioxide emissions shared a similar pattern with increases starting in July 2023, peaks of 200-400 tons per day (t/d) during August-September, and a gradual decrease to less than 100 t/d by 18 March 2024. A geothermal area near Furudake Crater expanded and temperatures increased during October-December 2023 but beginning in January 2024 both the temperatures and the size decreased. No changes to the geothermal area near the fissure on the W side of Shindake Crater were observed during March. At 1400 on 27 March the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-5) with restrictions to access encompassing only the crater area. JMA noted that seismic activity continued to be recorded near the crater, and that the sulfur dioxide emissions and the level of activity at the geothermal areas remained at higher levels than before activity increased in June 2023.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Lewotobi
PVMBG reported that white-and-gray plumes rose 100-500 m above the summit of Lewotobi’s Laki-laki volcano during 29-30 March. White plumes rose 20-50 m above the summit and drifted N and NE on 27 March; no plumes were visible on 28 and 31 March and during 1-2 April. PVMBG lowered the Alert Level to 2 (the second lowest level on a scale of 1-4) at 1900 on 1 March and the public was warned to stay outside of the exclusion zone, defined as a 2-km radius around Laki-laki crater, 3 km to the NNE, and 5 km on the NE flanks.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 27 March-2 April. White-and-gray ash plumes rose as high as 1 km and drifted in multiple directions during 27 and 29-30 March and 1 April. White steam-and-gas plumes rose 100-750 m above the summit and drifted W and NW on 28 and 31 March. According to a 2 April news article, observers heard rumbling and faint banging sounds. Incandescent lava at the summit and on the SE flank was visible in the early morning hours. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the residents of Lamawolo, Lamatokan, and Jontona were warned to stay 2 km away from the vent and 3 km away from the vent on the S and SE flanks.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Kompas.com
Report for Marapi
Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that a more notable eruption occurred at Marapi (on Sumatra) on 27 March. An eruptive event at 0013 generated roaring and an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the summit and drifted W, causing minor ashfall in several areas downwind including in the Tanah Datar (SE) and Agam (NW) regencies and in Bukittinggi City (13 km NW). Several flights were canceled, and the Minangkabau International Airport (50 km SSW) closed during 1021-1400, according to a news article. Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) reported that eruptive events at 0849, 1122, and 2054 produced dense gray ash plumes that rose 1.5 km above the summit and drifted W. An event at 2157 generated a dense gray ash plume that rose 1 km above the summit and drifted W. The ash plumes were the highest recorded since the eruption began on 3 December 2023, when plumes rose as high as 3 km. White-and-gray ash plumes rose to 1 km and drifted SW and W on 28 March; they rose as high as 500 m and drifted NW, W, and SW on 29 March, 31 March, and 1 April. Plumes were not visible on 30 March or 2 April. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 4.5 km away from the active crater.
Sources: Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Tempo
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi (on Java) continued during 22-28 March. Seismicity remained at high levels. The SW lava dome produced 46 lava avalanches that descended the S and SW flanks; two traveled S as far as 800 m down the upper part of the Boyong drainage and 44 traveled SW as far as 1.5 km down the upper part of the Bebeng drainage. Morphological changes to the SW lava dome were due to continuing effusion and collapses of material. The volume of the SW dome was an estimated 2,066,400 cubic meters and the dome in the main crater was an estimated 2,358,000 cubic meters based on 21 March aerial photos. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-7 km away from the summit, based on location.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that eruptive activity continued at Semeru during 27 March-2 April. Eruptive events were recorded during 27 March and 1-2 April by the seismic network, though emissions were not observed due to darkness or weather conditions. According to a news article the Mount Semeru Observation Post officer reported that an eruption occurred at 1518 on 28 March but not visually observed; seismicity indicated that pyroclastic flows descended the flanks for about 27 minutes. White-and-gray ash plumes rose 500-800 m above the summit and drifted N, W, SW, and S during 28-31 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the third highest level on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 5 km away from the summit in all directions, 13 km from the summit to the SE, 500 m from the banks of the Kobokan drainage as far as 17 km from the summit, and to avoid other drainages including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that eruptive activity at Sheveluch continued during 21-28 March with a daily thermal anomaly identified in satellite images. On 30 March plumes of resuspended ash from the S flank rose as high as 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65 km ESE based on satellite and video data. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 25 March-1 April. Crater incandescence was observed in webcam images nightly. No explosions were detected but eruption plumes rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale) and the public was warned to stay at least 1 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Taal
In a special report issued for Taal, PHIVOLCS noted that sulfur dioxide emissions were 18,638 tonnes per day (t/d) on 28 March, the highest value recorded during 2024. Sulfur dioxide emissions have been continuously released since 2021 and averaged 10,331 t/d during 2024. Seismicity has remained at baseline levels with only three volcanic earthquakes recorded in February. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5), and PHIVOLCS reminded the public that the entire Taal Volcano Island was a Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) and to take extra precaution around Main Crater and along the Daang Kastila fissure.
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)